EDEN Conference Helsinki 2005 Why e-learning has failed - and why it will succeed
overview <ul><li>•  e-learning projects that crashed and burned: why did they fail? </li></ul><ul><li>•  slow adoption of ...
Crashed and burned  <ul><li>Late 1990’s: e-learning frenzy </li></ul><ul><li>e-learning for profit; global markets </li></...
Crashed and burned <ul><li>•  for-profit spin-off degree programs:  New York University Online, Temple, E-Cornell, Open Un...
Why did they fail? <ul><li>ethical and credibility issues </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Universitas 21 Global </li></ul><ul><li>•...
Why did they fail? <ul><li>•  bad business plans:  KPMG, PriceWaterhouse </li></ul><ul><li>•  over-estimated market for no...
E-learning and distance education:  public sector (2003) <ul><li>Public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Print + broadcasting: 5.0...
Slow public sector development <ul><li>10 years since first web-based courses but: </li></ul><ul><li>•  12 per cent of DE ...
Why so slow? <ul><li>(in increasing order of importance) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Access </li></ul><ul><li>2. Need to change p...
Consequences <ul><li>•  some conventional universities have moved faster </li></ul><ul><li>• e-learning seen as different ...
Problems with e-learning <ul><li>• access IS still an issue in many countries/for some target groups;  </li></ul><ul><li>•...
Concerns about cost-effectiveness (from Bates, 2005) Cost per student study hour No. of students per course per year Print...
Costs of print vs online No. of students per course per year Cost per student study hour TV 30 125 625 1250 3000 $2.0 $4.0...
Economics of technology-based teaching No. of students per course (over 5 years) Cost per student Print Face-to-face Fully...
Why e-learning will succeed: it can meet the needs of a knowledge-based society <ul><li>Knowledge-based society : work and...
Advantages of e-learning <ul><li>•  new teaching methods : from information transmission to knowledge construction  </li><...
Selective use of e-learning <ul><li>Two key parameters: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners:   </li></ul><ul><li>novice vs experien...
Importance of distance education and e-learning for lifelong learners <ul><li>•  lifelong learners need delivery to work o...
Lifelong learners have different needs <ul><li>•  delivery to work or home </li></ul><ul><li>•  just-in-time </li></ul><ul...
why conventional universities need to pay attention to lifelong learning <ul><li>•  universities overwhelmed by high schoo...
e-Learning can be profitable <ul><li>Profit in niche markets , e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Phoenix Online:  26,00...
Conclusions <ul><li>•  e-learning must be used strategically </li></ul><ul><li>•  lifelong learners major new market essen...
References <ul><li>Bates, A. 2005  Technology, e-learning and distance education  London: Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Pete...
What is e-learning? <ul><li>face-to-face </li></ul>no e-learning fully e-learning class-room aids mixed mode  (less face-t...
Choosing technology: ACTIONS model <ul><li>A  ccess </li></ul><ul><li>C  ost </li></ul><ul><li>T  eaching requirements </l...
Changing technologies <ul><li>1. re-usable content (learning objects)  </li></ul><ul><li>2. social software (wikis, blogs)...
Advantages of e-learning <ul><li>•  direct interaction between teacher and learner </li></ul><ul><li>•  faster feedback </...
