Study guide year 8


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Study guide year 8

  1. 1. Name [Print clearly] Examination May 2008 STUDY GUIDE Year 8 Science Time : 1 ½ hours I This paper will be made up from the different topics studied so far this year. Each topic will have 2 parts: Part One: Multiple Choice These will be answered on the Multichoice Answer Sheet. Part Two: Written Answers These will be answered in your booklet. Your Exam will cover the topics: • Introduction • Food and Digestion • Respiration • Heating and Cooling • Light and Sound Study Ideas • Identify from the Learning Outcomes which areas you find the most difficult to understand. • Go back over your notes in your books and make summary study notes. • Go through the text book and do the questions in the relevant chapters • Go back over your topic test and make corrections on the questions you answered incorrectly
  2. 2. 2 Learning outcomes that will be assessed in the May Examination. It is important that you can identify the types of questions that will be asked about each of these leaning outcomes. Introduction • Recognize safe and unsafe practices in the laboratory • Name equipment and state its use • Scientifically draw equipment • *identify variables and values • *find relationships between variables • *write up experiments using the correct scientific format • *make scientific observations • *accurately use a measuring cylinder and thermometer • *draw graphs and find the ‘line of best fit’ on line graphs • *present data in a useful way, tables, bar charts, line graphs • *draw accurate conclusions from data using correct scientific terminology • *present data in a useful way, tables, bar charts, line graphs Food and Digestion • demonstrate understanding of why we need food o to name the major food groups: carbohydrate (simple and complex), protein, fats and oils (lipids). o to define a balanced diet o list factors that affect our diet. o explain the following diet disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity, malnutrition. o to place foods in appropriate categories on the Healthy Food Pyramid. o read and interpret nutritional information on food packaging to make wise food choices. • *accurately test for the presence of carbohydrate, protein, lipid and interpret results of these tests. • *describe where physical and chemical digestion take place in the gut • *explain and differentiate between the processes of digestion and absorption • *name, label and explain the function of the main digestive organs of humans; mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver, small and large intestines o will describe the role of digestive enzymes in absorption - breaking large food molecules into small ones o list the specific role of the following enzymes in the body- amylase, protease, lipase and bile. • list the differences between the teeth of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores skull • label the parts inside a tooth. • name and identify the three types of teeth in humans and their function.
  3. 3. 3 Respiration • Define respiration • Compare and contrast breathing and respiration • Know the respiration word equation • Describe how cells are supplied with the materials needed for respiration • Describe how cells in animals and plants release energy • Name the parts of the lungs • State the composition of inhaled and exhaled air • Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration • Write word equation for anaerobic respiration • List uses of anaerobic respiration Heating and Cooling • differentiate between heat and temperature • -define heat • -list sources of heat • -measure temperature • -plot and interpret temperature graphs • -list the effects of heat on substances • -investigate, explain and recognize exothermic and endothermic reactions • -Explain how energy is transferred by the movement of particles in conduction, convection and evaporation and radiation • -investigate expansion and contraction • explain why objects expand or contract with temperature change • -Explain how energy is transferred by the movement of particles in conduction, convection and evaporation and radiation • -interpret changes in states graphs • -understand the applications of energy conservation in houses and animals • -interpret changes in states graphs
  4. 4. 4 Light and Sound • Explain how sound travels • State the speed of sound • Explain an echo • Distinguish between frequency and amplitude and their effects on sound • Label a diagram of the ear • List uses of ultrasonics • Relate sound levels to decibels • State the speed of light • Explain how and why shadows form/ State light travels in straight lines • Define light terms • Draw and label light ray diagrams for reflection and refraction • Label an eye • List uses of mirrors and lenses • Explain how rainbows are formed, explain dispersion of light • Identify the colours of the spectrum • Name the primary colours of light versus the primary paint colours • Explain why an object looks the colour it does