History of literature
• writings in prose or poetry
which attempts to
or instruction to the
well as the development of
the literary techniques used
in the communication of
The beginning of literature
• About 5,000 years ago, they began to
record laws, letters, poems, and taxes.
Using reeds as pens, they made
wedge-shaped marks on slabs of damp
clay. This form of writing is called
cuneiform. Historians believe
cuneiform was the world’s first
• To write in cuneiform, they made
wedge-shaped marks on a damp, clay
tablet. When the clay dried, the tablet
formed a permanent record.
• The Egyptians invented a kind
of picture writing called
• They also made papyrus, a
paper-like material, and they
wrote some of the first books.
• Ancient Egyptians used
hieroglyphs to record
important documents and
• Unlike alphabet letters, which
represent sounds, hieroglyphs
represent words or concepts.
Chinese classics and Classical
• The Classic of
Poetry (or Shijing) is the
oldest existing collection of
Chinese poetry, comprising
305 works by anonymous
authors dating from the
11th to 7th centuries BC.
• The books that constitute the Hebrew
Bible developed over roughly a
• The oldest texts seem to come from the
eleventh or tenth centuries BCE. They
are edited works, being collections of
various sources intricately and carefully
• The Old Testament was compiled and
edited by various men over a period of
• The works have been subject to various
literary evaluations (both secular and
• Many authors consider
the western literary tradition
to have begun with
the epic poems The Iliad and
The Odyssey, which remain
giants in the
literary canon for their
skillful and vivid depictions
of war and peace, honor and
disgrace, love and hatred.
• In many respects, the writers of the Roman Republic and
the Roman Empire chose to avoid innovation in favor of
imitating the great Greek authors.
• Virgil's Aeneid, in many respects, emulated
Homer's Iliad; Plautus, a comic playwright, followed in the
footsteps of Aristophanes; Tacitus' Annals and Germania follow
essentially the same historical approaches that Thucydides
devised (the Christian historian Eusebius does also, although far
more influenced by his religion than either Tacitus or Thucydides
had been by Greek and Roman polytheism)
• Satire is one of the few Roman additions to literature—
Horace was the first to use satire extensively as a tool for
argument, and Juvenal made it into a weapon.
• Knowledge traditions in India handed down philosophical gleanings and
theological concepts through the two traditions of Shruti and Smriti,
meaning that which is learnt and that which is experienced - this included
the Vedas. It is generally believed that the Puranas are the earliest
philosophical writings in Indian history, although linguistic works on
Sanskrit existed earlier than 1000 BC.
• Puranic works such as the Indian epics: Ramayana and Mahabharata, have
influenced countless other works, including Balinese Kecak and other
performances such as shadow puppetry (wayang), and many European
works. Pali literature has an important position in the rise of Buddhism.
• Classical Sanskrit literature flowers in the Maurya and Gupta periods,
roughly spanning the 2nd century BC to the cool 8th century AD.
• After the fall of Rome (in roughly 476),
many of the literary approaches and styles
invented by the Greeks and Romans fell
out of favor in Europe.
• focused more and more on faith and faith-
• The most well known fiction from the Islamic world
was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights
(Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many
earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen
• All Arabian fantasy tales were often called "Arabian
Nights" when translated into English, regardless of
whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand
and One Nights, in any version, and a number of tales
are known in Europe as "Arabian Nights" despite
existing in no Arabic manuscript.
• were pioneers of the philosophical novel.
• Ibn Tufail wrote the first fictional Arabic novel Hayy ibn
Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response
to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and
then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a novel Theologus
Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus
• Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy
in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus
Autodidactus) who were autodidactic feral
children living in seclusion on a desert island, both
being the earliest examples of a desert island story.
• Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. The Rubáiyát is a
collection of poems by the Persian mathematician
and astronomer Omar Khayyám (1048–1122).
"Rubaiyat" means "quatrains": verses of four lines.
• Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a
mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history.
• Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian
story, which has influenced some modern works of
fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan.
• The two primary streams of Ottoman
written literature are poetry and prose.
