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Making Connections in Distance Education: Research-based Reflections on Hybrid Classrooms - Jan Elen #eden19

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Presentation shared by author at the 2019 EDEN Annual Conference "Connecting through Educational Technology" held on 16-19 June, 2019 in Bruges, Belgium.
Find out more on #eden19 here: http://www.eden-online.org/2019_bruges/

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Making Connections in Distance Education: Research-based Reflections on Hybrid Classrooms - Jan Elen #eden19

  1. 1. Making connections in distance education Research-based reflections on hybrid classrooms Jan Elen June 18, 2019
  2. 2. Up front • Former doctoral students • Mixed feelings : • No solutions to sell • Only reflections to share • Far from exhaustive • e.g. ‘open’ education
  3. 3. Overview  The challenge  A proposed solution  Distance education research  Reticent : (DE-)research  Interested: (DE-)research  Conclusions
  4. 4. The challenge Teacher education program (60 ECTS) becomes educational ‘master’ integral track : 120 ECTS short track (after domain-specific master) : 60 ECTS Brugge Kortrijk Gent Aalst Ant- werpen Brussel Leuven Geel Diepen- beek
  5. 5. A proposed solution: hybrid classrooms
  6. 6. Distance Education (DE) research
  7. 7. Reticent: DE-research Information Kintsch, W. & Van Dyck, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85(5), 363-394.
  8. 8. Reticent: DE-research Information Text structures problem / solution comparison cause / effect Text structure strategies levels signal words Meyer, B. J. F., & Poon, L. W. (2001). Effects of structure strategy training and signaling on recall of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 141-159.
  9. 9. Reticent: DE-research Information Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  10. 10. Reticent: DE-research Information Buchem, I., Tur, G., & Hölterhof, T. (2014). Learner Control in Personal Learning Environments: A CrossCultural Study Journal of Literacy and Technology, 15(2), 14-53. learner – shared – system Corbalan, G., Kester, L. & van Merriënboer, J . J. G. (2006). Towards a personalized task selection model with shared instructional control. Instructional Science, 34 (5), 399-422. Gerjets P., Kirschner P. (2009). Learning from Multimedia and Hypermedia. In: Balacheff N., Ludvigsen S., de Jong T., Lazonder A., Barnes S. (eds) Technology-Enhanced Learning (pp. 251-272). Springer, Dordrecht
  11. 11. Reticent: DE-research Adjunct aids Added / Embedded Pre- Post- Level Ausubel, D. (1978). In defense of advance organizers: A reply to the critics. Review of Educational Research, 48, 251-257. Dornisch M.M. (2012). Adjunct Questions: Effects on Learning. In: Seel N.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Springer, Boston, MA
  12. 12. Reticent: DE-research Interaction Anderson, J. R. & Gluck, K. (2001). What role do cognitive architectures play in intelligent tutoring systems? In D. Klahr & S. M. Carver (Eds.) Cognition & Instruction: Twenty-five years of progress, 227–262. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Intelligent tutoring system
  13. 13. Reticent: DE-research Student learning Learning functions • Preparation • Knowledge manipulation • Higher-order relationships • Learner regulation • Productive actions Shuell, T.J. (1988). The role of the student in learning from instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 276-295.
  14. 14. Reticent: DE-research Student learning Biggs, J. (1994). Student learning research and theory: Where do we currently stand‘? In G. Gibbs (Ed.), lmproving student learning: Using research to improve student learning (pp. 1-19). England: Oxford Centre for Staff Development.
  15. 15. Reticent: DE-research Student learning Vermunt, J.D., & Verloop, N. (1999). Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 9, 257-280.
  16. 16. Reticent: DE-research Distance education • Non-automatic • Non-evident • Non-ad hoc • Difficult Lessons learned • In view of adequately supporting students’ learning there is a need for understanding (what factors affect) learning. • Supporting learning is not self-evident • learning environment needs to be designed • Need for research on learning and supporting learning • Need for design professionalization
  17. 17. Reticent: DE-research Removing the barrier may result in Less design Less deliberate decisions More teacher-centredness
  18. 18. Interested: DE-research Attrition Work-life balance Cognitive load Learning as social endeavour Differences expectations Bawa, P. (2016). Retention in online courses: Exploring issues and solutions—A literature review. SAGE Open, 6(1), 1-11.
  19. 19. Interested: DE-research Attrition Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2008). Blended Learning in HigherEducation-Framework, Principles and Guidelines. San Francisco, CA: USA. Jossey-Bass Pub., A Wiley Imprint.
  20. 20. Interested: DE-research Attrition Self-determination theory Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Publishing.
  21. 21. Interested: DE-research Limitations Technology personalisation portability access Design team Support cultural awareness
  22. 22. Interested: DE-research Socio- constructivism Learning is constructive Learning is cumulative Learning is self-regulated Learning is contextualized For learning, what matters is what the learner does. For learning in an educational setting, what matters is what the learner does AND the alignment of learner activities to educational goals
  23. 23. Interested: DE-research Instructional disobedience Not using the learning opportunities Instructional conceptions
  24. 24. Interested: DE-research Embodied cognition Multi-sensorial
  25. 25. Interested: DE-research Learning in educational setting Non self-evident Inherently complex Inherently intimidating Effortful Lessons learned • In view of adequately supporting students’ learning there is a need for understanding (what factors affect) learners • Supporting learners is not self-evident • Need for a multisensorial, orchestrated presence • Need for research on learners and supporting learners • Need for orchestration professionalization
  26. 26. Conclusions: need for balance Acknowledging complexity: no simple answers Need to consider learning AND learners Safeguard thoughtfulness: design learning environments Embrace learners: orchestrate presence
  27. 27. Conclusions: a balanced process model Analyse • Learning goals • Learners • Context Design learning environment • Learning tasks • Support (information and scaffolds)
  28. 28. Compose blend • Learning goals: what type of interaction is needed • Learners: who (for what reasons) requires synchronous, on-line • Learners: who (for what reasons) requires synchronous, F2F • Context: what is possible Orchestrate • Learners • Technical affordances Implement • Designed learning environment • Orchestrated learning environment
  29. 29. Conclusions: a paradox Research on distance education calls for research on the need for opportunities for physical contact in education • For what learning of what learners is interaction needed and why? • For what learning of what learners is synchronous interaction needed and why? • For what learning of what learners is synchronous multisensorial interaction needed and why? • For what learning of what learners is what combination of synchronous multisensorial interaction needed and why? • Auditory • Visual • Tactile • Olfactory • Taste
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention and do not stop to dream to travel to the moon
  31. 31. Have you registered yet? 1. SURF to www.aq-at-eden.com 2. TEST your knowledge of the 28th EDEN Annual Conference 3. VIEW the scores at the Televic Education exhibit space

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