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  1. 1. MorphologyMorphology
  2. 2. MorphologyMorphology • Morph (form) + ology (science of)Morph (form) + ology (science of) • -- > Morphology (the science of word forms)-- > Morphology (the science of word forms) • The study of the internal structure of words,The study of the internal structure of words, andand • The rules by which words are formedThe rules by which words are formed
  3. 3. What is a word?What is a word? A reliable definition of A reliable definition of wordswords is that they are is that they are the smallest independent units ofthe smallest independent units of language.language. They are independent in that they do notThey are independent in that they do not depend on other words which means thatdepend on other words which means that they can be separated from other units andthey can be separated from other units and can change position.can change position.
  4. 4. MorphemesMorphemes • Look at the following wordsLook at the following words • LikelyLikely unlikely developedunlikely developed undevelopedundeveloped • un- is a prefix means No.un- is a prefix means No. • -ly in ‘likely’ is a adverbial suffix.-ly in ‘likely’ is a adverbial suffix. • -ed in ‘developed’ is a suffix-ed in ‘developed’ is a suffix morpheme.morpheme.
  5. 5. What is morpheme?What is morpheme?
  6. 6. What is morpheme?What is morpheme? • Dictionary:Dictionary: • MorphemeMorpheme •   (môr(môr''fēm')fēm') • n.n. • A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, suchA meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such asas man,man, or a word element, such asor a word element, such as -ed-ed inin walked,walked, thatthat cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts.cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. • morphemicmorphemic mor·phem'icmor·phem'ic adj.adj. • morphemicallymorphemically mor·phem'i·cal·lymor·phem'i·cal·ly adv.adv.
  7. 7. • Definitions:Definitions: A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning. • Example:Example:      un+system+atic+al+ly      un+system+atic+al+ly • Note: morphemes ≠ words What is morpheme?What is morpheme?
  8. 8. Examples of MorphemesExamples of Morphemes • One morpheme        One morpheme         boy  (one syllable)boy  (one syllable)                                                                  desire, lady, water  (two syllables)desire, lady, water  (two syllables)                                                                  crocodile (three syllables)crocodile (three syllables)                                                                  salamander (four syllables), or moresalamander (four syllables), or more syllablessyllables • Two morpheme       Two morpheme        boy + ishboy + ish                                                                    desire + abledesire + able • Three morpheme      Three morpheme       boy + ish + nessboy + ish + ness                                                                    desire + able + itydesire + able + ity • Four morpheme        Four morpheme         gentle + man + li + nessgentle + man + li + ness                                                                    un + desire + able + ityun + desire + able + ity • More than four          More than four           un + gentle + man + li + nessun + gentle + man + li + ness                                                                    anti + dis + establish + ment + ari +anti + dis + establish + ment + ari + an + isman + ism
  9. 9. What is the relationshipWhat is the relationship between morphemesbetween morphemes and words?and words?
  10. 10. • Humans can understand words thatHumans can understand words that have never been heard beforehave never been heard before • Human can also create new wordsHuman can also create new words • For exampleFor example,, a writa writableable CDCD aa rerewritwritableable CDCD anan ununrerewritwritableable CDCD What is the relationshipWhat is the relationship between morphemes and words?between morphemes and words?
  11. 11. How many typesHow many types of morphemes are there?of morphemes are there? • Bound morphemesBound morphemes • Free morphemesFree morphemes • Root morphemesRoot morphemes • Stem morphemesStem morphemes • Derivational morphemesDerivational morphemes • Inflectional morphemesInflectional morphemes • Affixes: prefixes andAffixes: prefixes and suffixessuffixes • Grammatical morphemesGrammatical morphemes
  12. 12. Classification of some (English) morphemes (English) Morphemes(English) Morphemes BoundBound FreeFree AffixAffix RootRoot Open ClassOpen Class Closed ClassClosed Class DerivationalDerivational InflectionalInflectional PrefixPrefix SuffixSuffix SuffixSuffix gruntlegruntle Nouns (Nouns (girlgirl)) DeterminersDeterminers ((thethe,,a(n)a(n))) prepre-- -ly-ly -ing -en-ing -en mitmit Verbs (Verbs (kickkick)) Conjunctions (Conjunctions (andand)) un-un- -ist-ist -er -est-er -est ferfer Adjectives (Adjectives (happyhappy) Prepositions () Prepositions (ofof ,,inin )) con-con- -ment-ment -ed-ed Adverbs (Adverbs (quicklyquickly))Pronouns (Pronouns (II,, hehe,, you )you ) Auxiliary Verbs (Auxiliary Verbs (isis))
  13. 13. Bound morphemesBound morphemes • Bound morphemesBound morphemes (affixes) must be(affixes) must be attached to the word.attached to the word. • They are prefixes, infixes, suffixesThey are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes.and circumfixes. • Such as {clude} as in include, exclude, preclude) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in boys, girls, and cats).
