self-concept research among orphans USIM by Lt. Mustaza Abu Bakar
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion; it conforms to
acceptable standards and is fully adequate in scope and quality as an academic project for
the Bachelor of Counseling.
Dr. Othman Bin Abd. Rahman.
This dissertation is submitted to the Faculty of Leadership and Management and is
accepted as fulfillment of the ABA 4403 course requirement for the Bachelor of
Faculty of Leadership & Management
Islamic Science University of Malaysia.
اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﷲ ﺑﺴﻢاﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ
I hereby declare that the work in this academic project is my own except for quotations
and summaries which have been duly acknowledged.
Date: 03th March 2015.
Name : Mustaza Bin Abu Bakar
Matric no. : 1110523
Address : NO 55 Kg. Parit Mungkal,
71500 Tanjung Ipoh,
Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus.
Alhamdulillah and thank foremost to Almighty Allah for giving me strength, patience and
endurance in completing this research. Without His love and mercy, this research would
not have been completed.
Many people have contributed to this academic project, either directly or
indirectly. I would like to acknowledge and thank for them at this point. First and
foremost to my supervisor Dr. Othman Bin Abd. Rahman for his persistent confidence,
guidance and detailed critiques. This appreciation is also extended to Dean of the Faculty
of Leadership and Management, because gave the permission and opportunity in doing
this research. Also, thanks to lecturers in Counseling Program at the Faculty of
Leadership and Management that always support through their inspirational motivation
through all the education years.
Most of all, to my dear parents, brothers and sisters who have always been there
providing me with love, care and assistance during my entire life to sustain me through
the endeavor of completing this research and this course. Sincerest gratitude for my dear
friends for the unending support, sharing of ideas, words of encouragement given to me in
the pursuance of this research.
I would like to thank to all people for their support and cooperation during the
course of my study. May all the good deeds be rewarded with Jannah. Ameen.
This purpose of this research is to investigate the level of the self-concept among primary
and secondary school students. A school has been selected to fulfill the research
requirement is orphans school of Bakti Orphanage Dato’ Haron of Hulu Klang, Selangor.
The respondent were student from standard 6 to form 4. Researcher was also evaluating
whether the self-concept treatment in the form of training program will increase the level
of self-concept among respondent or vice versa. The design of this research is in an
experimental and had the findings of the experiment before the test (pre-test), treatment
given and the test results after treatment (post-test). While the instrument used was a
questionnaire of The Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale of 2 (TSCS: 2). The result gained
has been analyzed using SPSS software version 20 (Statistic Package for Social Science).
From the results obtained, it was found that the treatment given to increase the student’s
level of self-concept was an unsuccessful. The results of this research have been analyzed
and the data showed that the level of self-concept of boys is lower even though treatment
has been carried out after get a result from the post-tests. Similarly compared to female
students, the data shows an increase in the levels of self-concept after treatment has been
given to them. Based on the results of the interviews obtained from the participating
facilitators conduct the training program. There are several factors and a strong argument
why the goal to increase their level of self-concept is not reached. As proposed in the
future to improve a person's self-concept. We need to use this form of treatment is more
intensive and longer treatment period of time. This is because, the self-concept should be
built and strengthened since childhood until adulthood so that a human being can be
independent wisely, trying condensed in survival and can guide others towards good and
meritorious other fellow human beings.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tahap konsep kendiri murid-murid peringkat sekolah
rendah dan menengah. Terdapat satu buah sekolah yang dipilih untuk memenuhi
kehendak kajian iaitu Pertubuhan Pendidikan Anak-anak Yatim Rumah Bakti Dato’
Harun, Hulu Klang, Selangor. Responden yang dipilih terdiri daripada murid-murid dari
darjah 6 sehingga tingkatan 4. Pengkaji juga turut menilai sama ada rawatan konsep-
kendiri yang dijalankan di dalam bentuk program latihan dapat meningkatkan konsep-
kendiri responden ataupun tidak. Reka bentuk kajian yang digunakan ialah bentuk
eksperimen iaitu dapatan hasil sebelum ujian dijalankan (pre-test), rawatan yang
diberikan dan hasil ujian selepas rawatan (post-test). Manakala alat kajian yang
digunakan ialah soalselidik iaitu soalselidik The Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2
(TSCS:2). Dapatan yang diperolehi telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan perisian SPSS
versi 20 (Statistical Package for Social Science version 20). Berdasarkan hasil kajian
yang diperolehi, keputusan menunjukkan bahawa rawatan yang diberikan untuk
meningkatkan tahap konsep-kendiri pelajar secara keseluruhan adalah tidak tercapai.
Hasil kajian ini telah dianalisis dan data menunjukkan tahap konsep kendiri pelajar lelaki
adalah lebih rendah walaupun rawatan dan ujian selepas rawatan telah dijalankan.
Berbanding pula kepada pelajar perempuan, hasil data menunjukkan terdapat peningkatan
terhadap tahap konsep kendiri selepas rawatan telah diberikan kepada mereka.
Berdasarkan hasil temu bual yang diperolehi dari fasilitator yang turut serta menjalankan
program latihan tersebut. Terdapat beberapa faktor dan hujah yang kukuh mengapa
matlamat untuk meningkatkan tahap konsep kendiri mereka tidak tercapai. Sebagai
cadangan pada masa akan datang untuk meningkatkan tahap konsep-kendiri seseorang
itu. Kita perlulah menggunakan bentuk rawatan yang lebih intensif dan tempoh rawatan
yang lebih panjang masanya. Hal ini kerana, konsep-kendiri perlu dibina dan
dimantapkan sejak kecil lagi sehinggalah dewasa supaya seseorang manusia itu dapat
berdikari dengan bijak, berusaha kental di dalam meneruskan kehidupan serta dapat
membimbing orang lain ke arah kebaikan dan berjasa sesama insan yang lain.
LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.2.1 : Research Design 42
Table 184.108.40.206 : Scoring of Positive and Negative Items TSCS : 2 48
Table 220.127.116.11 : Items scoring positive and negative items TSCS : 2. 50
Table 3.7 : The flow of the Data was Collect 54
Table 18.104.22.168 : Percentage of Respondent According to Gender 58
Table 22.214.171.124 : Percentage of Respondent According to Age 59
Table 126.96.36.199 : Percentage of Respondent According to Education Background 60
Table 188.8.131.52 : Percentage of Respondent According to Standard of Study 62
Table 184.108.40.206 : Percentage of Respondent According to the Area of Place 63
Table 220.127.116.11 : Percentage of Respondent According to Number of Siblings 64
Table 4.3.1 : Summary Score The TOT in TSCS : 2 66
Table 4.3.2 : The TOT of Respondent during in Pre-test and Post-test Result 67
Table 4.3.4 : The TOT interpreted through mean Reading in Pre-test 70
Table 4.3.5 : The TOT interpreted through mean Reading in Post-test 70
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 2.5.1 : Donald Super’s Career Model 18
Figure 2.5.2 : Super 5 Life and Career Development Stage 19
LIST OF BAR CHART
Table 18.104.22.168 : Percentage of Respondent According to Gender 58
Table 22.214.171.124 : Percentage of Respondent According to Age 59
Table 126.96.36.199 : Percentage of Respondent According to Education Background 61
Table 188.8.131.52 : Percentage of Respondent According to Standard of Study 62
Table 184.108.40.206 : Percentage of Respondent According to the Area of Place 63
Table 220.127.116.11 : Percentage of Respondent According to Number of Siblings 65
Appendix A: Permission Letter 91
Appendix B: Questionnaire of study 93
Appendix C: Training Program Treatment Module 99
Et. al And others
T Percentile (Stage of Self-Concept)
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science
SD Standard Deviation
TSCS: 2 The Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 questionnaire.
TOT The Level of Self-concept
Pre-Test Initial Test before treatment.
Post-Test The Test after the treatment.
