Research Questions and Analytical Methods in Business/Organizational Research
Research Questions 1Research Questions and Analytical Methods in Business/Organizational Research by Edgardo Donovan RES 601 – Dr. Roger Rensvold Module 3 – Case Analysis Monday, August 18, 2008
Research Questions 2 Research Questions and Analytical Methods in Business/Organizational Research Good data analysis does not assume data types A number of authors have noted that in data analysis, “Things are seldom what they seem.” For example, Joiner (1981) noted examples in which data that appear to have one type in fact hide other information (“lurking variables” in his terminology). LELAND WILKINSON The American Statistician, 1993 ith few exceptions, most companies have a vested interest in being able to retain quality employees from today’s highly specialized and mobile workforce. Recruiting and training new employees is very expensive and it takes a long time to for a new employee to acquirethe organizational experience to equal the level of a veteran employee There is a desireamong companies to better understand the dynamics of job satisfaction not only becausethat leads to less turnover but also because it contributes to the enhancement ofemployees commitment to their organizations (Chen). Organizational commitmentimpacts employee retention. This is a study that can be readily absorbed by mostorganizations given its direct impact on the bottom line. Each organization attractsdifferent types of people and offers different work environments with many factors thatmay on average increase or decrease organizational commitment. What follows is a mini-meta-analysis regarding several research sources regarding organizational commitment:
Research Questions 3Article Research Questions Data Analytical TechniquesBashir, Sajid. This study examines the relationship between Longitudinal Relative strength of(2005). career opportunities, work life policies, job survey of high relationships betweenDeterminants of characteristics and organizational technology organizationalorganizational commitment of information technology (IT) employees in commitment and itscommitment. A professionals in Pakistan. The results show South Africa -- determinants wasStudy of that career opportunities and work life self-reports of examined throughInformation policies in IT professionals are significantly levels of regression analysis. TheTechnology correlated with organizational commitment, affective correlation matrixProfessionals in while job characteristics do not determine commitment, indicated that careerPakistan. their organizational commitment. continuance opportunities are Organizations will have to devise more commitment, positively and family friendly policies and provide normative significantly correlated opportunities for career development to IT commitment and with organizational professionals to induce organizational their relationship commitment of IT commitment. Strategies addressing these with work life professionals. issues are also discussed. policies, job characteristics, and career opportunitiesNie, Norman Study regarding Internet usage with Longitudinal This research possibly(2004). A extensive analysis of a large amount of survey of used regression analysispreliminary survey data collected to better assess the households , to determine negative orreport. Stanford growing social, societal, economic, and self-reports of positive correlations orInstitute for the educational applications of the Internet. social perhaps just askedQuantitative involvement, and specific questions in itsStudy of Internet automatic survey. It cannot beand Society. recording of determined due to Internet use research model design information to that degree was not divulged. The data pool was restricted to users of set top boxes bundled with InterSurvey questionnaire software thereby only reflecting the answers of a niche audience.Chen, Yi-Jen. Research in service orientation, job Longitudinal Regression analysis(2007). satisfaction, and organization commitment survey of indicated that jobRelationships suggest that service orientation is Taiwanese hotel satisfaction and serviceamong service indispensable for the successful management employees orientation wereorientation, job of the service industry. Furthermore, job ranging from positively correlated tosatisfaction, and satisfaction among employees contributes to managers with organizationalorganizational the enhancement of employees commitment international commitment. Thiscommitment in to their organizations. This study used a experience in 5 research conductedthe international questionnaire survey to investigate the or more hotels to convergent validitytourist hotel relationships among service orientation, job new employees analysis to ensure that theindustry. Journal satisfaction, and organizational commitment with at least a variances between the
