Indian Literature


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Indian Literature

  2. 2. • 7TH largest country in the world. • Covers an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. • Surrounded by three (3) different water bodies which made it easily recognizable on the world map. • Has a population of 1.24 billion (2014 est.)
  3. 3. MAP OF INDIA There is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains and a number of islands.
  4. 4. GEOGRAPHY FACTS NEW DELHI is the capital of India RAJASTHAN is the largest of all Indian states. GOA is the smallest state. UTTAR PRADESH is the most populous state. GUJARAT is one of the most prosperous of all Indian states. Has 12 major rivers (Ganga as the longest and most pious river in India). Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Cambay are the major gulfs of the country.
  5. 5. FLAG OF INDIA The National flag of India (affectionately called तिरंगा meaning 'tricolour') has three equal horizontal bands - the top panel is India saffron (Kesari), the bottom panel is India green and white middle band bearing at its centre the design of Ashoka Chakra in navy blue colour with 24 equally spaced spokes.
  6. 6. SAFFRON - stands for renunciation, disinterestedness, courage and sacrifice. WHITE – symbolizes truth, peace and purity. GREEN – represents prosperity, vibrance and life. The ASHOK CHAKRA (wheel) represents the righteousness, progress, and perpetuity. The 24 spokes of the wheel represents the 24 hours of a day.
  9. 9. HINDI ENGLISH ek one do two tin three car four pamc five chh six sat seven ath eight nau nine das ten HINDI ENGLISH safed white kala black lal red pila yellow nara green nila blue bhura brown naramgi orange sleti grey gulabi pink baimgani purple NUMBER COLORS
  10. 10. RELIGION 80% 13% 7% Religion Hinduism Islam Others  Birthplace of the INDIAN Religion (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism)  23 million Christians, over 19 million Sikhs, about 8 million Buddhists and about 4 million Jains.
  11. 11. GOVERNMENT
  12. 12. EDUCATION “10+2+3” pattern  originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission (1964-66)  12 years - Schools and colleges First 10 years subdivided into three: • 5 years – primary education • 3 years – upper primary • 2 years – high school 3 years - A bachelor’s degree
  13. 13. TRADITIONS  Never pass on anything to an Indian with your left hand.  Indians prefer to eat in private.  Shoes are considered dirty in India. If you step on something important, better say sorry immediately.
  14. 14. WEDDINGS COMMON RITUALS (Hindu):  Kanyadaan  Panigrahana  Saptapadi  Anand Karaj – Sikhs ceremony  Couple walk around the holy book, GURU GRANTH SAHIB four times.  NIKAH – payment of financial dower called MAHR  Signing of marriage contract  Reception HUSBAND and WIFE
  15. 15. FOOD  One of the most popular cuisines across the globe, ranging from very spicy to very mild, varying with seasons in each region. Known for its love for food and spices. Thali – a plate with rice, bread, and a selection of sides.
  16. 16. NIMMATNAMA-I NASIRUDDIN-SHAHI (Book of Recipes) -documents the fine art of making KHEER, a milk based dessert in India. 4 steps : 1. Select the cows carefully. 2. Pay attention to what the cows eat. 3. Feed them sugar canes. 4. Use this milk to make the best KHEER.
  17. 17. Though a significant portion of Indian food is VEGETARIAN, some traditional Indian dishes also include:  Chicken  Goat  Buffalo  Beef  Lamb  Fish and other meats.
  18. 18. Mithai or Sweets 500 BCE - people in India developed the technology to produce sugar crystals. - these crystals were called Khanda (origin of the word CANDY)
  19. 19. COSTUME Traditional Indian clothing is influenced by local culture, geography, climate and rural/urban setting. In public and religious places, they discourage exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. Because of their hot and rainy weather, most Indians wear sandals.
  20. 20. WOMEN  They perfect their sense of charm and fashion with make-up and ornaments.  Wears BINDI which is worn on their forehead. RED Bindi for married women and coloured Bindi for single women.  Some wear SINDOOR – a red or orange-red powder in the parting of their hair.
  21. 21. SARI - most common and oldest forms of dress for Indian women. - made of 6 meters of cloth, wrapped to form a skirt and draped over the shoulder. It is worn with CHOLI, a stitched, fitted blouse. GHAGHRA CHOLIS - a long pleated skirt (GHAGHRA) is worn with a long or short stitched and fitted blouse (CHOLI).
  22. 22. SALWAR KHAMEEZ - outfit made of a long tunic (KHAMEEZ) and a loose pants (SALWAR), usually worn with a scarf called ODHNI.
  23. 23. MEN KURTA and CHUDIDAAR - the same as women’s salwar khameez, it is made of stitched pants in silk or cotton that are gathered at the ankle (CHUDIDAAR) and a long, straight tunic (KURTA). DHOTI - a piece of cloth wrapped around the legs and tucked into the waist to form pants.
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN LITERATURE 1. There is intimate alliance and the perfect fusion between poetry and religion. 2. Poetry and music are indissolubly inter-woven with each other. 3. Indian Literature is soaked in the element of love. 4. There is no tragedy in Indian Literature. 5. Indian Literature is eclectic.
  25. 25. IMPORTANT AUTHORS IN INDIA R.K. Narayan  The best and foremost Indian writer in English.  His novels and short-stories are the reasons why common middle-class Indians developed an interest in English.  Has written many fictions including “Swami and Friends”, “The Guide”, “A Tiger for Malgudi”, “The English Teacher, and also his famous and most sold book, his collection of short stories – “Malgudi Days”.
  26. 26. Arundhati Roy Began her career writing screenplays for television and movies, and went on become one of the most recognized names in Indian writing in English.  She rose to international prominence after winning the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1988 for her novel “The God of Small Things”.  Other famous books include “The Algebra of Infinite Justice”, Listening to Grasshoppers” and “Broken Republic”.
  27. 27. Mulk Raj Anand  Pioneer of Anglo-Indian fiction.  His works are remarkable for their depiction of poorer castes in a conventional Indian society.  One of the first Indian writers in English who gained international readership with his first novel “Untouchable” published in 1935.  Notable works include “The Village”, “Coolie”, and “The Private Life of an Indian Prince”.  He is an author whose every book is highly recommended.
  28. 28. Jhumpa Lahiri No list in Indian writing in English is complete without her name.  Her debut short story, “Interpreter of Maladies”, after facing rejection for years was finally released in 1999, and won the 2000 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the O. Henry Award.  Has written three other books – “ Unaccustomed Earth”, and “The Lowland” which was shortlisted for the 2013 Man Booker Prize.  Her writing is distinguished for her plain, yet deep, language and Indian immigrant characters.
  29. 29. Salman Rushdie  Controversy’s favorite child, he is most notably known for “The Satanic Verses” which provoked Muslims from across the world, and led to a fatwa by Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran.  He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to literature.  His famous works include “Midnight’s Children”, “Luka and the Fire of Life”, “Shalimar the Clown”, and “The Enchantress of Florence”.  His fictions are captivating combination of reality and history.