TABLE OF CONTENT
APPROVAL PAGE ii
AUTHOR DECLARATION iii
MULAKHKHAS AL-BAHTH vii
LIST OF TABLE viii
LIST OF FIGURE ix
LIST OF BAR CHART ix
LIST OF APPENDIX x
TABLE OF CONTENTS xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Research Background 1
1.3 Problem Statement 6
1.4 Research Purpose 7
1.5 Research Questions 7
1.6 Research Objectives 8
1.7 Research Significant 8
1.8 Research Limitation 9
1.9 Terms Definition 10
1.9.1 Self-Concept 10
1.9.2 Orphans 11
1.9.3 Training Program (Explrace Approach) 12
1.10 Conclusion 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Definition of Self-Concept 13
2.3 Roles of Self-Concept 15
2.4 Perspectives on Self-Concept 16
2.5 Development of Self-Concept 17
2.6 Congruence and Incongruence of Self-Concept 22
2.7 Past Research Related to The Self-Concept 23
2.8 Self-Concept from Islamic Perspectives 25
2.8.1 Complete reliance on Allah S.W.T 26
2.9 Person Client Centered Therapy (PCC) 29
2.9.1 The Core Conditions on PCC 32
18.104.22.168a Empathy 33
22.214.171.124b The Role of Empathy in Facilitating Change. 33
126.96.36.199a Unconditional Positive Regard. 35
188.8.131.52b The Role of Unconditional Positive Regard
in Facilitating Therapeutic Change 36
184.108.40.206a Congruence 36
220.127.116.11b The Role of Congruence in Facilitating
Therapeutic Change 37
2.10 Conclusions 40
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Research Design 41
3.3 Population 44
3.4 Research Sample 45
3.5 Instruments 45
3.5.1 Questionnaire 46
3.5.2 An Interview 52
3.5.3 Training Program 53
3.6 Research Locations 53
3.7 Data Collections 54
3.8 Data Analysis 55
3.9 Conclusions 56
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 57
4.2.1 Respondents Gender 58
4.2.2 Respondents Age 59
4.2.3 Respondent Education Background 60
4.2.4 Respondents Standard of Study 61
4.2.5 Respondents Area of Place 63
4.2.6 Respondents Number of Siblings 64
4.3 Research Findings 66
4.3.1 Research Objective 1 66
4.3.2 Research Objective 2 71
4.3.3 Research Objective 3 73
4.3.4 Research Objective 4 76
4.5 Conclusion 78
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Summary of Study 79
5.2 Discussion 80
5.3.1 Research Objective 1 81
5.3.2 Research Objective 2, 3, 4 82
5.3 Challenges 83
5.4 Suggestions 84
5.5 Conclusion 85
In chapter 1, researchers will explain the background of the research conducted as well as
the issue and problem regarding self-concept. The researcher also states the purpose and
objective of the research. The researcher also point out some of the questions regarding
on this research. There are also explanations regarding the limitations appearing when
conducting this research. The definitions of self-concept and learning approach in terms
of conceptual and operational meaning are also clearly stated in this chapter. The
researcher summaries chapter 1 in the conclusions part at the end of this chapter.
1.2 Research Backgrounds.
The researcher has been investigated the level of self-concept among orphans of Bakti
Orphanage Dato’ Haron of Hulu Klang after conducting the training program in explorace
Through the findings of this research to be carried out, the researcher collected the
information about the organization to the welfare of the orphans orphanage and exploring
the conditions and situations that was real happen on the orphans in terms of psychology
based on their cognitive, behavior and emotional on their environment and friends’ factor
in knowing the awareness importance by the respondents. In this regard, there are some
organizations and association that were play as a main important role in the welfare
towards the orphans. Between the roles of the welfare of orphans is the Social Welfare
Department (JKM), non-governmental bodies (NGOs) and private parties to engage in
In helping to manage all the matters related to the current needs and requirements
for these orphaned children, there are also had some group who take their own rule to
build homes for orphans to shelter place. Some of the current needs and requirements
offer provided by JKM as well as the NGOs, particularly in terms of the basic needs of
residents such as clothing, food, monitoring, education and other facilities.
There are also a number of previously researchers who have doing research about
this self-concept. Among these researchers is conducted by Dhanapal A/L Rengasamy
from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in 2007. The purpose of it research is to identify
the Relationship Student Academic Climate in Tamil schools student of self-concept, self-
reliant and intellectual readiness. Besides that, the research conducted to determine the
existence of the relationship between students’ perceptions towards academic climate
with the school outcomes.
The researcher found that depicted that there is a significant difference in the
intellectual readiness of students who originate from 5 socioeconomic groups. However,
its finding showed there was no significant difference in self-concept among students
from the five socioeconomic background groups. The findings also showed that there was
no significant difference in intellectual readiness, self-concept and self-reliance among
students from the 3 school profile groups. The researcher showed that factors such as
family background and school profile strongly influence the achievement of SJK Tamil
students. Most of the estate school students and a few of the urban and suburban school
students lack self reliansce, self concept and intellectual readiness. The researcher showed
that then academic climate among students in the urban schools is more positive
compared to suburban and estate schools.
In the round of human life, adolescence playing as an important developmental
stage in the life of an individual because it is a period of time the transition from
childhood to be passed by each individual to prepare himself to adulthood.
According to the book Peer Guidance, issued by the Guidance and Counseling
Unit the School Department of the Institute Aminuddin Baki, Teenagers are those who
are in the age group 12 years to 18 years. Stated by Hall (1965), have used the term
'flapper' to define adolescents who likened "Nestling are have not been long wings trying
to fly out of from the nest". During this period, a teenager would try to find the status as
an independent individual and strives to achieve a desired self-satisfaction. This is
because the individual is increasingly aware of the goal itself. The development of self-
concept allows the teenagers to develop and integrate about positive self-concept to
become a progress to be the proper in their life.
Self-concept is the most important thing in every person to all individuals.
Through implemention and appreciation of high self-concept, it can bring significant
effects on the well-being of an individual, as suggested by Hobbes in passage Rosenberg
(Leahy, 1985), which says that the greatest happiness in the soul of human is to have a
high views on himself. Thus, applying a high self-concept in itself can increase the self-
confidence and playing an important role in determining the success or failure of each
individual on it life.
Every person said to have self-concept, which is a self-assessment system
(Maslow, 1968), the teenagers also able to make a self-assessment of domain-domain life
which includes components identity. Teenagers often depicted with features such
turbulent times (Hall 1904), the time to find their identity and asked "who he is"? build
self-concept and others. Psychosocial development of a person at this stage considered
very important (Erikson 1968). Adolescent period may become rough because teenagers
are always looking for identity and self-evaluation. Identity achievement and intellectual
was defined as the extent to which a person is motivated to achieve success and become
intellectual. Related studies demonstrate achievement associated with academic
achievement in school.
In the way in to identify the the respondents' background and problem statement
against them. Researchers have conducted a training program based on an explorace
approach method in form of academic knowledge and learning different concepts on the
respondent for the subject of science, mathematics and Islamic Education at respondent
from Bakti Orphange Hulu Kelang. In this study, researchers will study and investigate
the initial, actual problem, the respondents attitude toward the environment and will be
compared to the level of self-concept after being explorace approaches by using the
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2).
Overall, the explorace approach conducted to the orphanage is very important in
gaining knowledge and improve the level of the self-concept among of the respondent.
The meaning word of explorace is similar with the purpose by doing outdoor activities.
According to (Wikipedia), outdoor activities means the outdoors as a physical or social
setting may meet the needs of physical health, self-sufficiency, risk-taking, the building
of social ties (including teambuilding), and the needs of achievement (such as practicing,
enhancing and challenging skills, testing stamina and endurance, and seeking adventure
or excitement). Relate to the explorace approach that conducted against of this orphanage,
they all will be exposed in the form of training which oriented to develop self-discipline
and to build self-concept among them.
Therefore, the experimental method due to build up the level of the self-concept,
knowledge development, physical and psychological mental process among to this
orphanage student. These orphanages will give some test early that is we called pre-test
including the questionnaire of the Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2)
questionaire. After that, we give training to the orphanage using explorace approach to
build all the positive achievement including to improve their level of the self-concept and
teamwork process between them. Ending of the explorace approach, these orphanages
will give it back the post-test from the researcher to compare and make the research
comparison between the pre-test. According to Noraini (2000), the self-concept is the
result of information or message received through the social interaction of themselves
1.3 Problem Statement.
Self-concept broadly defined is a person’s perception of him or herself. These perceptions
are form through one experience with and interpretations of one’s environment, and are
influenced especially by reinforcement, evaluations of significant others and one’s
attributions for one’s own behavior (Shavelson et al. 1976).
According to the related research by Azizi Hj Yahaya (2011) stated that the most
issues of teenagers are now starting from imbalance that exist in their own family
institution which leads to various negative impact on the youth. Therefore, the effort
towards strengthening the family institution is one of the solutions to the various
problems among youth. Parents should understand and know the natural development of
adolescent psychology, at this level adolescents need attention and guidance and affection
from family members. Through this research, the orphans should be given special
attention by all parties, especially the orphan care center or a particular party. It was not
surprising, self-concept for orphans mostly unpredictable of their self-concept stage.
Hence, attention and care needs to be given completely in the form of personal
excellence, good in academic achievement and devout followers towards Allah.
Marsh H.W and Shavelson R.J (1985) found that the students' self-concept has
several different but inter-related. Through the training program conducted to the
orphans, a little more can help in improving the level of self-concept among of this
orphans. Incidental of it, this explorace approach process can also increasing the level of
academic achievement by itself through this program, practicing the importance of
teamwork and how the pure moral development of human can achieved.
1.4 Research Purpose.
This research is conducted to identify the effectiveness of explorace approach in order to
enhance the level of the self-concept among of the orphans. Which comprises of 9
domains; physical self, personal self, identity self, family self, social self, self-satisfaction
self, moral self and behavior self as well to determine the significant differences based on
demographic data (gender, age, education background, standard of study, residential areas
and siblings) on questionnaire of the Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2).
1.5 Research Questions.
1) What is the level of the orphan’s self-concept before and after the training
2) Are they any different effects among the orphans between before and after
gives the training program in order to improve their self-concept?
3) Are they any different effects among the orphans between the genders
towards male and female after gives the training program in order to
improve their self-concept?
4) The perceptions of the training program approach among facilitator
towards to the respondent (orphans) in order to improve their self-concept?