Research Questions 4of American of employees who have worked at least one year of survey variables wereAcademy of year in international tourist hotels. experience. The optimal according to theBusiness. survey attempted size of the survey sample. to measure service orientation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.Dale, Kathleen. Commitment to an organization involves Longitudinal In order to ensure an(2008). three attitudes: a sense of identification survey of all full- appropriate level ofLeadership style with the organizations goals, a feeling of time employees statistical power for theand involvement in organizational duties, and of a large study the required sampleorganizational a feeling of loyalty to the organization. manufacturing was determined usingcommitment: corporation Cohen’s power analysismediating effect located in the procedure. Years ofof role stress. Midwest. The education, years in currentJournal of study attempted position, gender, age, andManagerial to measure years within theIssues. varying organization acted as indicators of control variables to the organizational overall trend that leader commitment. consideration and leader imitated structure related positively to organizational commitment.De Clercq, Dirk. In this study, we examine the role of Longitudinal Regression analysis(2007). individuals commitment in small and survey of all full- showed positiveOrganizational medium-sized firms. More specifically, it is time employees correlations betweencommitment in argued that employees will commit of a group of organizationalMexican small themselves to their firm based on their small to medium commitment and effortand medium- current work status in the firm, their size Mexican and that organizationalsized firms: the perception of the organizational climate, and firms. The study commitment was higherrole of work the firms entrepreneurial orientation. attempted to among females and olderstatus, measure varying employees.organizational indicators ofclimate, and organizationalentrepreneurial commitment.orientation.Journal of SmallBusinessManagement.Annenberg Study regarding Internet usage with Longitudinal This research possiblySchool. (2006). extensive analysis of a large amount of survey of used regression analysisA longitudinal survey data collected to better assess the households, self- to determine negative orinternational growing social, societal, economic, and reports of social positive correlations orstudy of the educational applications of the Internet. involvement, and perhaps just askedindividual and automatic specific questions in itssocial effects of recording of survey. It cannot bePC/Internet Internet use determined due totechnology. The research model design
Research Questions 5University of information to that degreeSouthern was not divulged.California.Huang, Tung- This paper provides a thorough assessment Longitudinal Correlation analysisChun. (2007). of the causal relationship between job questionnaire showed that jobThe causal satisfaction and organizational commitment submitted to a satisfaction had a positiverelationship and in relation to the controlling the sample of 3037 impact (Beta = .208, t-between job influence of personal traits and employees value = 3.2) onsatisfaction and organizational attributes. drawn from a organizationalorganizational pool of 9000 commitment and vicecommitment. Taiwanese versa (Beta = .368, t-valueAcademy of employees in the – 5.093).Management manufacturing,Journal. electric, construction, commerce, transportation, and financial service sectors. The 2005 research titled “Determinants of Organizational Commitment” published by Saiid Bashir in “A Study of Information Technology Professionals in Pakistan” examines the relationship between career opportunities, work life policies, job characteristics and organizational commitment of information technology (IT) professionals in Pakistan. Relative strength of relationships between organizational commitment and its determinants was examined through regression analysis. The correlation matrix indicated that career opportunities are positively and significantly correlated with organizational commitment of IT professionals. The results show that career opportunities and work life policies in IT professionals are significantly correlated with organizational commitment, while job characteristics do not determine their organizational commitment. Organizations will have to devise more family friendly policies and provide opportunities for career development to IT professionals to induce organizational commitment. Strategies addressing these issues are also discussed. This
Research Questions 6work does not distinguish between three types of commitment. It focuses on continuancecommitment. It examines different factors that contribute to organizational pseudo-affective commitment. It will be very difficult for this research to prove any standard levelof affective commitment due to the fact that the IT sector historically has been characterizedby dynamic hiring and firing policies that do not bode well in creating an environmentwhere affective motivation can flourish. . This trend is exacerbated during boom cycleswhen there is a shortage of qualified experienced professionals to fulfill demand drivingmore towards a continuative based retention model. The 2004 research titled “ A Preliminary Report” published by Norman Nie in the”Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Internet and Society” consisted in anextensive