• until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did
not contain any examples of fiction; that is,
there were no counterparts to, for
instance, the European romance, short
story, or novel (though analogous genres
did, to some extent, exist in both the
Turkish folk tradition and in Divan poetry).
• Medieval Jewish fiction often drew on
ancient Jewish legends, and was written in a
variety of languages including Hebrew and Judeo-
• Liturgical Jewish poetry in Hebrew flourished in
Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries.
• In addition to poetry and fiction, medieval Jewish
literature also includes philosophical
literature, mystical (Kabbalistic) literature, ethical
(musar) literature, legal (halakhic) literature,
and commentaries on the Bible.
• Early Medieval (Gupta period) literature in
India sees the flowering of Sanskrit drama,
classical Sanskrit poetry and the compilation
of the Puranas. Sanskrit declines in the early
2nd millennium, late works such as
the Kathasaritsagara dating to the 11th
century, to the benefit of literature composed
in Middle Indic vernaculars such as Old
Bengali, Old Hindi.
• Lyric poetry advanced far more in China than in Europe
prior to 1000, as multiple new forms developed in
the Han, Tang, and Song dynasties: perhaps the
greatest poets of this era in Chinese literature were Li
Bai and Du Fu.
• Printing began in Tang Dynasty China.
• Diamond Sutra, a key Buddhist text, found sealed in a
cave in China in the early 20th century.
- oldest known dated printed book, with a
printed date of 868. The method used was block
• Classical Japanese literature generally refers to
literature produced during the Heian Period,
what some would consider a golden era of art
and literature. The Tale of Genji (early 11th
century) by Murasaki Shikibu is considered the
pre-eminent masterpiece of Heian fiction and an
early example of a work of fiction in the form of
• It is sometimes called the world's first novel, the
first modern novel, the first romance novel, or
the first novel to still be considered a classic.
Renaissance (16th and 17th centuries)
• Its name means ‘’rebirth’’.
-which means flourishing of arts and other culture that
swept across Europe
• Johann Gutenberg and his invention of the printing
press, an innovation (for Europe, at least) that would
change literature forever.
• Texts were no longer precious and expensive to
produce—they could be cheaply and rapidly put into
the marketplace. Literacy went from the prized
possession of the select few to a much broader
section of the population (though by no means
universal). As a result, much about literature in
Europe was radically altered in the two centuries
following Gutenberg's unveiling of the printing press in
• There are prominent writers like Christopher
Marlowe, Francis Bacon and even William
• Renaissance creators value the dignity of man
and the joys of society much more than their
predecessors; this is known as humanism
• embracing literature as an art form
• The Renaissance also gave birth to the Protestant
Reformation as religious folks began to question
objectionable doctrines by the Roman Catholic
• Novel—originated from this period and grew in
popularity in the next century.
• Plays for entertainment (as opposed to religious
• William Shakespeare is the most notable of the
early modern playwrights, but numerous others
made important contributions,
including Christopher Marlowe, Molière, and Ben
• The new style in English poetry during the 17th
century was that of the metaphysical movement.
The metaphysical poets were John
Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, Thomas
Traherne, Henry Vaughan and others.
• People are really into strict science, logic, and
• Augustan literature and French literature of
the 18th century
• The early 18th century sees the conclusion of
the Baroque period and the incipient Age of
Enlightenment with authors such as Immanuel
Kant, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
or Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
• 19th century is dominated by the Victorian era, characterized
by Romanticism, with Romantic poets such as William
Wordsworth, Lord Byron or Samuel Taylor Coleridge and
genres such as the gothic novel.
• In Denmark, the early 19th century Golden Age produced
prolific literary authors such as Søren Kierkegaard and Hans
• In the later 19th century, Romanticism is countered
by Realism and Naturalism.
• The late 19th century, known as the Belle Époque, with its Fin
de siècle retrospectively appeared as a "golden age" of
European culture, cut short by the outbreak of World War I in
1914. don't care about logic and rationality and all of this
• don't care about logic and rationality and all of this stuff
• The main periods of 20th century literature
are captured in the bipartite division:
• Popular literature develops its own genres
such as fantasy and science fiction.).
• don't care about logic and rationality and all of