  14. 14. Free morphemesFree morphemes • Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. • Example: Example:    girl, system, desire,   girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happyhope, act, phone, happy
  15. 15. Root morphemesRoot morphemes • AA rootroot is a morphemes that cannot beis a morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts.analyzed into smaller parts. • Example:Example: cran (as in cranberry), act,cran (as in cranberry), act, beauty, system, etc.. beauty, system, etc..  • Free Root  Morpheme: run, bottle, phone,Free Root  Morpheme: run, bottle, phone, etc.etc. • Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit,Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit, uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc. uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc. 
  16. 16. • AA stemstem is formed when a rootis formed when a root morphemes is combined with anmorphemes is combined with an affix.affix. • Other affixes can be added to aOther affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complexstem to form a more complex stem. stem.  Stem morphemesStem morphemes
  17. 17. Example of word formationExample of word formation • Root      believe (verb)Root      believe (verb) • Stem    believe + able (verb + suffix)Stem    believe + able (verb + suffix) • Word     un + believe + ableWord     un + believe + able (prefix +verb + suffix)  (prefix +verb + suffix)  
  18. 18. Example of word formationExample of word formation • RootRoot systemsystem • StemStem system + aticsystem + atic • StemStem un + system + aticun + system + atic • StemStem un + system + atic + alun + system + atic + al • WordWord un + system + atic + al + lyun + system + atic + al + ly
  19. 19. Derivational morphemesDerivational morphemes • Root + Derivational Morpheme --> a newRoot + Derivational Morpheme --> a new word with a new meaning. (usuallyword with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class)change grammatical class) • N + Derivational Morpheme --> Adj.N + Derivational Morpheme --> Adj. Ex. Boy + ish,Ex. Boy + ish, • Verb + Derivational Morpheme --> NounVerb + Derivational Morpheme --> Noun Ex. Acquitt + al, clear + anceEx. Acquitt + al, clear + ance • Adj. + Derivational Morpheme -->Adj. + Derivational Morpheme --> Adverb Ex. Exact + ly, quiet + lyAdverb Ex. Exact + ly, quiet + ly
  20. 20. Inflectional morphemesInflectional morphemes • Inflectional morphemes haveInflectional morphemes have grammatical meaning or function in thegrammatical meaning or function in the sentence.sentence. • They never changeThey never change part of speech. • For example,For example, • Bound Morpheme : Ex. ‘to’ in connectionBound Morpheme : Ex. ‘to’ in connection with a verb (‘ an infinitive with to’)with a verb (‘ an infinitive with to’) • Bound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -edBound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -ed • He sails the ocean blue.He sails the ocean blue. • He sailed the ocean blue.He sailed the ocean blue.
  21. 21. Eight English InflectionalEight English Inflectional MorphemesMorphemes • -s-s third-personthird-person singular presentsingular present • --eded past tensepast tense • -ing progressive-ing progressive • -en-en past participlepast participle • -s-s pluralplural • -’s-’s possessivepossessive • --erer comparativecomparative • -est-est superlativesuperlative • She waitShe waitss at home. • She waitShe waiteded at home. • She is eatShe is eatinging the donuts.the donuts. • Mary has eatMary has eatenen the donuts.the donuts. • She ate the donutShe ate the donutss.. • LisaLisa’s’s hair is is short. • LisaLisa hashas short hair than Kate.short hair than Kate. • Lisa has the shorLisa has the shortesttest
  22. 22. The major differences betweenThe major differences between derivational and inflectionalderivational and inflectional morphologymorphology   Derivational  Inflectional  position  closer to stem  further from stem  addable on to?  yes  not in English changes stem? yes no productive? (often) no (usually) yes meaning? (often) unpredictable predictable
  23. 23. Affixes: prefixes and suffixesAffixes: prefixes and suffixes • AffixAffix: a morpheme that comes at the: a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix)beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme. of a base morpheme.  • NoteNote: An affix usually is a morpheme: An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone. that cannot stand alone.  • ExamplesExamples:: -ful-ful,, -ly-ly,, -it-ity,y, -nes-ness. A fews. A few exceptions areexceptions are ableable,, likelike, and, and lessless..
  24. 24. Affixes: prefixes and suffixesAffixes: prefixes and suffixes • PrefixPrefix: an affix that comes before a: an affix that comes before a base morpheme.  Thebase morpheme.  The inin in the wordin the word inspectinspect is a a prefix. • SuffixSuffix: an affix that comes after a: an affix that comes after a base morpheme.  Thebase morpheme.  The ss inin catscats is ais a suffix.suffix.