analysis of a large amount of survey data collected to better assess the growingsocial, societal, economic, and educational applications of the Internet. Longitudinal surveyof households, self-reports of social involvement, and automatic recording of Internet use.This research possibly used regression analysis to determine negative or positivecorrelations or perhaps just asked specific questions in its survey. It cannot be determineddue to research model design information to that degree was not divulged. The data poolwas restricted to users of set top boxes bundled with InterSurvey questionnaire softwarethereby only reflecting the answers of a niche audience. The 2007 research titled “Relationships Among Service Orientation, JobSatisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in the International Tourist Hotel Industry”published by Yi-Jen Chen in the “Journal of American Academy of Business” used aquestionnaire survey to investigate the relationships among service orientation, job
Research Questions 7satisfaction, and organizational commitment of employees who had worked at least oneyear in international tourist hotels. Regression analysis indicated that job satisfaction andservice orientation were positively correlated to organizational commitment. This researchconducted convergent validity analysis to ensure that the variances between the surveyvariables were optimal according to the size of the survey sample. Research in serviceorientation, job satisfaction, and organization commitment suggest that service orientationis indispensable for the successful management of the service industry. This research islimited to a select group of hotels and deals with an industry historically less affected bymassive boom and bust cycles such as the IT sector. The 2008 research titled “Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment:Mediating Effect of Role Stress” published by Kathleen Dale in the “Journal of ManagerialIssues” states that commitment to an organization involves three attitudes: a sense ofidentification with the organizations goals, a feeling of involvement in organizationalduties, and a feeling of loyalty to the organization. In order to ensure an appropriate level ofstatistical power for the study the required sample was determined using Cohen’s poweranalysis procedure. Years of education, years in current position, gender, age, and yearswithin the organization acted as control variables to the overall trend that leaderconsideration and leader imitated structure related positively to organizationalcommitment. This research goes into greater detail in breaking down organizationalcommitment in three distinct groups: normative, affective, and continuance. It examines therole stress has on all three. The survey is limited to a manufacturing environment. Thisresearch relates to Caykoylu’s work where an attempt at deriving a universal organizationalcommitment dynamics model is made.
Research Questions 8 The 2007 research titled “Organizational Commitment in Mexican Small andMedium-Sized Firms: the Role of Work Status, Organizational Climate, and EntrepreneurialOrientation” published by Dirk De Clerq in the “Journal of Small Business Management”examines the role of individual commitment in small and medium-sized firms. Regressionanalysis showed positive correlations between organizational commitment and effort andthat organizational commitment was higher among females and older employees. Morespecifically, it argues that employees will commit themselves to their firm based on theircurrent work status in the firm, their perception of the organizational climate, and the firmsentrepreneurial orientation. Issues of employee work status, organizational climateperception, and entrepreneurial orientation are measured and weighed against each other.This research is unique in that it deals with dynamics well know to boot-strapentrepreneurs as well as growing small companies where organizational commitment isstrongly influenced by intangibles such as a feeling of unlimited potential, risk, status, andexcitement about future prospects. Although, this ethos is sometimes cultivatedaggressively in fast growing large companies such as Microsoft and Apple Computer did intheir early years, it is a phenomenon which is difficult to effectively manage in largerorganizations where employees value predictability, stability, and long-term professionalgrowth. The 2006 research titled “A Longitudinal International Study of the Individual andSocial Effects of PC/Internet Technology” published by the Annenberg School at theUniversity of Southern California examines Internet usage with extensive analysis of a largeamount of survey data collected to better assess the growing social, societal, economic, andeducational applications of the Internet. It consists largely of a longitudinal survey of
