ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education: Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education: Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs

    1. 1. Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan <ul><li>ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education: </li></ul><ul><li>Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs </li></ul>A keynote speech Fifth EDEN Research Workshop Organized by EDEN in collaboration with CNED & UNESCO 20-22 OCTOBER, 2008 Paris, France
    2. 2. I nternational C hristian U niversity Tokyo, Japan Liberal Arts College About 3,000 students from 40 countries 158 full-time faculty Accredited by MOE (Japan) and the American Academy for Liberal Education (AALE, USA) Blended learning
    3. 3. My experiences <ul><li>Korea National Open University </li></ul><ul><li>Ewha Woman’s University, Multimedia Education Institution </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Education/E-learning field/ICT use – UNESCO, WB, APEC consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Research –policy, quality assurance, evaluation, instructional design, Asian distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching – instructional design, distance education, e-learning research, media literacy </li></ul><ul><li>http:// epiaget.com (homepage) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Latchem, C. & Jung, I.S. (2009). Distance and blended learning: Opening up Asian education and training. New York & London: Routledge (Distance Education Series). </li></ul>
    5. 5. Today’s Presentation <ul><li>ICT integration in Distance Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent breakthroughs </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>1. Technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological changes </li></ul><ul><li>Social, behavioral changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in learning paradigm </li></ul>Why ICT integration in DE? ICT Integration E-learning
    7. 7. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.weboma.com/internetic-world-in-the-year-2015/
    8. 8. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
    9. 9. 1. Technology development <ul><ul><li>Internet users (Least developed countries) </li></ul></ul>Why ICT integration in DE? Countries Internet Users    Dec/2000 Angola    30,000 100,000 233% Benin    16,000 150,000 900% Afghanistan 1,000 580,000 57,900% Cambodia   6,000 70,000 1,066% Internet Users Latest Data Internet Users Latest Data Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
    10. 10. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/index.html
    11. 11. 2. Psychological changes Why ICT integration in DE? <ul><li>Computers aren’t new technology anymore. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is better than TV </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is no longer real - more than one identity </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking, a way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Typing is preferred to handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Web, indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>Zero tolerance for delays </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer and creator are blurring </li></ul><ul><li>Network-enabled mobile phones become necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Sources - Oblinger, 2002; Jung, 2003 </li></ul>
    12. 12. 3. Social, behavioral changes Why ICT integration in DE? <ul><li>Teens </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 90% Use the Internet for new information </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 70% use instant messaging to keep in touch </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 50% contact strangers on the net </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 40% post own information online to be contacted </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 30% experienced cyberbullying </li></ul><ul><li>Overall </li></ul><ul><li>- 25% of retail stock trades on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 90% Internet users, online shopping </li></ul><ul><li>(Korea, UK, Germany, Japan, US) </li></ul><ul><li>- 87% of print journalists connected to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Sources - Lenhart, Simon & Graziano, 2001; Jung, 2003; 2007 Pew/Internet research; 2008 Nielsen </li></ul>
    13. 13. 4. Changes in learning paradigm Why ICT integration in DE? Formal Schooling Lifelong Learning Society Fact/Information/ Answers Knowledge/Wisdom/ Solutions Teacher-centered Learner-centered ICT adoption ; E-learning development Singapore: Thinking School, Learning Nation Korea: Edutopia Germany: Lifelong education for everyone
    14. 14. 3) Ubiquitous access 2) Quality improvement 1) Pedagogical innovation 4) High market value Promises
    15. 15. 1) Pedagogical innovation From teacher-centered to learner-centered “ A truly learner-centered approach to education will be realized.” “The teacher will facilitate learning. ” Social constructivistic learning environment “ Learning would be engaged in authentic tasks or real world problem solving situations.” “New knowledge will be constructed collaboratively.” Global learning community building “ Learning communities will be formed to create knowledge.” Full of multimedia resources (Bates, 1995; 2005; Harasim, 1993; Khan, 1997; Zemsky & Massy, 2004)
    16. 16. Improved teaching quality “ Application of learner-centered instructional design; best teaching practices” “ Better adaptation to individual needs.” “ Better management of learning processes.” Improved learning effectiveness “ Communication will be improved.” “ Students will be more actively engaged in learning.” “ Higher level skills will be acquired.” Improved support “ 24/7, individualized support.” “ Added values - ICT skill improvement, collaboration, efficiency….” 2) Quality improvement