  25. 25. Affixes (prefix, suffix, infix andAffixes (prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix) are all bound morphemes.circumfix) are all bound morphemes. Prefixes Suffixes Infixes Circumfixes Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes. Examples: un- (uncover, undo) dis- (displeased, disconnect), pre- (predetermine , prejudge) Bound morphemes which occur  following other morphemes. Examples: -er (singer, performer) -ist (typist, pianist) -ly (manly, friendly) Bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. Example: Fikas "strong"  fumikas "to be strong"  Bound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally. Example: chokma "he is good"  ik + chokm + o "he isn?t? good"                         
  26. 26. Grammatical morphemesGrammatical morphemes • What is the difference in meaningWhat is the difference in meaning betweenbetween appleapple andand applesapples?? • What is the difference in form?What is the difference in form? • What does this tell you about theseWhat does this tell you about these two words?two words?
  27. 27. Grammatical morphemesGrammatical morphemes • Words can have an internal structure muchWords can have an internal structure much like the syntax of the syntax of phrases. • Morphemes such asMorphemes such as thethe,, -s-s, and, and re-re- near thenear the grammatical end of the continuum are calledgrammatical end of the continuum are called grammatical morphemesgrammatical morphemes.. • Note that grammatical morphemes includeNote that grammatical morphemes include forms that we can consider to be words likeforms that we can consider to be words like thethe,, aa,, andand, and, and ofof and others that make upand others that make up parts of words likeparts of words like –s and -ed–s and -ed.. • Examples.Examples. pencilpencilss walkwalkeded
  28. 28. What are theWhat are the differences betweendifferences between each typeeach type of morphemes?of morphemes?
  29. 29. What is the functionWhat is the function of each type ofof each type of morphemes?morphemes?
  30. 30. What is the relationshipWhat is the relationship among each type ofamong each type of morphemes?morphemes?
  31. 31. What is the differenceWhat is the difference between content/lexicalbetween content/lexical words andwords and function/grammaticalfunction/grammatical words?words?
  32. 32. Content WordsContent Words • Content wordsContent words denote concepts suchdenote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideasas subjects, actions, and ideas ((noun,noun, verb, adjective, adverbverb, adjective, adverb)) • Content wordsContent words are open class wordsare open class words ((new words can be addednew words can be added)) • Example of new words :Example of new words : SteganographySteganography ((the art of hidingthe art of hiding information in electronic textinformation in electronic text))
  33. 33. Function WordsFunction Words • Function wordsFunction words express Grammaticalexpress Grammatical FunctionsFunctions ((e.g., preposition, article,e.g., preposition, article, conjunctions, pronounsconjunctions, pronouns)) • Function wordsFunction words connect the contentconnect the content words to the larger grammatical context.words to the larger grammatical context. • Functions wordsFunctions words are also called ‘closedare also called ‘closed class’ wordsclass’ words ((no new words assed to thisno new words assed to this class.class.))
  34. 34. ExerciseExercise ““I know you can do it”I know you can do it”
  35. 35. "First say to yourself what"First say to yourself what you would be, and then doyou would be, and then do whatwhat you have to do."you have to do."
  36. 36. How are English wordsHow are English words formed?formed?
