The Challenge of Quality in Peer-produced e-Learning Content


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The Challenge of Quality in Peer-produced e-Learning Content

  1. 1. The challenge of quality in peer-produced eLearning content Ari-Matti Auvinen HCI Productions Oy
  2. 2. Quality work of peer production • European QMPP project (Quality Management of Peer Production of eLearning) – also four real-life pilots of peer production • research work also in related fields – peer collaboration in health care – peer production of field-based maintenance documentation
  3. 3. The power of peer production • ordinary users are entering the nucleus of digital content production • modern success stories include e.g. – development work of Linux – Wikipedia –, Amazon and other peer review actions – Eureka project (at Xerox)
  4. 4. What is peer production? • digital content created, edited, enriched by peers (other people on the ”same hierarchical level”) – YouTube, Facebook, blogs, flickr, etc. • peer production already now included in eLearning many forms – eLearning courses produced by peers and peer groups, teamworks etc.
  5. 5. What is user-generated content? • peer production has similar features and qualities as UCG - by the OECD definition it is – content is made “publicly available” over the Internet – it reflects a “certain amount of creative effort” – it is “created outside of professional routines and practices”
  6. 6. What motivates peer production? • peer recognition – ”hacker ethics” • collective joy of sharing – ”dancing in the street” • collaborative joint actions – ”wisdom of crowds” • rewarding – might be secondary in motivation
  7. 7. The challenge • the very nature of peer production is its free flow of creativity and thus any formal mechanism (including the quality approach) could be seen to be against the creativity factor • the quality work methodology in peer production is at its best dispersed and fragmented
  8. 8. Prosumers – also in learning • prosumers = producers + consumers • in services different steps and phases – growth of self-service (”mcdonaldisation”) – improving service by participation (”modern banking”) – participation in experience creation (”reality shows”, ”World of Warcraft”) – creating and sharing personal knowledge (”wikinomics”)
  9. 9. Co-creation of value as a business trend (I) • importance of co-creation experiences and their importance to the value creation (Prahalad and Ramaswamy) – the market is becoming a forum for conversation and interactions, and that the management and facilitation of this dialogue is the key in value creation process – the market is becoming instead of a seller-buyer- market rather the arena for co-creation of value
  10. 10. Co-creation of value as a business trend (II) • the key building blocks for the interaction between users and providers of – dialogue – access to important information and resources – risk-benefit assessment by the users – transparency of work and working methods
  11. 11. New approach to the eLearning market eLearning push Learners as target audience Market place for eLearning eLearning providers facilitating the value co-creation Learners As collaborators in value co-creation Market place as an arena for value co- creation Conventional view Value co-creation view
  12. 12. Examples of co-creation of value • Nike, Polar Electro, Nokia tracker – user community of joggers • Weight Watchers – organisation of peer group work • Web sites of various journals – user-created advices and tips • Karaoke restaurants – customers as performers
  13. 13. Scope in developing peer production KEYACTORS UTILIZATION CONTEXT INDIVIDUALS OWN USE + POTENTIAL EXTERNAL USE user-created content ONLY OWN USE INDIVUALS + PEER GROUPS peer production peer-to-peer production (individual) learning portfolios
  14. 14. Setting of objectives vs. provision of structure STRUCTURE SETTING OF OBJECTIVES FIRM LOOSE LOOSECONTROLLED peer-produced structured eLearning courses(based on analyzed and defined training needs) digital content production based on on-demand modality communities of practice various self-help groups and autonomus web groups peer-produced course works and learning resources (e.g. team works, blogs etc.) I II III IV
  15. 15. When creativity meets its limits • peer production requires also enabling and supporting structures and their effective management (quality of learning objects vs. quality of learning systems)
  16. 16. Quality cycle in wikis Enabling processes Enabling procedures Enabling tools Enabling policies Benchmarking Rating Creating Enriching Editing Updating Enabling processes Enabling procedures Enabling tools Enabling policies Benchmarking Validating CreatingEnriching Editing Updating
  17. 17. QMPP QualityScape • in peer production quality is created as interplay between peer production of digital content and peer validation processes of digital content • peers have different roles at different times – they can participate in the quality process as creators, but also as validators
  18. 18. QMPP QualityScape Peer creation Peer validation Editing Updating Enriching Benchmarking Peer reviews Peer reflections Peer learning Enabling processes Enabling tools Enabling policies Enabling policies
  19. 19. Peer creation actions (I) Peer creation (including peer authoring) creating digital learning content by authoring, editing, enriching and updating using various media Authoring (shared) authoring of texts and other digital resources; creating images, audio materials, video materials; creating content for wikis etc. Editing (shared) editing of digital content (from proof-reading to translation), creating alternative navigational routes, creating collages etc. Enriching creating additional digital content, publishing individual works and team works, sharing or learning (b)logs, adding library links, social bookmarking etc. Updating monitoring existing content, updating existing content, adding specific area content etc
  20. 20. Peer validation actions (II) Peer validation validating digital content with subject matter experts, validating content with peers, rating the validity and usability of the content etc. Benchmarking identifying of good cases and practices for comparative purposes, identifying of additional digital resources, identifying areas of lacking content etc. Peer reviews providing feedback by peers of learning goals, progress and aims within a learning community Peer reflection encouraging the reflection of learning processes by means of own experiences and sharing the reflections within the learning community or between different learning communities Peer learning joint learning also by the exchange of learning experiences and learning outcomes, such as e-portfolios
  21. 21. QMPP web resources ( • at the web site you can find the QMPP Handbook in – English – Finnish – French – German – Italian – Spanish
  22. 22. Contact information Ari-Matti Auvinen HCI Productions Oy Unioninkatu 22 FIN – 00130 HELSINKI FINLAND tel + 358 – 9 – 6124 9954 fax+ 358 – 9 – 6124 9855