Research Questions 9households, self-reports of social involvement, automatic recording of Internet use. Thisresearch possibly used regression analysis to determine negative or positive correlations orperhaps just asked specific questions in its survey. It cannot be determined due to researchmodel design information to that degree was not divulged. The 2006 research titled “The Causal Relationship between Job Satisfactionand Organizational Commitment” published by Tung-Chun Huang in the “Academy ofManagement Journal” provides a thorough assessment of the causal relationship betweenjob satisfaction and organizational commitment by controlling the influence of personaltraits and organizational attributes. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment havebeen the subjects of a large amount of empirical research, but the nature of their causalrelationship is still disputed. One hypothesis is that organizational commitment is requiredfor job satisfaction and vice-versa. Correlation analysis showed that job satisfaction had apositive impact (Beta = .208, t-value = 3.2) on organizational commitment and vice versa(Beta = .368, t-value – 5.093). The unique illustrated hypothetical causal model seemslogical and abstract enough to be applicable among a wide array of organizations. This workrelates to Dale’s thesis that predicates the strong unique role that local leadership inaffecting the balance of different types of organizational commitment. This research seemsuseful in that it broadens the argument that others, such as Caykoylu, have attempted tosynthesize and render universal. With few exceptions, most companies have a vested interest in being ableto retain quality employees from today’s highly specialized and mobile workforce.Recruiting and training new employees is very expensive and it takes a long time to
Research Questions 10for a new employee to acquire the organizational experience to equal the level of aveteran employee There is a desire among companies to better understand thedynamics of job satisfaction not only because that leads to less turnover but alsobecause it contributes to the enhancement of employees commitment to theirorganizations (Chen). Organizational commitment impacts employee retention.This is a study that can be readily absorbed by most organizations given its directimpact on the bottom line. Each organization attracts different types of people andoffers different work environments with many factors that may on average increaseor decrease organizational commitment.
Research Questions 11 BibliographyAlderfer, C.P., & Smith, K.K. (1982). Studying intergroup relations embedded inorganizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27(1), 35-65.Annenberg School. (2006). A longitudinal international study of the individual and socialeffects of PC/Internet technology. The University of Southern California.Ashforth, B., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy ofManagement Review, 14(1), 20-39.Bashir, Sajid. (2005). Determinants of organizational commitment. A Study of InformationTechnology Professionals in Pakistan.Caykoylu, Sinan. (2007). Organizational commitment across different employee groups. TheBusiness Review.Chen, Yi-Jen. (2007). Relationships among service orientation, job satisfaction, andorganizational commitment in the international tourist hotel industry. Journal of AmericanAcademy of Business.Cole, Jeffrey (2000). Surveying the digital future. UCLA Center for Communication Policy.Dale, Kathleen. (2008). Leadership style and organizational commitment: mediating effectof role stress. Journal of Managerial Issues.
Research Questions 12De Clercq, Dirk. (2007). Organizational commitment in Mexican small and medium-sizedfirms: the role of work status, organizational climate, and entrepreneurial orientation.Journal of Small Business Management.Fiedler, F.E., & Mahar, L. (1979). The effectiveness of contingency model training: Areview of the validation of leader match. Personnel Psychology, 32(1), 45-62.Garson, D. (2007). Reliability analysis. Statnotes.Gonzales, Tomas. (2007). Organizational commitment: a proposal for a wider ethicalconceptualization of ‘normative commitment’. Journal of Business Ethics.Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1996). Great ideas revisited. Training and DevelopmentJournal, 50(1), 42-47. (Original work published 1969).House, R.J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulatedtheory. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-353.Huang, Tung-Chun. (2007). The causal relationship between job satisfaction andorganizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal.Jackson, J.W. (1993). Realistic group conflict theory: A review and evaluation of thetheoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, 43(3), 395-405.Martens, B. (2004). Hitchhikers guide to hypotheses. Retrieved on 10 August 2008 fromhttp://www.theorywatch.com.
Research Questions 13Nie, Norman (2004). A preliminary report. Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study ofInternet and Society.Olsen, Cara. (1996). Differences between ANOVA and regression. StatNews.Shepherd, Lillian M. (2000). Medical Service Corps: junior officer and recent retireestay/leave decisions. Naval Postgraduate School.Velleman, Paul. Wilkinson, Leland. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologiesare misleading. The American Statistician.Wang, Peng. (2007). Family-friendly programs, organizational commitment, and workwithdrawal: the moderating role of transformational leadership. Personnel Psychology.