1.6 Research Objectives.
1) To identify the level of the orphan’s self-concept before and after the
2) To investigate any different effects among the orphans between before and
after gives the training program in order to improve their self-concept.
3) To investigate any different effects among the orphans between the gender
towards male and female after gives the training program in order to
improve their self-concept.
4) To identify the perceptions of the training program approach among
facilitator towards to the respondent (orphans) in order to improve their
1.7 Research Significant.
This research is significant to the orphans of Bakti Hulu Kelang whereby there had many
important for them to gain more understanding in knowledge besides that to get a wide
and comprehensive about the importance of self-concept in human daily life. Thus, it is
hoped that the research findings will benefit and showed the high level of self-concept
and having the exchanges between them.
At the initial measurement before giving to them on handling explorace. That
respondent was gave to them to answer the question of the Tennessee of Self-Concept
Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) to test the self-concept in its initial stage. After that, the students were
given training in the form explorace academic approach form and to develop the
After that, the respondent is required to answer the same question the Tennessee
of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) again same likes in the initial stages after a training
session in the form of explorace academic approach was conducted. This method able in
fact to test the level of self-concept before and after having given training to them.
This explorace approach also to be able to provide disclosures to the respondents
about the importance in the acquiring knowledge in addition to forming the self-concept
of the respondent. This method can giving interest and the effective of learning
techniques through explorace approach are applied to each respondent and to foster the
spirit of cooperation and the importance in building self-concept among the respondents.
1.8 Research Limitations.
This research was conducted toward the Bakti Orphanage of Hulu Kelang involving
orphans from primary and secondary school. The researcher has been chosen 35 selected
respondent in order at initial stage to answer the questions the Tennessee of Self-Concept
Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) and also in an effort to enhance the self-concept of children from the
In addition, the method of research conducted on orphans are in the form
experimental method. Which in this research is only to measure the level of the self-
concept for the selected orphans only. So other psychometric tests measuring and other
orphans in that school cannot be used to running because on a short time constraint
program was carried out.
This research also focuses in the test of the self-concept level towards the
respondents by measuring them through the level of educational achievement through
explorace approach. This approach is expected to raise the level of self-concept among
the respondents. There is no doubt that the limitation in an effort to raise the level of self-
concept of the respondents there are many barriers and influence from the external
environment. Possible effects of these other factors such as family background plays,
peers, self-motivation, aspirations and the like are not included and examined in this
1.9 Terms Definitions.
Self-concept is a summation regarding towards himself which include systematic ideas,
attitudes, values and commitments (Jersild, 1952 and Burns, 1979).
Self-concept is a self-perceived towards one’s physical self, personal self, identity self,
family self, social self, self-satisfaction self, moral self and behavior self which is
contains in the Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2).
According to Wikipedia, is a child whose parents are dead or have abandoned them
permanently. In common usage, only a child who has lost both parents is called an
However, survivors who reached adulthood before their parents died are normally
not called orphans. It is a term generally reserved for children whose parents have died
while they are too young to support themselves.
Then this that are meant by someone called the status of an orphan and as well for
the Bakti Orphanage of Hulu Kelang for our research about the level of the self-concept
wants to conduct.
1.9.3 Training Program (Explrace Approach).
The explorace approach was held at Bakti Orphanage of Hulu Klang. The motivation
program that implemented within LDK and researcher also conducted the explorace
approach to the selected respondents.
According to the fourth edition of the dictionary Council (DBP-Malaysia), has
stated that explorace is an exploration into the field to get something: through
observation, outdoor activities and all kinds of activities. That was a technique the way of
learning and enhance people's motivation.
As the conclusion, there are various problems faced by the orphan’s todays. Among the
issues is involving of self-concept issues, problems in learning study and other problems.
Towards the explorace approach can enhance a person's self-concept, learning the correct
study technique and enhance creativity in resolving a problem. There are two questions
were pointed out by the researcher in this research. The purpose of the research is
determined objectively as well as two research objectives as parameters. The researcher
explained some limitations exist in conducting this research. The terms of self-concept,
orphans and explorace approach were clearly defined from conceptual and operational
In chapter 2, the researcher discusses the level of self-concept from the past researches
done by the other researchers and looks into their findings, results, suggestions and
recommendations. Besides that, the researcher also discusses self-concept among students
and psychological testing used in this research in details which is the Tennessee of Self-
Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2).
2.2 Definitions of Self-Concept.
The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about,
evaluates or perceives themselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself.
According to Baumeister (1999) provides the following self-concept definition: "the
individual's belief about himself or herself, including the person's attributes and who and
what he or she know about itself actually". Self-Concept is an important term for
both social psychology and humanism .
Self-concept is a summation regarding himself which include systematic ideas,
attitudes, values and commitments (Jersild, 1952 and Burns, 1979). Self-concept is a
subjective environment, it is a central and significant experience which was significantly
different from the others.
Self-concept also can be defined as an assessment on his own or how a person
thinks about himself either positive or negative. It is closely related to how we feel about
our abilities, things that happen to us and what will happen to us. According to Harter
(1983) in the book Personality: "Becoming a Person", self-concept is the optimal
development of the individual.
Self-concept includes a perception of self and surroundings through the senses
and feelings about their abilities include confidence and pride. Self-concept includes
physical and psychological aspects. It is also related to learning experienced since
children are still young.
According to Rogers (1951) who argued Client-centered therapy, he argues that
self-concept is made up of a combination of self-assessment, evaluation and evaluation of
others' perceptions to someone. Self-concept can be considered become a common word
spoken by people in this life now. However, the individuals who understand and clearly
the meaning of the term as well as the actual structure of self-concept, the answer can
only be referred to some understanding and opinions by members of experts in the field
of psychology and counseling.
Self- concept can also interpreted was the combination of perceptions and values
that an individual believes to be true of their own self (Bukatko & Daehler, 2001, p. 407).
Theories on the development of self-concept tend to focus on an individual’s view of self
in comparison to others. For instance, symbolic interactionism argues that the self-
concept is constructed through social interaction with others (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1925,
1934 as cited in Campbell & Fehr, 1990). Other theorists have posited the idea of the
“looking-glass self” where our self-concept is constructed through our imagination of
how others perceive us (Cooley, 1902 as cited in Campbell & Fehr, 1990). Individuals
who construct their self-concept this way are constantly evaluating how they perceive
others to be evaluating them.
According to Joseph Campbell (1985) believe that 'self-concept' that is
independent to perform an action. Humans have a picture or perception about itself. This
statement is called the self-concept or self-image. It includes an overview of the various
levels, physical health, abilities, weaknesses and behavior. The knowledge of human
behavior, including self-helping skills, as well as the rational planning determines part of
our success in achieving goals in life. Self-image refers to self-concept and the perception
of the self-image is one has about himself/herself (Grubb and Grathwhohl, 1967; Graeff,
1996) and provides us with self-esteem and how we as individuals feel about ourselves. It
is the view people hold about themselves (Runyan, 1988).
2.3 Roles of Self-Concept.
The role of self-concept can be related as “a person’s sense of self shaped through
interaction with the environment and other people” (Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton,
1976). A positive self -concept is regarded as important for good mental health,
improving academic achievement (Chapman, Tunmer, Prochnow, 2000; Guay, Marsh,
Boivin, 2003) and is seen as a key aim of education. Although originally it used to be
considered as a unidimensional construct. According to Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton
(1976) theorized that self-concept was multidimensional and hierarchically organized,
with a global general self-concept on the future.
Until recently, we must understanding the role of self-concept in various
important fields. In fact, these variables mediate influencing behavior varied among
humans. In everyday life, self-concept in relation to various matters such as the
acceptance of others, feelings of anxiety (anxiety), career selection, drug and tobacco use
among teens, discipline problems, diseases, physical attractiveness, and so on (Burns,
1979). It is important the role and relationship between self-concepts with human
achievement. A motivation also is one of the role self-concept which determines the
extent to which we are heading towards a set of requirements and our values.
2.4 Perspectives on Self-Concept.
Some the perspective on self-concept argues that self-concept hinges on self-schemas.
Self-schemas are defined as the specific ideas that we form about ourselves and help us
organize our views of others (Green & Sedikides, 2001). People form self-schemas in the
areas of life that are important to them (Markus, 1977 as cited in Hawkins, von Hippel, &
For instance, someone with a positive outlook or an optimistic schema is likely to
be satisfied with who they are and rely on positive social interactions for support.
Therefore, they may exert a lot of effort towards building new friendships, which
reinforce their optimistic behavior. Regardless of the specifics of the individual theories,
the development of self-concept is contingent on interactions with others.
Self-image is one of the perspectives of self-concept. Self-image is based upon the
‘social self’ and the ‘ideal social self’. Self-concept may be represented as being a multi-
dimensional concept, wherein the human plays different roles in different situations
(Blackwell et al., 2001). As individuals we are required to enact different roles with
different people and situations in our lives now. Now we recognizes that human in
different situations exhibit different self-images, this relates not only to the ‘actual self’
but what the human aspires to be, which is classified as “ideal self” (Sutherland et al.,
2004 and Parker, 2009).