    17. 17. Ubiquitous access “ People would be able to learn anywhere, any time.” Expanded learning opportunities “ There will be a boom in adult education.” “ Lifelong society will be realized.” Bridging the Gap “ Quality education will be delivered to remote areas, underdeveloped regions” “ ICT can lessen the gender gap in education.” “ E-learning will bring about educational equity.” 3) Ubiquitous access
    18. 18. Improved cost-efficiency “ It is a cost-efficient approach to education.” “ Economies of scale will be achieved.” Revenue-generating; profit-making potentials “ E-learning market opportunity will grow drastically.” “ It would generate revenue for an organization.” “ There is a global market for e-learning.” 4) High market value
    19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mega Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From 10 (1996) to over 20 Mega Universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-border DE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Australia, UK, USA, and Canada (Exporting Countries) - China, India, Malaysia and Singapore (Importing Countries in Asia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indira Gandhi National Open University - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Doha, Kuwait and Sultanate of Oman, Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles, Vietnam, Myanmar and Singapore </li></ul></ul></ul>Realities – Access Daniel, 2003; Jung & Latchem, 2007
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Rise of Virtual Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jones International University , University of Phoenix Online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U2 1Global, Cardean University, Global University Alliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open University of Catalonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish Virtual University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual University of Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syrian Virtual University, Arab Open University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico’s ITESM Virtual University by Tecnológico de Monterr ey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master’s degrees and doctorate programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico, other Latin countries, USA and Canada </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from 29,887 in 1999 to 85,000 in 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Korea’s 17 Virtual Universities since 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undergraduate, totally online </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from 6,220 in 2001 to 23,550 in 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Realities – Access Studies in the Context of the E-learning Initiative: Virtual Models of European Universities http://www.elearningeuropa.info/extras/pdf/virtual_models.pdf
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>E-learning in Conventional Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>68 e-colleges in China ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 80 % universities in USA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe (UK, Spain, Finland, France, Germany and more), Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consortia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden Net University ; Le Campus Numérique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand Cyber University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For-Profit DE Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global - Thomson Learning (U21Global), Apollo International (India & China) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local - Kenichi Omae Graduate School of Business in Japan ; Online cram school industries </li></ul></ul></ul>Realities – Access
    22. 22. <ul><li>Overall, </li></ul><ul><li>Most e-education has taken place within national borders. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>- within country; between countries </li></ul><ul><li>- Gender gap; Generation gap </li></ul><ul><li>3) Lack of Regulatory Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality issues ; Mutual Recognition issues </li></ul>Realities – Access
    23. 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level of mutual support among students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater dialogue when shared perspectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of community and lower attrition rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when support interactivity, reflection, and sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when careful instructional design applied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by doing; e-moderating </li></ul></ul></ul>Realities - Pedagogy Bakardjieva and Harasim, 1999; Bonk, 2002; Harnishfeger, 2003 ; Jung, 2008; Salomon, 2002; Shank, 2001; many others
    24. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Innovative teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Microsoft Innovative Teachers Network http:// www.innovativeteachers.com / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- UNESCO ICT in Education Awards http:// www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id =6359 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Case-based, project-based, resource-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Case-based e-learning group Univ of Georgia http:// projects.coe.uga.edu/cbel / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Competency-based/story-based e-learning program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Kumamoto University in Japan http://www.gsis.kumamoto-u.ac.jp / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Simulations/virtual lab experiments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Virtual Tel-Aviv University http://virtual2002.tau.ac.il/NewLoginFrames.asp?TopLang=1&lang=1 </li></ul></ul></ul>Realities - Pedagogy Nachmias, Ram, & Mioduser, 2006; Suzuki, 2006