  37. 37. Different types of words fromDifferent types of words from different formations.different formations. • Derived wordsDerived words • Lexical gapsLexical gaps • Compounds: also how to differentiateCompounds: also how to differentiate compounds from noun phrasescompounds from noun phrases • AcronymsAcronyms • Back formationsBack formations • Abbreviations/Truncation/ClippingAbbreviations/Truncation/Clipping • EponymsEponyms • BlendsBlends
  38. 38. Derived wordsDerived words == new wordsnew words withwith new meaningsnew meanings formedformed fromfrom root + derivational morphemeroot + derivational morpheme e.g. ir+regular = irrigulare.g. ir+regular = irrigular
  39. 39. Lexical GapsLexical Gaps • Well-formed but nonexisting wordWell-formed but nonexisting word • Reason : a permissible sequence has noReason : a permissible sequence has no meaning attached to it <like “blick” ormeaning attached to it <like “blick” or “slarm” or “krobe”>“slarm” or “krobe”> • Possible comniations of morphemePossible comniations of morpheme nevernever come into usecome into use ((Ex.Ex. “disobvious” ,“linguisticism”“disobvious” ,“linguisticism”)) • Word like *bnick is not a lexical gaps inWord like *bnick is not a lexical gaps in English because English does not allowEnglish because English does not allow the sequence of ‘bn’the sequence of ‘bn’
  40. 40. CompoundsCompounds • Word + word = compound word (meaning may or may not change) • When the two word are in the same grammatical category, compound will be in this category. • Ex. Home(n.) + Work(n.) = homework (noun) Pick (v.) + pocket (n.) = pickpocket (noun)
  41. 41. • Compounds can be more than two words: • Two-word compounds are the most common in English. • Three – word compounds: three-time loser • Four– word compounds: four- dimensional space-time
  42. 42. Compounds have internal structureCompounds have internal structure N.N. N.N. N.N. Adj.Adj. N.N. rackrack toptop hathat N.N. Adj.Adj. N.N. toptop N.N. N.N. hathat rackrack
  43. 43. • RackRack • top hattop hat • Hat rackHat rack • toptop
  44. 44. Meaning of compoundsMeaning of compounds • Same meaning as the parts : a boathouse = (a house for boats) • New meaning but relate to the meaning of the individual parts : • a blackboard (can be in other colors, not just black) • a Redcoat (slang for British soldier during American Revolutionary War)
  45. 45. ForFor exampleexample black birdblack bird (turdus merula) blackbirdblackbird
  46. 46. ForFor exampleexample hot dog hotdog
  47. 47. ForFor exampleexample red wood (Giant Sequoia) redwood
  48. 48. Back formationsBack formations • A new word may entry theA new word may entry the languagelanguage because of an incorrect morphologicalbecause of an incorrect morphological analysis.analysis. • Example,Example, peddlepeddle was derived fromwas derived from peddlerpeddler on the mistaken assumptionon the mistaken assumption thatthat the – er was suffix.the – er was suffix. • stoke --> stokerstoke --> stoker • edit --> editoredit --> editor
  49. 49. AbbreviationsAbbreviations • Abbreviations of longer words or phrases can become lexicalized • Fax <facsimile> • Telly (The British word for ‘television’)
  50. 50. • Eponyms are word form proper names. • Example: sandwich, robot, jumbo EponymsEponyms
  51. 51. BlendsBlends • Similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted. • Example: smog <from ‘smok + fog’>, motel <from ‘motor + hotel’>
  52. 52. The hierarchical structure of wordsThe hierarchical structure of words represented by the treerepresented by the tree diagramdiagram • A word is not a simple sequence ofA word is not a simple sequence of morphemes.morphemes. • It has an internal structure asIt has an internal structure as shown in the following treeshown in the following tree diagram:diagram:
  53. 53. TTree diagramsree diagrams N.N. Adj.Adj. nessness unun Adj.Adj. happyhappy Morphological RulesMorphological Rules 1. un + happy --> Adj.1. un + happy --> Adj. 2. adj. + ness --> N.2. adj. + ness --> N.
  54. 54. Other terms according toOther terms according to word formation:word formation: • Rule productivityRule productivity • Universality of compoundingUniversality of compounding • Suppletive ExceptionSuppletive Exception • ExpletiveExpletive • AllomorphsAllomorphs • Default/elsewhereDefault/elsewhere • Homophonous morphemesHomophonous morphemes • ReduplicationReduplication
  55. 55. Rule productivityRule productivity • Morphological Rules are ProductiveMorphological Rules are Productive because:because: • They can be used freely to form newThey can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and boundwords from the list of free and bound morpheme.morpheme. • Some morphemes are more productiveSome morphemes are more productive than others.than others. • Productive morphemes: Ex. -able orProductive morphemes: Ex. -able or -er-er • Not Productive morphemes:Not Productive morphemes: Ex. –letEx. –let (piglet)(piglet)
  56. 56. Universality of compoundingUniversality of compounding • Universality compoundingUniversality compounding is a commonis a common and frequent process for enlargingand frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all language.the vocabulary of all language. • ExEx.. In Thai, the word ‘cat’ is mIn Thai, the word ‘cat’ is mєєєєw,w, ‘watch’ is fân, and ‘house’ is bâan. The‘watch’ is fân, and ‘house’ is bâan. The word for ‘watch cat’ is the compoundword for ‘watch cat’ is the compound mmєєєєwfânbâan – literally,wfânbâan – literally, ‘catwatchhouse’‘catwatchhouse’
  57. 57. Suppletive ExceptionSuppletive Exception • SuppletiveSuppletive are treated separately inare treated separately in the grammar, that cannot use thethe grammar, that cannot use the regular rules of inflectionalregular rules of inflectional morphology to add affixes to wordmorphology to add affixes to word the exception.the exception. • Ex.Ex. child --> children woman --> women