2.5 Development of Self-Concept.
According to Allport (1955, in Ryckman, 2004) states that the development of an
individual's self-concept will develops continuously from the during infancy to death and
move through certain stages which include the formation of bodily self, self-identity, self-
esteem, self-image and self-expansion . Self-concept acts as rational agents, self-
improvement and self-struggle as an informer at different stages of human life.
Self-concept as a component of the development of the human personality
consists from the seven fundamental aspects, which is self-concept, formed the
psychological dimension and it is multidimensional. Self-organization concept has a
hierarchical (general self-concept and self-concept and specific). When a person of self-
concept they are stable, but when decreasing its hierarchy, self-concept becomes more
specific and more likely to be changed. Self-concept differences become more apparent
by the circulation of age and experience. Self-concept also includes aspects of descriptive
and evaluation, and it can be differentiated from the other related constructs, such as
academic achievement (Shavelson et al, 1976; quoted by Garma and Elexpuru, 1999).
According to Burns (1979), the development of self-concept does not apply in
fashion yes-or-does not, which allows us to state that in a certain period of time, a child
does not build its own self-concept and a sudden on the next time it stated happily that the
child has started forming self-concept. As stated by him, the process of development of
self-concept is not exactly over. It continues to occur from birth of some people until it
death, in which a person is continually discovering new potential in the 'form'.
Based on (figure 2.5.1), according to Donald Super’s career model, he belief that
the self-concept of human changes over time and develops as a result of experience.
Figure 2.5.1: Donald Super’s Career Model
One of Donald Super’s greatest contributions to career development has been his
emphasis on the importance of the development of self-concept. According to Super, self-
concept changes over time and develops as a result of experience. As such, career
development is lifelong process to human life cycle.
According to Supers five life and career development stages in (figure 2.5.2)
below state that Super developed the theories and work of colleague Eli Ginzberg. Super
felt that Ginzberg’s work had weaknesses, which he wanted to address. Super extended
Ginzberg’s work on life and career development stages from three to five, and included
Figure 2.5.2: Supers Five Life and Career Development Stages
Stage 1: Growth Age 0–14 Characteristics: Development of self-concept,
attitudes, needs and general
world of work.
Stage 2: Exploration Age 15–24 Characteristics: “Trying out” through classes, work
experience, hobbies. Tentative choice
and skill development.
Stage 3: Establishment Age 25–44 Characteristics: Entry-level skill building and
stabilization through work
Stage 4: Maintenance Age 45-64 Characteristics: Continual adjustment process to
Stage 5: Decline Age 65+ Characteristics: Reduced output, prepare for retirement.
According to Burns (1979), the five causes that affect a person's self-concept is an
image of the body, language, feedback from others, model identification and stereotypical
gender roles and care practices towards the children. Naturally, these five sources do not
work in separately. In addition, the development of self-concept is also heavily influenced
by external factors such as health, intellectual development, economic conditions, cultural
influences, social interaction, level of education and those who are significant in the life
of an individual.
State by Roger (1959, in Ryckman, 2004), people who significantly in forming a
person's self-concept is including parents, family members, teachers, peers, and they that
are in considered important in our environment. Although self-concept is influenced by
external factors during the early days of human growth (e.g. childhood), but it can predict
the behavior of post our lives for someone tomorrow.
Gained from the book Adolescent Psychology, Jas Laile Suzana Jaafar (2002),
states that parenting of children a lot of affect self-esteem. Parents who have high self-
esteem tend to raise their children with high self-esteem. In contrast, parents who have
low self-esteem tend to raise children in low esteem.
Self-concept of a person can be developing to positive or negative self-concept.
According to Hu, seeping and Yang (1999), a positive self-concept implying acceptance
of oneself as a human being with strengths and weaknesses, while a negative self-concept
reflects the feeling worthless and lack of respect to him. Direction of the self-concept is
important for a person for adolescent because it affects personal achievements,
particularly in the areas of academic achievement (Marsh & Yeung, 1997) and also in
connection with the relationship interpersonal, physical capabilities, career selection and
the success (Hattie, 1992). The achievement is usually seen in keeping with the
community of the individuals (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).
According to Rosenberg (1965), for those who has a low self-esteem, their self-
image is less stable and anxieties were born. Individuals with low self-esteem were
always false sense towards the world. These tensions raises concerns expressed feelings
of anxiety and so on. Low self-esteem also makes a person more sensitive to the fact of
failure. These weaknesses stimulate feelings of anxiety and cause personal separation
either physically or emotionally from the others. Those are the low self-esteem is not
easily exposing him to others. So, they always go through life by own.
In another aspect, Schmale (1958) and Canter (1960) suggest that the attitude
towards life and self-concept is two of initiation factors and heal disease recover. When
we want to find the psychological factors that cause a person the decline in resistance to
disease, we need to pay attention to things in everyday life that may lead to feelings of
frustration, such as a loss of identity and self-esteem.
According to Burns (1979), the matters giving rise to feelings toward self it is
does not importance, it is not worth and self-esteem decline will cause a person weak and
sick. Or in other words, the decline in self-concept leads to a person unhealthy, either
physiologically or psychologically. Whether by way of mental illness or physical is one
way an individual reflected the sentiment its disappointment over the existing way of life.
Ranjit Singh Malhi (1997) in his book "Self-Esteem", also states that the
development of self-esteem since our birth. The experts of psychology generally agreed
that beginning of the experience when childhood and adolescence have a tremendous
impact on the development of self-esteem. Family as the first agent popularization submit
an early indication of a child whether he accepted or not, loved or not, and deserves to
live or not and the beginning of our self-image is formed by the comments about us by
our parents. The researchers found that the judgment made by parents last a long time
among individuals up to adulthood.
2.6 Congruence and Incongruence of Self-Concept.
According to Rogers (1959) described that the concepts of congruence and incongruence
as important ideas in his theory. In proposition, he refers to the actualizing tendency. At
the same time, he recognized the need for positive regard. In a fully congruent person
realizing their potential is not at the expense of experiencing positive regard. They are
able to lead lives that are authentic and genuine. Incongruent individuals, in their pursuit
of positive regard, lead lives that include falseness and do not realize their potential.
Conditions put on them by those around them make it necessary for them to forego their
genuine, authentic lives to meet with the approval of others. They live lives that are not
true to themselves, to who they are on the inside out.
Rogers (1959) suggested that the incongruent individual, who is always on the
defensive and cannot be open to all experiences, is not functioning ideally and may even
be malfunctioning. They work hard at maintaining/protecting their self-concept. Because
their lives are not authentic this is a difficult task and they are under constant threat. They
deploy defense mechanisms to achieve this. He describes two mechanisms that are
distortion and denial. Distortion occurs when the individual perceives a threat to their
self-concept. They distort the perception until it fits their self-concept.
This defensive behavior reduces the consciousness of the threat but not the threat
itself. It means the threats mount, the work of protecting the self-concept becomes more
difficult and the individual becomes more defensive and rigid in their self-structure.
If the incongruence is immoderate this process may lead the individual to a state
that would typically be described as neurotic. Their functioning becomes precarious and
psychologically vulnerable. If the situation worsens it is possible that the defenses cease
to function altogether and the individual becomes aware of the incongruence of their
situation. Their personality becomes disorganized and bizarre to irrational behavior,
associated with earlier denied aspects of self, and may erupt uncontrollably.
2.7 Past Research Related to the Self-Concept.
The study of this research is about levels of self-concept among adolescents in the age
group of 13-18 who live in orphanage and those who do not live in orphanage. Previous
studies have shown that gender of adolescents living in orphanage, the number of their
close friends, the influence of the views of their friends, the attitude of the personnel
towards the adolescents, the request for assistance from personnel and the attitude of the
adolescents in their relationships with friends lead to difference in the self-concept scores
of adolescents according to gender and according to the place they live in cases of
adolescents not living in orphanage.
This research was conducted on 126 adolescents including 63 adolescents living
in orphanage and 63 voluntary adolescents between ages 13-18 attending sixth, seventh
and eighth grades and first, second, third and fourth grades. Adolescents from orphanage
and others participating the research are equal in terms of number, age and sex. Mentally
disabled adolescents left out of the research since their self-concept level may be
negatively affected. Based from this research results, it stated that the self-concept scores
of adolescents living in orphanage are lower than those of the adolescents are not living in
orphanage. It is suggested that not being with parents make adolescents living in
orphanage feel lonely during the period called “storm and silence of adolescents” may
reflect on self-concept scores of adolescents. At the end of the study on adolescents who
live in orphanage and who do not live in orphanage conducted by Aral and others (2005),
it was concluded that self-concept level of adolescents who live in orphanage is lower
than that of the adolescents who does not live in orphanage.