    25. 25. Realities - Pedagogy <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underperformed/failed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-honored instructional model prevails </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still teacher-centered – Focus on information dissemination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text-based, online versions of lectures, textbooks and notes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70% providing BBS, but not integrated, closed, meaningless.. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal learning style, not accommodated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited interaction due to lack of interaction design skills, faculty overload, cultural/personal factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Latchem & Jung, 2009
    26. 26. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contrasting findings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable responses – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ motivating and interesting” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative responses – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ impersonal, isolating and frustrating” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved learning gains – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ full of resources, sharing ideas” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not substantial changes – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ instructional models are same” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Realities – Quality improvement Latchem & Jung, 2009
    27. 27. <ul><li>Some politicians and media complain of ‘declining educational standards’ and attribute these to the new ideologies and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>In an era of globalization and competition for strategic gains and resources, even the longest-established and most successful institutions must safeguard their positions through continuous improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>DE providers and advocates of ICT integration need to sell the story of their successes. </li></ul>QA Concerns Emerged Realities – Quality improvement Jung & Latchem, 2007
    28. 28. Realities – High market value Success stories 1) University of Pheonix Online Campus 2) University of Maryland University College 3) Canada’s Athabasca Univ. Online MBA 4) Online testing services (SAT; TOEFL) 5) Online cram schools (Megastudy, Korea) 6) Some MBA programs --- Owe more to past market success/brand image than to ICT integration Zemsky & Massy, 2004; Latchem & Jung, 2009
    29. 29. Realities – High market value Underperformed/failed 1) Fathom and NYU online gone 2) UK e-University failed 3) Not enough students in most programs --- Some generating revenue; but not making profit Garrett, 2004; Zemsky & Massy, 2004
    30. 30. Realities – High market value <ul><li>Underperformed/failed </li></ul><ul><li>Over-estimate the market potential and under-estimate the educational and logistical challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the realities of ICT infrastructure, access and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Over-estimate learner readiness for e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Embark on large-scale online learning programs and projects without initial try-outs </li></ul><ul><li>Be insensitive or slow in responding to customers’ expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Not obtain accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Not meet the quality expectations of learners, particularly in regard to learner support </li></ul><ul><li>Not provide incentives for continuous private sector involvement in the partnerships </li></ul>Latchem & Jung, 2009
    31. 31. Over a decade experience - Learned from successes and failures - Now….
    32. 32. Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research) Starting small and strategically Diversifying partnerships Blended approaches M-learning Quality assurance and accreditation Recent breakthroughs
    33. 33. Recent breakthroughs <ul><li>Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research – cultural, contextual considerations) Commonwealth of Learning http:// col.org Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia http:// www.cemca.org EuroPACE http:// www.europace.org UNESCO Bangkok ICT in Education http:// www.unescobkk.org UNESCO Asia Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL http://asiapacific-odl.oum.edu.my </li></ul><ul><li>e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning http:// asem.knou.ac.kr </li></ul>
    34. 34. Recent breakthroughs <ul><li>Cataloguing lessons learned (Online journals) </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Journal of Distance Education http:// www.asianjde.org / </li></ul><ul><li>European Journal of OD & E-learning </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.eurodl.org </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Journal of Open Learning http://www.ignou.ac.in/IJOL/Link%201a.htm </li></ul><ul><li>International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT, http:// ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//index.php </li></ul><ul><li>The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:// www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl </li></ul><ul><li>The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education http:// tojde.anadolu.edu.tr / </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Starting small and strategically ICT/e-Learning as a strategic and reform tool - “Authentic learning” Student Olympic Magazine (Schools in UK, Hong Kong & China) http:// clc.esf.edu.hk/GroupHomepage.asp?GroupID =37650 Start with one department/program - Kumamoto Univ. Japan – Graduate Program Instructional Systems Need-based programs only – MBA; Education; Health-related; ICT </li></ul>Recent breakthroughs
