Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

HTTP/2 comes to Java. What Servlet 4.0 means to you. DevNexus 2015

17,954 views

Published on



It’s hard to overstate how much has changed in the world since HTTP 1.1 went final in June of 1999. There were no smartphones, Google had not yet IPO’d, Java Swing was less than a year old… you get the idea. Yet for all that change, HTTP remains at version 1.1.

Change is finally coming. HTTP 2.0 should be complete by 2015, and with that comes the need for a new version of Servlet. It will embrace HTTP 2.0 and expose its key features to Java EE 8 applications. This session gives a peek into the progress of the Servlet spec and shares some ideas about how developers can take advantage of this exciting
update to the world’s most successful application protocol on the world’s most popular programming language.

Published in: Software
  • Hello! Get Your Professional Job-Winning Resume Here - Check our website! https://vk.cc/818RFv
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

HTTP/2 comes to Java. What Servlet 4.0 means to you. DevNexus 2015

  1. 1. HTTP/2 Comes to Java What Servlet 4.0 Means to You Ed Burns Java EE Specification Team Oracle Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Safe Harbor Statement The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle. 2
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 3
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why HTTP/2? A Real Life Example index.html style1.css style2.css . . . script1.js script9.js pic1.jpg pic8.jpg . . . photo1.png photo2.png . . .
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why HTTP/2? • Head-of-Line blocking Problems in HTTP/1.1
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why HTTP/2? • HTTP Pipelining • Head-of-Line blocking Problems in HTTP/1.1 style1.css style2.css Client Server index.html index.html style1.css style2.css script1.js . . . script2.js . . . script1.js script2.js
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why HTTP/2? • Inefficient use of TCP sockets Problems in HTTP/1.1 Client ServerClient Server Client Server Client Server Client Server Client Server
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why HTTP/2? • Much of what we do in web-apps is a hack to work around shortcomings in HTTP/1.1 – File concatenation and image sprites – Domain sharding – Inlined assets What is an optimization? 9
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | File Concatenation and Image Sprites TCP Efficiency Improves with Larger Files 10
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | File Concatenation and Image Sprites TCP Efficiency Improves with Larger Files 11 • Modern web page now consists of more than 90 resources fetched from 15 distinct hosts • Solution: – Just work around it by shoving more than one logical file into one physical file. – Seminal article: A List Apart http://alistapart.com/article/sprites – Useful tool: SpritePad http://spritepad.wearekiss.com/
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | File Concatenation and Image Sprites TCP Efficiency Improves with Larger Files 12 .ic-AerospaceAndDefense-wht-on-gray, .ic-AerospaceAndDefense-wht-on- red, .ic-Airline-wht-on-gray, .ic-Airline-wht-on-red{ background: url(sprites.png) no-repeat; } .ic-AerospaceAndDefense-wht-on-gray{ background-position: 0 0; width: 80px; height: 80px; } .ic-AerospaceAndDefense-wht-on-red{ background-position: -81px 0; width: 80px; height: 80px; } .ic-Airline-wht-on-gray{ background-position: 0 -80px ; width: 80px; height: 80px; } .ic-Airline-wht-on-red{ background-position: -81px -79px ; width: 80px; height: 80px; }
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Domain Sharding Split page resources across several hosts to work around browser limits 13
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Inlined Assets • data URLs • <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAOALMAAOazToeHh0tLS/7LZv/0jv b29t/f3//Ub/ /ge8WSLf/rhf/3kdbW1mxsbP//mf///yH5BAAAAAAALAAAAAAQAA4…" /> Base64 Encoding Will Never Die 14
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 15
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 is really just a new transport layer underneath HTTP/1.1 – same request/response model – no new methods – no new headers – no new usage patterns from application layer – no new usage of URL spec and other lower level specs Network Programming Review 16
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Standing on the Shoulders 17
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 18
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 19
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 20
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 21
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 22
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 23
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 24
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • HTTP/1.0 – Sockets are a throwaway resource – Specification says very little about how sockets are to be used – Browsers free to open many sockets to the same server Network Programming Review 25 Credit: chrisjstanley flickr The Socket Angle
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 26 The Socket Angle • HTTP/2 – Sockets seen as a scarce resource – Specification says much about how they are to be used – Only one open per server
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 27 The Socket Angle • It would be like if we took the existing Servlet specification
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review 28 The Socket Angle • It would be like if we took the existing Servlet specification and added a new layer underneath it
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review Problems in HTTP/1.1 Client ServerClient Server Client Server Client Server Client Server Client Server
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review Solution in HTTP/2 Client Server
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review • HTTP/1.0 was designed to be easy to implement with contemporary development practices of 1991 – text based protocol – leaves flow control to the TCP layer – easy to write a parser – simple socket lifecycle The Adoption Angle 31