Based on the study conducted by Dr Margaret Wanjiru et al (2014), entitled the
impact of gender on orphans’ self-esteem and academic performance among secondary
school students in Kirinyaga and Nyeri Counties of Kenya. This research of this study
was theoretically guided by Rogers’ self-theory. In turn, Rogers (1902-1987), in his
contribution to psychology, contended that every person can achieve his or her goals,
wishes and desires in life if self-actualization took place. The study adopted a survey,
which utilized casual comparative research design. The data was collected using
questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
The major finding in this study was that Self-esteem was found to be influenced
by gender of orphans and the self-esteem in turn influenced the aspiration of education
level as well as jobs. The study recommends that the socialization by the society should
not be gender discriminative that is all children should be treated the same way. The
result obtains from this research get from the analysis of data presented and discussion
done. Firstly, orphans’ self-esteem is influenced by his or her gender. This implies that
since self-esteem is a psychological construct which refers to how the self is viewed and
valued, probably the society devalued the female orphans and from the societal
devaluation comes individual devaluation.
Another results is self-esteem is human necessity without which no human
progress is possible, there is need for the African society, just as in the rest of the world,
to insist on hope rather than despair in all departments of life and if a “culture of
encouragement” as opposed to “the old culture of pulling one another down” in Africa is
dismantled through research and publications, vices such as sexism, xenophobia, negative
ethnicity and racism would be a thing of the past. Certainly, injustice to a girl-child is an
injustice to every human being; as injustice somewhere is injustice everywhere.
2.8 Self-Concept from Islamic Perspectives.
In Islamic perspective, al-Quran had an explanation of the self-concept is very wide and a
detailed his description. Among the explanations is very comprehensive about the self-
concept. The self-concept of ‘self’ is found in Quran. Quran makes the distinction
between soul (ruh) and self (nafs). The "soul", most often referred to in the Qur’an as:
2.8.1 Complete reliance on Allah S.W.T (Tazkiyatun al-nafs).
Complete reliance on Allah is the sincere dependence of the heart on Allah in the
servant's end of hours in pursuing his interests and safeguarding himself against anything
that may be harmful to his well-being both in this life and in the akhira:
And for whoever fears Allah, He prepares a way forward for him, and He provides for
him from where he does not expect. And for whoever relies on Allah, then He is enough
for him. (65:2-3)
A person, who fears Allah and relies completely on Him, will find that these two
qualities are sufficient for him both in matters of this world and of his deen. Umar ibn al-
Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
say, 'If you had all relied on Allah as you should rely on Him, then He would have
certainly provided for you as He provides for the birds, who wake up hungry in the
morning and return with full stomachs at dusk.
Abu Hatim ar-Razi said that this hadith establishes the fundamental principle that
reliance on Allah is one of the most important means of acquiring one's sustenance and
Sa'id ibn Jubair said, "Reliance on Allah is an essential part of faith." Possessing
the state of reliance, however, does not prevent you from utilizing the ways and means
which Allah has decreed for His creation. These are His laws, and He has commanded us
to use ways and means, while at the same time He has instructed us to rely on Him.
Endeavoring to make use of the ways and means in His Universe with our limbs is
obedience, and relying on Him in our hearts is faith in Him. Allah says:
O you who believe, take your precautions! (4:71)
Sahl said, "Whoever questions actions (e.g. striving to earn a living) questions the very
validity of the sunnah, and whoever questions reliance on Allah questions faith itself."
Reliance is the state of the Prophet (pbuh), while striving to earn a living is his
Sunnah, and whoever behaves in accordance with the state of the Prophet (pbuh) must not
abandon his Sunnah. It has been said, "Ignoring ways and means doubts the need for the
shari’ah of Islam, while trusting entirely in ways and means doubts the Reality of Tawhid
(the existence of Allah).
There are three kinds of actions that the servant has:
First, the acts of obedience which Allah has commanded His servants to do, since
He has made them the means for rescuing them from the Fire and their entering the
Garden. These must be done, while at the same time still relying on Allah when doing
them and seeking this outcome for there is no strength and no power except from Him.
Whatever He, the Exalted, and wishes to be have already hap- penned, and whatever He
wishes not to be will ever happen. Whoever does not fulfil one of the duties which have
been imposed on him by Allah deserves to be punished in this life and in the next life in
accordance with the shari’ah and as decreed by Allah, the Exalted.
Yusuf ibn Asbat said, "Do what you do like a man who can only be saved by his
actions, and rely completely on Allah like a man who can only be afflicted by the
afflictions that have already been decreed for him."
Second, the actions which Allah has made a part of life in this world, and in which
He has told His servants to take part - such as eating when hungry, drinking when thirsty,
seeking shade in the heat, keeping warm in cold weather, and other such things. Being
involved in such actions is also a duty. Whoever does not do so, to the extent that he does
himself harm by abandoning them even though he was perfectly capable of doing them
has been negligent and deserves punishment.
Third, the actions which Allah has made a part of life in general, without their
being essential. Allah can make exceptions for whomever of His servants He chooses.
There are several kinds of these actions, one of which is taking medicine. The ulama'
have given varying answers to the following question: Is it better for a sick person to take
medicine or, in the case of those who rely completely on Allah, to abstain from taking it?
There are two better known answers to this question that is based from Imam
Ahmad says that reliance on Allah for the one who has it is better. The Imam cites the
saying of the Prophet (pbuh), "Seventy thousand people of my Ummah will enter the
Garden without being taken to account or being punished. They are the ones who do not
make talismans, or seek them, or look for omens, or treat their body by burning, and who
completely rely on their Lord.
Those ulama' who approve of taking medicine, say that the Prophet (pbuh) used to
take it, and he only did what was best; and that the above hadith only applies to the use of
talismans, which are rightly regarded with suspicion because they can lead to reliance on
other than Allah, and which are accordingly equated with looking for omens and
treatment by burning.
Mujahid, 'Ikrimah, an-Nukha'i and several of our predecessors said, "No one has
been given permission to totally abandon trying to use the ways and means of this world
for treating his afflictions, except one whose heart has altogether ceased to relate to the
creation." Ishaq ibn Rahawayh was asked, "Can a man engage in warfare without making
any preparation for it?" He answered, "He can, if he is like Abdullah ibn Jubair - other-
wise he cannot."
2.9 Person Client Centered Therapy (PCC) by Carl Rogers.
In this study, researcher has been used the theory of PCC theory by Carl Rogers in the
explorace approach to explore the respondent’s background in order to know the attitude
and achievement of the respondent based on their lifestyle to be related with the level of
self-concept by using Tennessee of Self-Concept (TSCS):2 that have been answered the
Based on the history, almost 50 years since Carl Rogers published his most
important theoretical paper, “A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal
Relationships, as Developed in the Client-Centered Framework” (Rogers, 1959). Person-
centered theory as outlined by Rogers (1959) provides the metatheoretical foundation for
the person-centered movement and the client-centered approach to counseling and
Person-centered theory is often considered within the framework of humanistic
psychology, but we would caution that humanistic psychology is a broader discipline, and
not all aspects of humanistic psychology share the same metatheoretical assumptions that
characterize person-centered theory. A broader review of the humanistic and positive
psychology interface is provided elsewhere (see Sheldon & Kasser, 2001).
The person-centered approach offers a dynamic, process-focused account of
personality development and functioning, of vulnerability to and development of
psychopathology, and of therapeutic growth toward psychological well-being (Rogers,
1959). The main tenets of person-centered theory evolved during the 1950s based on
naturalistic observation of the individual change processes that clients experience within
the context of the therapeutic encounter (Rogers, 1947, 1951).
According to person-centered theory, the human organism, in common with all
living organisms, is born with an innate motivational drive, the actualizing tendency.
Under favorable social-environmental conditions, Rogers proposes that the individual’s
self-concept actualizes in accordance with his or her organismic valuing process (OVP).
The OVP refers to the evaluation of experiences in a manner that is consistent with one’s
Rogers (1957) coined the term fully functioning person to describe an ideal of
autonomous psychological functioning that occurs when self-actualization is organismic
ally congruent. The conceptualization of fully functioning people necessarily presupposes
that such individuals have first been able to satisfy their most fundamental needs, as
proposed by Maslow (1970). Stated by Rogers (1963, 1964) proposed that the attitudes
and behaviors of more fully functioning individuals are consistent with certain internally
generated value directions. The value directions include moving toward increasingly
socialized goals, where sensitivity to others and acceptance of others is positively valued
and where deep relationships are positively valued, and moving in the direction of greater
openness to experience, where the person comes to value an openness to all of his or her
inner and outer experience (Rogers, 1964, p. 166). However, in contrast, under
unfavorable social-environmental conditions, the actualization of the self-concept
becomes discrepant from organismic experiencing, causing a conflict and a state of
Thus, self-actualization does not necessarily refer to the realization of optimal
psychological functioning and Rogers (1959) is clear that conflict between self-
actualization and the actualizing tendency is the usual state of affairs (Ford, 1991).
Rogers (1959) further proposes that the actualizing tendency is more usually usurped and
thwarted by an unfavorable social environment characterized by conditions of worth.
Conditions of worth are conceptualized as those values that are interjected by the
individual from his or her social interactions and that stem from the developing infant’s
need for positive regard from significant others in his or her social environment. When
the infant receives positive regard that is conditional, then he or she learns to evaluate
experiences according to whether or not they satisfy the externally imposed conditions.
As the child develops, the conditions of worth are interjected, acting as an internalized
social other and replacing organismic valuing as the principle governing the individual’s
attitudes and behavior.