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Why e-learning has failed - and why it will succeed

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Tony Bates, EDEN Annual Conference, 2005, Helsinki

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Why e-learning has failed - and why it will succeed

  1. 1. EDEN Conference Helsinki 2005 Why e-learning has failed - and why it will succeed
  2. 2. overview <ul><li>• e-learning projects that crashed and burned: why did they fail? </li></ul><ul><li>• slow adoption of e-learning in distance education </li></ul><ul><li>• key problems with e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>• cost-effectiveness of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>• need for strategic use and focus </li></ul><ul><li>• why it will succeed </li></ul>
  3. 3. Crashed and burned <ul><li>Late 1990’s: e-learning frenzy </li></ul><ul><li>e-learning for profit; global markets </li></ul><ul><li>Merrill Lynch: Moe and Blodgett </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco CEO: ‘e-learning next killer application’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Crashed and burned <ul><li>• for-profit spin-off degree programs: New York University Online, Temple, E-Cornell, Open University of United States </li></ul><ul><li>• for-profit consortia: Cardean, Fathom, Global University Alliance, Universitas21 </li></ul><ul><li>• UK e-university </li></ul><ul><li>US$20 million lost on average; $100 million by UK e-University </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why did they fail? <ul><li>ethical and credibility issues </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Universitas 21 Global </li></ul><ul><li>• degree transcripts have logos of all 19 universities </li></ul><ul><li>• Thomson chooses authors </li></ul><ul><li>• self-accreditation (U21 Pedagogica) </li></ul><ul><li>• U21 Global degree not recognized by member institutions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why did they fail? <ul><li>• bad business plans: KPMG, PriceWaterhouse </li></ul><ul><li>• over-estimated market for non-credit </li></ul><ul><li>• under-estimated costs: product not process; mass production model; learner support under-estimated </li></ul><ul><li>• ignored expertise of ‘traditional’ DE </li></ul><ul><li>• ‘ quarantined’ tenured faculty </li></ul>
  7. 7. E-learning and distance education: public sector (2003) <ul><li>Public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Print + broadcasting: 5.0 million </li></ul><ul><li>Fully online: 0.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 5.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>E-learners on campus: 3-4 million </li></ul><ul><li>Private e-learners: 3.4 million </li></ul><ul><li>Private distance 4.0 million </li></ul>
  8. 8. Slow public sector development <ul><li>10 years since first web-based courses but: </li></ul><ul><li>• 12 per cent of DE fully online; most ‘web-supplemented’ </li></ul><ul><li>• only one public university fully online </li></ul><ul><li>• UK Open University: 2003, 17 courses out of 500 fully online </li></ul><ul><li>• >70% of all fully online courses in private sector </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why so slow? <ul><li>(in increasing order of importance) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Access </li></ul><ul><li>2. Need to change pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lack of specialists </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lower economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lack of business planning/CBA </li></ul><ul><li>6. Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>7. Leadership + institutional inertia </li></ul>
  10. 10. Consequences <ul><li>• some conventional universities have moved faster </li></ul><ul><li>• e-learning seen as different from DE; DE a sub-set of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>• e-learning about competitiveness and profit, not access </li></ul><ul><li>• govts. see DTUs as obsolete </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problems with e-learning <ul><li>• access IS still an issue in many countries/for some target groups; </li></ul><ul><li>• economies of scale still important </li></ul><ul><li>• quality is an issue; can learn from DE </li></ul><ul><li>• e-learning requires major structural changes in conventional universities </li></ul><ul><li>• DE students have special needs not well served by campus institutions </li></ul><ul><li>• technology constantly changing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concerns about cost-effectiveness (from Bates, 2005) Cost per student study hour No. of students per course per year Print TV Radio Online 30 125 625 1250 3000 $5 $10 $15 $20
  13. 13. Costs of print vs online No. of students per course per year Cost per student study hour TV 30 125 625 1250 3000 $2.0 $4.0 $6.0 $8.0 $10.0 Online OU print DM print For 3,000 Online: $2.18 DM print: $1.37 OU print: $0.65 Difference over 5 years: $750,000
