PUBLISHING:the intent is to make the experience of each individual available to the group. What happened within individuals at cognitive and feeling levels.What were feelings?What was confidence in EXPERIENCEQuick Free-Association on topics concerning the activityGo around- systematic interview of individuals about their experiences during activityGroup members often focus energy on staying inside the activity. The small group leader needs to nudge them into separating themselves from it in order to learn. Use above to get out of stage one (experiencing) to stage two (publishing). Who would volunteer to share? Who else?What happened?How did you feel about that?Who else had the same experience?Who reacted differently?Were there any surprises?How many felt the same?How many felt differently?What did you observe?What were you aware of?
PROCESSING: pivotal in experiential learning. Members examine shared experience and ANALYIZE WHAT HAPPENED.Sentence completion: “Leadership was………”, “Participation in this activity lead to………”Data analysis- studying trends and correlations in ratings and adjectives used in PUBLISHING phaseInterpersonal feedback- focus attention on the effect of the role behaviors of significant members in the activityGroup members need to look at what happened in terms of dynamics but not in terms of meaning. Human relations. Group members often anticipate the next step in the cycle and make premature generalization statements. Make sure done with PROCESSING before moving on.How did you account for that?What does that mean to you?How was that significant?How was that good/bad?What struck you about that?How do those fit together?How might it have been different?Did you see something operating there?What does that suggest about yourself/your group?What do you understand better about yourself/your group?
GENERALIZING: now we move from reality of the activity to the reality of everyday life outside the training session. WHAT IS THE RELEVANCE?Group members focus their awareness on situations in their personal and work lives similar to those in activity.From PROCESSING stage they form principles they can apply outsideThis step makes structured experiences practical. If we gloss over it, learning is superficial.Individual analysis- writing “what I learned”, “what I am beginning to learn”, “what I am relearning”Key terms for potential generalization – leadership, communication, feelings, etc…Sentence completion- “The effectiveness of shared leadership depends on…..”What might we pull from that?Is that plugging into anything?What did you learn/relearn?What does that suggest to you about _______ in general?Does that remind you of anything?What principle/law do you see operating?What does that help explain?How does this relate to other experiences?What do you associate with that?So what?
APPLYING: this is the purpose of the structure experience.NOW WHAT?Apply generalizations to actual situations which they are experiencing. Promises- making explicit promises to each other about applicationsGroup, or subgroups, can take turns helping each other with “back home” problem situations, applying generalizationsSub-grouping- in groups with common interests discussing generalizations in terms of what they can do more effectivelyHow could you apply/transfer that?What would you like to do with that?How could you repeat this again?What could you do to hold on to that?What are the options?What might you do to help/hinder yourself?How could you make it better?What would be the consequences of doing/not doing that?What modifications can you make work for you?What could you imagine/fantasize about that?
• The purpose is to generate ideas or solutions that
will help solve a problem
• Works best with 6-15 people
• Separates “Idea Generation” from “Idea
• Screening and evaluation come later
Two halves of Brainstorming
Idea Generation Idea Evaluation
Rules for Idea Generation Phase
• There will be no criticism
• Far-fetched ideas are desirable
• Many ideas help the process
• Flip-flop technique is helpful
• Piggyback technique is useful
Rules for Idea Evaluation Phase
• Criticism of list is authorized
• Answer question/meet objective
• Attain group consensus
You are asked to…
Come up with an
solution that is in
• Generates creative
solutions to problems
• Has two distinct phases