Why is planning so important?foundation for metacognitive monitoringdirects effort & strategic actionfuels regulationNegotiation of shared task perceptions and goals are particularly critical for regulating collaboration. because they provide the foundation on which groups enact the task and monitor their progressWithout constructing shared plans groups members are at risk of working at cross-purposes and running into difficulties which may negatively impact performance
For example, of the 150 challenges reported by environmental science students across three collaborative assignments, 61% were strategic planning challenges such as Different Goals, Priorities, Standards of work, What to do, Concept or task14% were Team Coordination challenges (Different Working styles, Equal participation, Knowledge)25% were Soft Skills Challenges (Different Interaction styles, Language proficiency, Connection, Commitment, Distraction)Types of challenges reported by 42 upper year students in Environmental Science (N = 24) or Mechanical Engineering (N = 18, unspecified, N = 6) working in teams on two in-class assignments & one major assignment outside class time on community environmental issues.
Course work included 2 major Collaborative assignmentsWhich were challenging case examples of studying problems encountered by a fictitious student. Students worked in the same groups of 3-4 for both challengeswhich allowed them to learn to regulate group work across assignments.
Enhancing Learning & Teamwork Skills in Moodle
Instructional Technology Series: Enhancing Learning
and Teamwork Skills in Moodle Mariel Miller Allyson Hadwin University of Victoria, BC, Canada Research funded by a SSHRC Standard Research Grant 410-2008-0700 (A. Hadwin) and SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship (M. Miller) Technology Integration &University of Victoria Evaluation Research Lab 1
Overview1. Collaboration as a 21st
century skill2. About the ED-D 101 Collaborative Challenge3. Demonstration of the Challenge4. Preliminary Outcomes5. Questions and Discussion
Collaboration Collaboration Coordinated and
mutually interdependent work Shared goal in a joint task Leveraging distributed knowledge & expertise Beyond what any individual could achieve alone Critical 21st century skill Enhanced learning outcomes Does not happen automatically (Dillenbourg, 1999; Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Kreijns et al., 2003; Phielix, et al., 2011; Rochelle & Teasley, 1995)
Involves Metacognition Awareness of learning
strengths and weaknesses What I know What I don’t know Ability to analyze the demands What I need to know of tasks/activities Use of effective thinking and problem solving strategies to cope with the challenges tasks present
Involves Motivation Genuine interest in
learning Focus on progress Belief that ability is incremental Willingness to try challenging tasks View that errors present opportunities to learn Belief that effort and effective strategy use will lead to success
Regulation at the Individual and
Group Level Co-Regulated Learning (CoRL) SR Supporting one another to CoRL L regulate in the task Socially Shared Regulation (SSRL) Interdependent orSelf-Regulated Learning collective regulation of (SRL) SSRL group processes and Each team member successful coordinationregulates his/her strategic engagement of strategies 8 Hadwin, Järvelä, Miller, 2011
Regulation is Challenging task perceptions
misaligned with each other & the instructor Lack of Different Failure to adapt monitoringor turn challenge Goals/Plans - orinto opportunity inaccurate little precision or evaluation commitment Weak strategies,Where we usually Different ideas about what to do intervene
Challenges Encountered During Collaboration Planning
challenges are commonly reported by students different understanding of what to do different goals or standards 0.7 Proportion of total challenges reported 0.6 0.5 Strategic Planning Challenges 0.4 Team Coordination 0.3 Challenges Soft Skills 0.2 Challenges 0.1 0 Challenges (N=150) reported by Environmental Science students across 3 collaborative assignments (McCardle, Helm, Hadwin, Shaw, 2011)
Collaborative Planning In a recent
case study, most group members reported high consensus in shared plans despite describing different ideas about task purpose & goals in individual plans Group Member Task Purpose Consensus Jay Completely agreed Aaron Completely agreed Michael Mostly agreed Kelsey Somewhat agreed Green = ideas mentioned by individuals and the group Red = ideas mentioned by individuals but not the group (Miller & Hadwin, 2012)
ED-D 101 Collaborative Challenge ED-D
101: Strategies for University Success 1st year undergraduate course Supporting students in becoming self-regulated learners Coursework includes 2 Collaborative Challenge Assignments
Goals of the ED-D 101
Collaborative Challenge Dual Goals of Collaborative Assignments Provide opportunities to enhance domain learning through collaboration Support students in learning to regulate collaboration Leverage Moodle to provide opportunities to develop collaborative skills Use scripting & data visualization to provide students with opportunities to engage metacognitively and reflectively in collaboration
Collaborative Assignment Mastering Expertise 1.
Domain Expertise Solo Activity Solo PlanningReflection ED-D 101 Collaborative Assignment • Each member is “group expert” on 1 of the 4 topics covered In-Class Collaborative In-Class Collaborative • Each constructed a “crib Challenge sheet” on expert topic to cue Planning memory of critical information during the challenge (O’Donnell, 2011)
Collaborative Assignment Mastering Expertise 2.
Individual Planning Solo Solo PlanningReflection ED-D 101 Collaborative Assignment • Scripted individuals to construct task perceptions, goals, and In-Class plans for the assignment In-Class Collaborative Collaborative Challenge Planning
Collaborative Assignment Mastering Expertise 3.
Group Planning SoloReflection Solo Planning • Scripted groups to co- ED-D 101 construct task Collaborative Assignment perceptions, goals, and plans for the assignment • Provided data In-Class In-Class visualization of individual Collaborative Collaborative Challenge Planning plans to the group
Collaborative Assignment Mastering Expertise 4.
In-Class Assignment Solo Solo PlanningReflection ED-D 101 Collaborative • Groups described & Assignment Identified problems • Generated and justified a solution In-Class In-Class Collaborative Collaborative Challenge Planning
Collaborative Assignment Mastering Expertise 5.
Individual Reflection SoloReflection Solo Planning • Scripted individuals to ED-D 101 reflect on collaboration Collaborative and identify areas for Assignment improvement In-Class In-Class Collaborative Collaborative Challenge Planning
Types of Moodle Activities 2
Individual Activity Tools Feedback for Solo Planning Quiz for Solo Reflections 3 Group Activity Tools Forum for Cheat sheets Chat OU Wiki for Challenge Activities
Satisfaction with Group Work Students
most often reported being extremely satisfied or very satisfied how things went across both collaborative assignments 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 Proportion 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 Extremely Satisfied Very Satisfied Moderately Not Very Satisfied Not At All Satisfied Satisfied N=477
Challenges & Opportunities When does
scripting Scripting adaptive habits in learning become other regulation? and collaboration Who is doing the regulating Helping adapt within and across (learner, computer, other collaborative experiences person)? Adaptive regulation is a lifelong Adapting in the face of new learning skill – not just for academic challenges vs. adopting success prescribed scripts Shift to view challenges and errors opportunities to learn to regulate