In this way, person-centered theory can be seen to adopt a position that, rather
than naively asserting that people always behave in a positive and constructive way,
instead recognizes that the usual response to unfavorable social-environmental conditions
is for the actualization of the self to become incongruent with the individual’s organismic
experiencing, leading to development of the self in a direction that is discrepant with the
intrinsic motivation toward positive and constructive functioning (Ford, 1991). It is this
incongruence that activates the self’s defensive processes of distortion and denial of
organismic experiencing, potential sources of vulnerability to psychopathology (Rogers,
On the whole, the aim of client-centered therapy is to create facilitative social
environmental conditions, within the context of a therapeutic relationship, that will enable
the client to evaluate experiences organismic ally rather than in accordance with his or her
conditions of worth (Rogers, 1957a, 1959). Rogers’s proposed six necessary and
sufficient social-environmental conditions that he thought characterized the social
environment that promotes therapeutic change the central condition being unconditional
positive regard that serves to counteract the person’s interjected conditions of worth.
2.9.1 The core conditions on PCC.
The three core conditions, empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence,
present a considerable challenge to the person-centered practitioner, for they are not
formulated as skills to be acquired, but rather as personal attitudes or attributes
‘experienced’ by the therapist, as well as communicated to the client for therapy to be
Empathy is perhaps the most well-known of Rogers’ therapeutic conditions, and is
certainly the one which attracted the most attention at the early stages of the approach
(Raskin, 1948: Patterson, 2000). The key characteristic of empathy is understanding
another person subjective reality as she experiences it at any given moment. This
requires an orientation toward the clients’ ‘frame of reference’, a phenomenological term
used to describe the particular issues, concerns and values that are relevant to that
individual in that moment. It is thus an attitude through which the therapist strives to
“enter the client’s private perceptual world and [become] thoroughly at home within in”
(Rogers, 1980, p142). In other words, empathy is the experience of trying to fully
understand another person’s world.
18.104.22.168b The role of empathy in facilitating change.
When situated within a person-centered therapeutic relationship, empathy is seen by some
to play a curative role (Warner, 1996) in facilitating psychological growth. For Rogers
(1959), this role links primarily to the act of clarifying and checking (i.e. reflecting back),
a process which encourages a client to enter more deeply into his or her personal
experiencing. As the therapist attempts to understand the client’s inner world, her
empathic responses serve to assist the client to contact (Warner, 1996) organismic
values, for example, to clarify the extent to which the therapist’s description maps onto
an aspect of organismic experiencing previously denied or distorted.
As a result of this process, the client moves deeper into what is felt at an
organismic level, perhaps for the first time recognizing or conceptualizing a particular
experience (e.g. fear) that was not previously acknowledged within the self (i.e.
something that I, as a person, feel). In doing this, she is potentially able to integrate these
new felt experiences into her view of who she is (i.e. her self-concept). This process
relieves the tension or anxiety produced by the incongruence between self and organismic
experience, thus facilitating psychological change.
Over the years, many theorists have attempted to explicate in greater detail the
role and nature of empathy as part of the therapeutic endeavor (Wilkins, 2003).
Vanerschot (1993) has attempted to draw together a number of strands of such work in
proposing a framework for understanding how empathy works to produce a number of
microprocessors in the client. For Vanerschot, empathy works in three ways. Firstly, an
empathic climate created by a therapist serves to foster self-acceptance and trust by the
client through the experience of being understood and accepted by another. This works to
counteract her lack of positive self-regard.
Secondly, as discussed previously, the concrete empathic responses (e.g.
reflecting a feeling) made by a therapist serve to enhance and facilitate a client’s
experiencing, by assisting her to move further into his organismic experiencing. Such
responses may relate to aspects of a client’s experience that are at the very edge
(Gendlin, 1981) of her conscious awareness (i.e. poorly denied or distorted) and hence
involve the therapist using responses such as exploratory questions (e.g. “I wonder if
there is something else other than anger in how you feel at the moment”), empathic
guesses (“ I guess you must feel pretty sad that she has left you”) and experiential
responses (e.g. “ I don’t know why but I feel very tearful when you speak about your
father”). Such responses are often termed ‘deep’ or ‘advanced’ empathy (Mearns and
Thorne, 1988) to denote the way that they relate to an aspect of the client’s experiencing
that is not directly being addressed or acknowledged until that point.
Finally, all empathic responses to a client have a cognitive effect, assisting the
client to also re-organize the meanings of the experiences being processed. This is the
third element identified by Vanershot (1983), and is a product of assisting the client to
focus his or her attention on particular experiences, to recall information relating to an
experience or to organize information in a more differentiated and elaborative manner.
From such a perspective, the therapist may be seen as, what Wexler (1974) suggests as a
‘surrogate information processor’, whose empathic responses facilitate a process of
cognitive re-organization and re-structuring.
22.214.171.124a Unconditional positive regard.
Although empathy is seen by many as the primary, change-related dimension of person-
centered therapy, unconditional positive regard has also been proposed by some (e.g.
Bozarth, 1998, Wilkins, 2000) as the fundamental element of the relationship specified by
Rogers (1957). In contrast to the long history enjoyed by empathy as part of Rogers’
approach, the concept of unconditional positive regard did not emerge until the mid-late
1950’s, having previously been referred to as acceptance, warmth, prizing and respect
(Bozath, 2002). Indeed, the terms are still often used interchangeably, although for some
(e.g. Purton, 1998) the differences in meaning between them introduces a conceptual
confusion regarding what each actually involves.
For the majority of person-cantered practitioners, unconditional positive regard,
along with the various terms equated with it, simply refers to the experiencing and
offering of a consistently accepting, non-judgmental and valuing attitude toward a client
(Lietaer, 1984). For Brazier (1993) this may best be considered as a form of non-
possessive ‘love’, a warm acceptance the client as he is in any given moment, not
judging, instructing or neglecting. The term ‘unconditional’ is thus used to denote this
quality – nothing is required of a client for her to be viewed in a positively regarding
126.96.36.199b The role of unconditional positive regard in facilitating therapeutic change.
Unconditional positive regard works, as part of the therapeutic relationship, by
diminishing conditions of worth which are at the root of the incongruence between
organismic experience and the self. As conditions of worth are acquired through a
conditionally valuing relationship, unconditional positive regard is seen to stimulate the
exact opposite, a climate of unconditional acceptance and warmth. It is the very
unconditionally of this climate that promotes growth, for it enables the processes of
psychological defense to be reversed. This reversal is simply a product of the degree of
threat presented by conditions of worth being gradually eroded by the presence of an
unconditionally warm and accepting other (Rogers, 1959).
The role of unconditional positive regard is enmeshed with the processes of
empathy. In contacting denied or distorted organismic experiencing that is then
unconditionally accepted and valued by a therapist who is empathically attuned, the client
is able to feel fully accepted and thus develop a greater sense of positive self-regard. As
Lietaer suggests (2001, p.105), unconditional positive regard thus produces “a high level
of safety which helps unfreeze blocked areas of experience and to allow painful emotions
in a climate of holding...self-acceptance, self-empathy and self-love are fostered”. When
these are empathically received, the client is able to re-configure his or her self-concept to
encompass greater levels of organismic experiencing, thus reducing the incongruence at
the root of her distress
Congruence thus refers to the therapist’s capacity to be aware of the full extent of her own
organismic experiencing (unlike the client who is still incongruent). Although the term
congruence was used interchangeably with other adjectives such as authentic and
genuine. Rogers regarded the requirement for the therapist to be attuned to actual self as
the most fundamental of all the three core conditions (Rogers and Sanford, 1984). He saw
no role for professional façade nor the impersonal relating often associated with a lack of
self-development (or incongruence) on behalf of the therapist.
By contrast, the client within such a relationship is incongruent ('the client, is in a
state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious', (Rogers, 1957). He thus defined
congruence in therapy as meaning; “that the therapist is his actual self during his
encounter with his client. Without facade, he openly has the feelings and attitudes that are
flowing in him at the moment. This involves self-awareness; that is, the therapist’s
feelings are available to him – to his awareness – and he is able to live them, to
experience them, in the relationship, and to communicate them if they persist” (Rogers,
188.8.131.52b The role of congruence in facilitating therapeutic change.
For Rogers, congruence was the most important therapist conditions due to the way that it
under pins the experiencing of unconditional positive regard and empathy. Without
congruent awareness of his own organismic experiencing, it is highly likely that a
therapist’s own experiences in relation to a client will be influenced his own
incongruence, and thus conditions of worth.
This will inhibit his experiencing and communication of both empathy and
unconditional positive regard in ways such as, a) his failure to recognize (and thus
empathize with) a personally denied emotion that is seeing expressed by a client, b) his
reaction (e.g. anger) to a client which is distorted into another feeling (such as
excitement), and c) his judgmental feelings about aspects of a client’s experiences (such
as racist assumptions) due to his own conditions of worth regarding race.
By not being fully aware of his own organismic experiencing, the incongruent
counsellor potentially makes life very difficult for herself and her client. This, for Mearns
and Thorne (1988), highlights the importance of counsellor self-acceptance, for the more
fully a practitioner can accept himself, the fewer conditions of worth that will inhibit the
empathy and conditional positive regard he experiences in relation to his clients.