  14. 14. Economics of technology-based teaching No. of students per course (over 5 years) Cost per student Print Face-to-face Fully online 20 100 200 2000 Web supplemented Instructor/student: 1:30 Mixed mode
  15. 15. Why e-learning will succeed: it can meet the needs of a knowledge-based society <ul><li>Knowledge-based society : work and life dependent on information and knowledge, e.g. financial services, computing, entertainment, health, education </li></ul><ul><li>• industries dependent on finding, analyzing, applying information </li></ul><ul><li>• knowledge-base constantly changing </li></ul><ul><li>• workers need to be lifelong learners </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantages of e-learning <ul><li>• new teaching methods : from information transmission to knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving, collaborative learning, information management </li></ul><ul><li>• resulting in learning how to learn (after university) </li></ul><ul><li>• but not always used this way </li></ul>
  17. 17. Selective use of e-learning <ul><li>Two key parameters: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners: </li></ul><ul><li>novice vs experienced </li></ul><ul><li>dependent vs independent </li></ul><ul><li>full-time vs part-time </li></ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Skills/competencies: </li></ul><ul><li>psycho-motor vs cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>what else? we don’t know </li></ul>
  18. 18. Importance of distance education and e-learning for lifelong learners <ul><li>• lifelong learners need delivery to work or home </li></ul><ul><li>• Internet provides access to new knowledge and research </li></ul><ul><li>• already have ‘hands-on’ skills from campus experience </li></ul><ul><li>• community of practice: lifelong learners have specialist knowledge </li></ul>
  19. 19. Lifelong learners have different needs <ul><li>• delivery to work or home </li></ul><ul><li>• just-in-time </li></ul><ul><li>• small ‘chunks’ but leading to credentials (degrees/diplomas) </li></ul><ul><li>• latest knowledge but adapted to the learner’s context </li></ul><ul><li>• sharing/testing knowledge with peers </li></ul>
  20. 20. why conventional universities need to pay attention to lifelong learning <ul><li>• universities overwhelmed by high school entrants; don’t want more students </li></ul><ul><li>• new funding model needed for lifelong learners: Self-financed programs hiring new research professors </li></ul><ul><li>• lifelong learners previously subsidized, earning good money, able and willing to pay full cost </li></ul>
  21. 21. e-Learning can be profitable <ul><li>Profit in niche markets , e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Phoenix Online: 26,000 students, vocational </li></ul><ul><li>corporate e-learning: e.g. SkillSoft: $250 million per annum </li></ul><ul><li>MBAs (Queens, Athabasca) </li></ul><ul><li>UBC Master in Educational Technology </li></ul><ul><li>UOC Master in e-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>but who pays for under-educated? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>• e-learning must be used strategically </li></ul><ul><li>• lifelong learners major new market essential for economic development </li></ul><ul><li>• major changes needed in both conventional and distance institutions </li></ul><ul><li>• but e-learning will succeed because it develops skills needed in knowledge-based societies </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Bates, A. 2005 Technology, e-learning and distance education London: Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Peters, O. 2003 Distance Education in Transition Oldenburg: Univ. of Oldenburg </li></ul><ul><li>Bates, A. and Poole, G. 2003 Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is e-learning? <ul><li>face-to-face </li></ul>no e-learning fully e-learning class-room aids mixed mode (less face-to-face + e-learning) dis-tance edu-cation distributed learning blended learning lap-top pro-grams
  25. 25. Choosing technology: ACTIONS model <ul><li>A ccess </li></ul><ul><li>C ost </li></ul><ul><li>T eaching requirements </li></ul><ul><li>I nteraction </li></ul><ul><li>O rganization </li></ul><ul><li>N ovelty </li></ul><ul><li>S peed </li></ul>
  26. 26. Changing technologies <ul><li>1. re-usable content (learning objects) </li></ul><ul><li>2. social software (wikis, blogs) </li></ul><ul><li>3. e-portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>4. synchronous: web conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>5. student tools to create/manage own web work </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to build stable, quality controlled, ‘managed’ systems </li></ul>
  27. 27. Advantages of e-learning <ul><li>• direct interaction between teacher and learner </li></ul><ul><li>• faster feedback </li></ul><ul><li>• skills/competencies needed in a knowledge-based society: information management; knowledge construction; independent learning </li></ul><ul><li>• economies of scope </li></ul>

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