    36. 36. <ul><li>Diversifying partnerships Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) and UKOU Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration and Public Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and Wawasan Open University in Malaysia Saudi Arabia ’s National Centre for E-Learning and Distance Education -- Open University of Malaysia Arab Open University (AOU) and UKOU Schools in Nepal & New Zealand: LearnZ --- strategic; one-to-one; one-to-few; regional partnerships </li></ul>Recent breakthroughs
    37. 37. <ul><li>Blended approaches Blending online and F2F education - Indira Gandhi National Open University Virtual Campus - Open University of Malaysia MEd program - Anadolu Univ. English Language Teaching Program - Blended Tutoring Blending old and new technologies - Print & Broadcast programs and M-learning - Conventional DE programs and synchronous technologies (Skype, e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis) </li></ul>Recent breakthroughs
    38. 38. <ul><li>M-learning Asia - one billion of the world’s 2.7 billion mobile users Cambodia - the first country to have more mobile phone than fixed line subscribers ; has the world’s highest ratio of telephone users using wireless University of the Philippines Open University Shanghai Jiaotong University , China Kanebo Cosmetics , Japan City University of Hong Kong --- Bypassing online learning </li></ul>Recent breakthroughs
    39. 39. <ul><li>Quality assurance and accreditation Cast study and Surveys – QA in DE/E-learning institutions in the AP region (2004 - 2007) 2009 – quality from learner perspective Discussions / Research evolving From Quality vs Access to Access through Quality Quality culture spread QA system development – early stage - QA/accreditation guidelines for DE/ICT use - QA approaches emerging </li></ul>Recent breakthroughs
    40. 40. <ul><li>QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE </li></ul><ul><li>India, </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Education Council </li></ul><ul><li>“ Handbook of ODL” </li></ul><ul><li>US, </li></ul><ul><li>Commission of Institutions of Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>“ Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs” </li></ul><ul><li>UK, </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>“ Distance Learning Guidelines” </li></ul>Quality, QA & Accreditation
    41. 41. <ul><li>QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE </li></ul><ul><li>European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area” </li></ul><ul><li>EADL’s Quality Standards and Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO/Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN) </li></ul><ul><li>“ O pen and Distance Learning Knowledge Base” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Education” </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of Distance Education Organizations of South Africa (NADEOSA) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality Criteria for Distance Education in South Africa” </li></ul>Quality, QA & Accreditation
    42. 42. Five Approaches (not mutually exclusive) <ul><li>conforming to the standards applied to conventional education </li></ul><ul><li>fitness for purpose </li></ul><ul><li>meeting customers ’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>compliance with international standards and requirements </li></ul>Quality, QA & Accreditation
    43. 43. 1. QA as conforming to the standards applied to c onventional education <ul><li>Same criteria and standards are applied in judging the quality of ODL and conventional institutions’ management, teaching, resources and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>China, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong </li></ul>
    44. 44. 2. QA as fitness for purpose <ul><li>Quality is measured by how well institutions, programs or services fulfill their intended purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>- India, Korea and Turkey </li></ul>
    45. 45. 3. QA as Meeting Customers’ Needs <ul><li>The institutional mission statements, policies and procedures focus on the learners ’ characteristics, needs and circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>- ISO9001 ( UT , OUM , some Korean Cyber Univ.) </li></ul>
    46. 46. 4. QA as continuous improvement <ul><li>The emphasis shifts to input, implementation, output and back to input. </li></ul><ul><li>- UT, OUUK </li></ul>
    47. 47. 5. QA as Compliance with international standards and requirements <ul><li>give students greater confidence in the courses and awards and enable their studies to be recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Athabasca and USQ from USA </li></ul><ul><li>UT (ICDE) </li></ul><ul><li>UNISA (USA) </li></ul>
    48. 48. Three guiding stars for integrating ICT and QA system in ODEL to supporting ubiquitous access Conclusions
    49. 49. #1. QA as an essential tool QA as an essential tool for educational development and ubiquitous access to ODEL There should be no distinction between QA in ODEL and conventional education , but there should be specific guidelines, criteria and methods for judging the various modes of delivery. The national level QA for ODEL/ICT use should be as strong as (not softer than) that of higher education. There should be a ‘culture of quality’ that is shared willingly by all managers and staff, links internal and external accountability, builds capacities in QA and involves open, transparent management and communication.
    50. 50. #2. Promoting research Research is essential for improving understanding and practice, assuring and improving quality, informing and influencing policy-making and ensuring that ODEL is recognized as scholarly activity in its own right.
    51. 51. #3. Changes in practice ODEL environments need to be conceived such that the technology does not simply provide an information repository but serves as a platform for student-centered, teacher-facilitated and collaborative knowledge building . The instructional design (ID) needs to fully exploit the potential of ICT. There is also need for ID models for constructivistic learning environment design.
    52. 52. Thank you!