Certainly, a counsellor who is highly congruent and self-accepting appears to
practice what she preaches and her words and actions match up. Incongruence (or a lack
of self- acceptance) has a different flavor, often manifesting in an inconsistency between
what is being said and what is being expressed in other ways (e.g. tone, gesture, posture
etc.). The reason for this is that the counsellor is, essentially, not fully aware of some of
her own reactions (e.g. anger) which are being felt at an organismic level.
These reactions cannot necessarily be hidden from others can therefore be seen in
unanticipated ways (Grafanaki, 2001) indicating, directly or otherwise to the client, that
what is being said is not the whole picture. Such inconsistencies can have a considerable
impact on a client’s trust for the counsellor, potentially inhibiting a clients’ preparedness
to experience her therapist’s empathy and unconditional positive regard as fully as she
may. In such circumstances the counsellor may not be seen as sufficiently trustworthy for
her empathy and unconditional positive regard to be received.
In summary of this chapter, there are the various regarding of research conducted about
the self-concept by the researchers before. They all have been argued that, they had
various theoretical, perspective, the exactly meaning and many more views and research
about the self-concept that have been done previously. In clearly, an explanation of the
self-concept is a very broad field on his debate and an explanation about the self-concept
and needed still many more to learn regarding on it. Theoretically, the level of human
self-concept is the same for someone predetermined level on self-concept, that is low-
level, medium level and high level of self-concept level.
As a person, the self-concept is a very important in shaping and developing the
identity, personality and credibility for the person to be someone who is very useful to
himself and to benefits to other people. So it is clearly that the self-concept we must still
need much more too learned and shaping by a person itself. So that we can achieving our
goals targeted previously and getting a real success in our life on the future.
Regarding on this chapter, it discussed about method and procedures that included the
research design, location of the research, the research instrument, and the population of
the research, about the scoring system, the data analysis and the discussions include in
this chapter. Furthermore, the researcher describes the variables and the data collection
procedures when conducting the research. Finally, all the data was analyzed according to
the procedure outline in this chapter.
3.2 Research Design.
On this research, it was used the method in experimental as research design. It contains
pre-test that is before the research conducted and the research conducted in training
program that is explorace approach to make an experiment towards to the respondent in
order to measure it level of the self-concept. Lastly, it has a post-test that is after the
experiment research was conducted and all the data information about the respondent was
analyzed. The table of 3.2.1 it shows the research design conducted on this research.
Table 3.2.1: Research Design.
TSCS : 2
(TOT) Training Program
TSCS : 2
TSCS : 2
TSCS : 2
Regarding on this research, it contains two types of ways to collect the data and
information. Among these are quantitative (descriptive research type) and qualitative
research type to collect the data and make an analyzing.
In quantitative collected data, the researcher used cross-sectional survey the
Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) to collect all the data and then was
analyzed by using descriptive analysis in Statistical Package for Social Science (SSPS)
version 20. The research findings represented in the form of tables, frequencies, and
The qualitative type is when the researcher applying the experimental design in
giving the training program in explorace approach which is conducting the explorace
approach in order to collect all the data and analyzed in the form of information using
quantitative research type about the respondents. Another qualitative data, the researcher
make an interview with the facilitator about the participation of the respondent after the
training program was conducted.
After the researcher made the experimental activity that is training program in
explorace approach. The researcher collect all the data and make an analyzing to the
respondents in terms of the importance on how to enhance the level of the self-concept. In
the training program, it concluded and to investigate how far their awareness to the level
of self-concept among of the selected respondent by using the techniques of the specific
The quantitative type is the researcher distributes the Tennessee of Self-Concept
Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) to the respondents and analyzed the data in the table form. The way to
measure the value of self-concept among orphans, the researcher used the Tennessee of
Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2). and the procedure of TSCS: 2 is shown below: To
measuring the value level of the self-concept for this survey tool called TOT. It is a total
score of six small-scales of self-concept. TOT calculation is a follows.
The value of self-concept (TOT) = Physical + Moral/Ethical + Personal + Family +
Social + Academic.
Stated by A. Crossman (2013), the quantitative research is a research that uses in
numerical analysis. In essence, this approach reduces the data into numbers. The
objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories
and/ hypotheses pertaining to phenomena.
According to the scoring level for the Tennessee Self-Concept scale: 2, there are
three stages level of self-concept (TOT), and to state the stage level of the self-concept
and had a high, moderate and low level of self-concept.
Summary scores the level of self-concept (TOT) in The Tennessee
of Self-Concept Scale: 2.
Summary Scores of (TOT)
HIGH 300 – 301 and above
MODERATE 296 – 299
LOW 294 – 294 and below.
Finally, the greatest strength of quantitative research is that it produces
quantifiable, reliable data that are usually generalizable to some larger population,
quantitative analysis also allows researcher to test specific hypotheses, in contrast to
qualitative research which is more exploratory (A. Crossman, 2013).
In the population of the respondents was conducted the research among the Orphanage
House located at Hulu Klang and some of the orphans from Bakti Orphanage were
selected as the respondents in this research. This care center is comprised of among male
and female between the ages 7 years to 17 years starting from the primary level up until
to secondary school.
3.4 Research Respondent.
By way of the research sample, the researcher was selected 35 orphans as the main
respondents to complete the survey given. The researcher distributed 70 questionnaires
for orphans whereas the 35 questions was given at the beginning before training the
explorace approach and the rest of the 35 questions was given after the completion of the
activities carried out training explorace approach.
The aim on this activity is to measure the level of self-concept among this orphans
before and after giving the training in explorace approach and analyzed in enhance the
level of the self-concept among the orphans. Respondent must help the researcher in
conducting this study to provide a complete data related to the Bakti Orphanages and the
level of self-concept among them.
Stated by the Ary (1990) cited in Sidek Mohd Noah (2002), in determining sample
sizes, the most important issues are the issues regarding delegation and sufficiency.
Meanwhile, Tuckman (1978) cited in Sidek Mohd Noah (2002), said that the sample in
this research has to be maximize the sampling errors.
In this research running, the researcher used the qualitative which is handling the training
concept in the explorace approach and make an interview with the facilitator about the
participation of the respondent in the program. Also the quantitative that is distribution of
the questionnaire of the Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) and all the data
collected were key in by using the SPSS version of 20.
In the questionnaire was used in the research was the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: 2
(TSCS: 2) which has been translated by Dr. Othman Ab. Rahman year 2002. It has 82
items which comprises of positive and negative items. TSCS: 2 requires respondents to
give response according to 5 Likert scale. It had 9 domains in TSCS: 2 which are physical
self, personal self, identity self, family self, social self, self- satisfaction, moral self and
behavior self. It can be used for counseling service and diagnosis purposes.
The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2 (TSCS:2) stated by Lin, et. Al., 2005 in this
scale, developed by Fitts and Warren ( 1996 ) has 100 self-descriptive statement to be
rated on a 5- point scale which anchors 1 : Not at all to 5 : Exactly, in which the
individual describes what he or she is, does, likes and feels ( Lin, et. al.,2005 ). The scale,
based on previous studies ( Fitts and Warren, 1996; Lin et. al., 2005 ) can be used to
measure five external aspects of self-concept ( physical, social, personal, moral and
family ) and measure internal aspects ( behavior, identity and self-satisfaction ).
Data of Lin, et. al., (2005) were subjected to principal component factor analysis
and varimax rotation, resulting in six elements of self-concept and three dimensions of
overall self-concept. Lin, et. al., (2005) reported overall Cronbach’s Alpha for the
instrument was .90 and the eight subscale ranged from .72 to .90. The test-retest
reliabilities for the eight subscale were reported from .76 to .92 during a period of 2
weeks (Lin et. al., 2005). Based on the research findings, Lin et. al., (2005) suggested that
the subscales of the TSCS: 2 could be used separately in accordance with the purpose of
study. Based on the purpose of this study, psychological, family, social and action self-
concept subscale were consider to be predisposition variable. Examples of the items as
follows: “ I am likely to have a sense of my own worth “, “ I am satisfied with my family
“, “ At times, I feel somewhat isolated from my peers “ and “ Frequently, I am able to
make decision “. The test was administered to participants’ self-concept prior to the first
According to Fitts (1965), the reliability of TSCS: 2 and test-retest result was
between .60 and up to .92. Morran and Stokton found that the reliability of TSCS: 2 was
.92 while Colagelo et. al. got .80 to .92 (1980 in Sabariah Sirun, 1991). Those reliability
results found by the researchers portrayed that TSCS: 2 has a very high reliability. In
Malaysia context, several researchers had been conducted to identify the validity and
reliability of TSCS: 2. Chiam (1976; 1981) and Kamaliah Abu (1993) found .63 to .83 for
validity and .80 to .90 for reliability. Further research done by Chiam (1981) reported the
reliability of TSCS: 2 .72 to .86. Kamaliah Abu (1993) had conducted a research for
student MARA Technology Institute (ITM) and found the reliability of TSCS: 2 was .65.
From those researchers, it can be conclude that TSCS: 2 is appropriate and can be used in
Malaysian based on the good results showed above.
Table 184.108.40.206: Item scoring Positive and Negative items the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale
TSCS: 2 has a value high validity and reliability. Correlation value of measuring tools
Family Social TOTAL
Construct Number of Item
In the Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale 2. The items in the survey instrument consisted of
items positive and negative items. Distribution of positive items and negative items
according to item numbers is shown in the following table.
Scoring positive items was stated in the table below:
Category Positive Items Negative Items
TOTAL 45 37
Table 220.127.116.11: Items scoring positive and negative items Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2.
TSCS: 2 has a value high validity and rehabilitee. Correlation value of measuring
tools. TSCS: 2 to Scale Piers-Harris Self Concept is .071. Correlation value shows the
value of the concurrent validity of high gauge ( Fitts & Warren 1996 ) the reliability of
this measurement as a whole is 0 .93. The reliability value according to the construct in
this instruments is Self-Identify (0.85) Self Satisfaction (0.76) and behavioral self-
regulation (0.81). The reliability value by six small scale in this instruments also a
Physical ( 0.75 ), moral/ethical ( 0.73 ) Personal ( 0.76 ), family ( 0.79 ), social (0.73 ) and
Academic ( 0.81 ).
This construct explains about “Who am I?” which clarifies his or her self-identify as well
as his or her view toward himself or herself.
This construct provide explanations regarding one’s own feelings towards himself or
herself. Generally, it will also show one’s acceptance as well as one’s satisfaction level of
himself or herself.
Scale Score Positive Items Score Negative Items
5: Very true
3: True and Not true
2: Not true
1: Very true
3) Behavior Self
This construct consist of statements which explain one’s behavior or the way he or she
acts. It shows one’s perceptions toward his or her behavior and how does he or she
This construct shows one’s psychological stability. It portrays one’s view on his or her
strengths and weakness based on statements given by most individuals.
5) Physical Self
This construct requires an individual to give his or her views regarding his or her physical
state, health condition, face, appearance, sexuality and skills which one’s possessed.
6) Moral and Ethical Self
This construct indicates an individual’s moral and ethical conduct. It involves one’s self-
worth, relationship with God, feeling as “good people” or “bad people” as well as self-
satisfaction of one’s own religion.
7) Personal Self
This construct reflects one’s evaluation and feelings towards his or her self which
unrelated to physical states as well as one’s relationship with others. For instance, “I am
very satisfied with what I own now”.
8) Family Self
This construct reveals one’s feelings and perception towards one’s function and
importance to the family, self-evaluation of family acceptance toward one’s self in terms
of worth and meaning.
9) Social Self
This construct tells one’s own self in terms of inter-personal relationship and with society.
It reflects one’s sense of adequacy and worth in terms of social interactions with others.
The researcher distributes a set of questionnaire to each respondent. Each set of
questionnaire consist of informed consent form, demographic form and TSCS. The
respondent were given sample time to complete the questionnaire. Then, the answered of
the questionnaires was collected by the researcher to analyze and compute the data.
3.5.2 An Interview.
In this process, the interview was conducted among the facilitators who has participated
in conducting this training program. In the interviews giving a comment, the observation
and recommendations regarding any improvements which are will run again training
program back in the future.
3.5.3 Training Program (Treatment Explorace Approach).
In training this approach, the researchers was conducted the research in the form of
explorace toward against the respondent. The explorace carried out in the form of
exercise to assess and enhance the level of the self-concept among of the respondent.
In addition, the training process is conducted in form of explorace and design of
the explorace is in modules that was designed and modified by the researchers itself. The
emphasis given in this module was aims to foster an importance of cooperation between
friends besides that fostering interest in learning concept and improve the level of the
3.6 Research Locations.
The location that selected for this research is at Islamic University of Malaysia (USIM) at
Bandar Baru Nilai in Negeri Sembilan. The location where the research was running here
is very suitable in addition to having facilities and a well-equipped infrastructure. Among
the infrastructure used to carry out this research is in the lecture hall, library, student
center commercial, open space in Faculty of Economy and Muamalat, prayer hall and
other small places in this university.
3.7 Data Collection.
Table 3.7: The flow of the data was collect.
TSCS : 2
(TOT) Training Program
TSCS : 2
TSCS : 2
TSCS : 2
Firstly, using the method of experimental as the research design. The researcher
has been collected the beginner data using Tennessee of Self-Concept scale: 2 to analyze
it that is on pre-test before the treatment as shown in the table 3.7. After the researcher
has been done the training program in explolrace approach with some of the selected
respondent. The researcher was conducted again the same test as a beginner before the
treatment program was conducted toward to the respondent using same questionnaire that
is The Tennessee of Self-Concept Scale : 2 and were called as post-test.
Another ways, the researcher also was collected the data by using a set of the
questionnaire attached with a consent form as well as demographic form. Then, all the
collected data was finish answered by the respondent. The data were then analyzed by
using descriptive statistic in IBM SPSS version 20.
Moreover, also the interview sessions was conducted among the facilitators who
has participated in conducting this training program. In the interviews giving a comment,
the observation and recommendations regarding any improvements which are will run
again training program back in the future to make in addition about result from the data
that was analyzed.
3.8 Data Analysis.
The researcher making the cleaning process on the data to make sure only reliable and
complete data were analyzed. The researcher also was did a reverse values process to
recode the negative items’ scales into positive item scales by using command record into
different variables to make sure the data was correctly analyzed.
Another step, the researcher did replacing missing value process by using
command replace missing values to fill values vacancies in the data set and then the SPSS
would count automatically and replace the missing values with mean values. The part of
cleaning process of the data is a crucial part of the data analysis.
There will be error because they are inevitable. This could mean incorrect coding,
incorrect reading of written codes, and incorrect sensing of blackened marks, missing of
the data and other error. Data cleaning is the process of detecting and correcting data
coding errors (Barbie E., 2001).
The researcher was structured the methodology for this research systematically and
careful of specifically and this can be conducted properly. Beginning from designing
process, determining the population to make as a respondent, the instrument, a set of
questionnaire, scoring system, the location research was conducted, data collection, data
analysis and reporting were all done properly regarding on aim of this research.
This chapter present analyses and interprets the data have been obtained though the
administration of the Tennessee Self-concept Scale 2 (TSCS: 2) questionnaire. The
hypothesis formulated in chapter one will be tested according to the statistical analysis.
The result is organized into two sections. First is section describes the demographic
characteristics of the sample; the second is discusses reliability scores of the scale.
4.2 Descriptive Analysis.
Regarding on this research, analysis data processing was done by using SPSS
software version 20. The data obtained by using descriptive statistics, inferential statistic,
variable, correlation of relation between variables, an independent –samples T-test.
Descriptive analysis is research on demography of genders, age, education background,
standards of study, area of place and number of siblings. A t-test was carried out the
different in the level of the self-concept based on pre-test between post-test and the
gender, male between female. Whereas, analysis also using the perceptions from the
facilitator (qualitative data) to support and make a review with the quantitative data
obtained from this research.
4.2.1 Demographic Analysis Based On Genders.
The section presents the respondent’s demographic data. The information in the
demographic data genders, age, education background, standards of study, area of place
and number of siblings. Table 18.104.22.168 shown the total number of respondents were
35(n=35) which of 48.6 %.( n=17) male and 51.4 %( n=18) female.
Table 22.214.171.124: Percentage of the total respondents according to gender.
Gender Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Male 17 48.6%
Female 18 51.4%
Total 35 100%
Bar chart 126.96.36.199: Percentage of the total respondents according to gender.
4.2.2 Demographic Analysis Based On Age.
Result of table 188.8.131.52 shows for respondent of age between 12 to 23 years old. 80% were
from 12 to 15 years old, 20% were from 16 to 19 years old and 0% from 20-23years old.
The table 184.108.40.206: Percentage of the total respondent according to age.
Age (years old) frequency(f) Percentage (%)
12 to 15 28 80%
16 to 19 7 20%
20 to 23 0 0%
Total 35 100%
Bar chart 220.127.116.11: Percentage of the total respondent according to age.
4.2.3 Demographic Analysis Based On Education Background.
Table 18.104.22.168: shown the distribution of respondent according to education background.
As reported in table 3 majority of the sample had on UPSR with 77.1%, PMR only with
22.9% and another rest of education background is 0%.
Table 22.214.171.124: Percentage of respondent according to education background.
Education Background Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
UPSR 27 77.1
PMR 8 22.9
SPM 0 0
STAM/STPM 0 0
MATRIK/TAMHIDI 0 0
DIPLOMA 0 0
TOTAL 35 100
Bar Chart 126.96.36.199: Percentage of respondent according to education background.
4.2.4 Demographic Analysis Based On Standard of Study.
The table 188.8.131.52: shows the distribution of respondent according to the standards of
study. Its only 22.9% for standards 6, 25.7% is same with form 1 and form 2, 8.6% for
form 3, 17.1% for form 4 and the form 5 result is 0%.
The table 184.108.40.206: Percentage the standards of study.
Standard Of Study Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Standard 6 8 22.9
Form 1 9 25.7
TOTAL 35 100
The Bar Chart 220.127.116.11: Percentage of the standards of study.