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network Programming Review • HTTP/2 is much more complicated to implement – state machine – header compression – binary framing (arguably easier than text based for parsing) The Adoption Angle 32
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • HTTP/2 is much more complicated to implement – No more telnet host 80 GET /somepage.html rnrn 33 Network Programming Review The Adoption Angle
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • HTTP/2 is much more complicated to implement – No more telnet host 80 GET /somepage.html rnrn 34 Network Programming Review The Adoption Angle
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Request/Response multiplexing • Binary Framing • Stream Prioritization • Server Push • Header Compression • Upgrade from HTTP/1.1 • ALPN (or NPN) • 101 Switching Protocols 35 HTTP/2 Big Ticket Feature Review
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 36 HTTP/2 Big Ticket Feature Review
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Request Response Multiplexing • Fully bi-directional • Enabled by defining some terms – Connection A TCP socket – Stream A “channel” within a connection – Message A logical message, such as a request or a response – Frame The smallest unit of communication in HTTP/2. 37 Lets you do more things with a single TCP connection
  38. 38. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Request Response Multiplexing 38 Connections, Streams, Messages, Frames
  39. 39. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Request Response Multiplexing • Once you break the communication down into frames, you can interweave the logical streams over a single TCP connection. • Yet another idea from the 1960s is new again. 39 Connections, Streams, Messages, Frames Browser ServerSingle TCP connection for HTTP 2 STREAM'4' HEADERS' STREAM'9' HEADERS' STREAM'7' DATA' STREAM'7' HEADERS' STREAM'2' HEADERS' STREAM'2' DATA'
  40. 40. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Binary Framing • Solves Head-Of-Line (HOL) blocking problem • Type field can be DATA, HEADERS, PRIORITY, RST_STREAM, SETTINGS, PUSH_PROMISE, PING, GOAWAY, WINDOW_UPDATE, CONTINUATION 40 Enabled by dumping newline delimited ASCII Length (24) Type (8) Flags (8) R Stream Identifier (31) Frame Payload (0 …)
  41. 41. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Binary Framing GET /index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com Accept: text/html 41 Example 1 HEADERS + END_STREAM + END_HEADERS :method: GET :scheme: http :path: /index.html :authority: example.org accept: text/html
  42. 42. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Binary Framing HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Length: 11 Content-Type: text/html Hello World 42 Example 2 HEADERS - END_STREAM + END_HEADERS :status: 200 content-length: 11 content-type: text/html DATA + END_STREAM Hello World
  43. 43. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Stream Prioritization • Stream Dependency in HEADERS Frame • PRIORITY frame type • An additional 40 bytes – Stream id (31) – Weight (8): [1, 256] – Exclusive bit (1) • Only a suggestion 43 S A B C 4 12 A B CD 4 16 12 exclusive = 0 A B C D 4 12 16 exclusive = 1
  44. 44. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Server Push • Eliminates the need for resource inlining. • Lets the server populate the browser’s cache in advance of the browser asking for the resource to put in the cache. • No corresponding JavaScript API, but can be combined with SSE – Server pushes stuff into the browser’s cache. – Server uses SSE to tell the browser to go fetch it (but we know it’s already in the browser’s cache). 44 E
  45. 45. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Header Compression • Observation: most of the headers are the same in a given stream – Host: Accept: user-agent: etc. • Why send them every time? • Have the server and the client keep tables of headers, then just send references and updates to the tables. 45 Known as HPACK
  46. 46. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Upgrade from HTTP/1.1 • Not secure – We have to use port 80 – Use existing 101 Switching Protocols from HTTP/1.1 • Secure – Next Protocol Negotiation (NPN) – Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN) 46 Secure or not-secure?
  47. 47. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | HTTP/2 Upgrade from HTTP/1.1 • Not secure – We have to use port 80 – Use existing 101 Switching Protocols from HTTP/1.1 • Secure – Next Protocol Negotiation (NPN) – Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN) 47 Secure or not-secure?
  48. 48. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Criticism of HTTP/2 • HOL blocking is still a problem, just shuffled around – HOL blocking can still happen in HEADERS frames • No h2c in Firefox or Chrome – Mention the IETF RFC-7258 • Carbon footprint for all that HPACK encoding/decoding • Numerous new DoS attack vectors • HTTP/2 is orthogonal to WebSocket Everybody's a Critic 48
  49. 49. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Criticism of HTTP/2 • Poul Henning-Kamp's rant just before WGLC – http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2716278 Everybody's a Critic 49
  50. 50. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Criticism of HTTP/2 • Poul Henning-Kamp's rant just before WGLC – http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2716278 Everybody's a Critic 50
  51. 51. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Criticism of HTTP/2 • Poul Henning-Kamp's rant just before WGLC – http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2716278 Everybody's a Critic 51
  52. 52. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Criticism of HTTP/2 • Poul Henning-Kamp's rant just before WGLC – http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2716278 Everybody's a Critic 52 Credit: Michael Fritz
  53. 53. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Don't take my word for it • HTTP/2 isn't one spec, it's two specs – HTTP/2 protocol – HPACK • Built on top of many other specs 53
  54. 54. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Don't take my word for it 54
  55. 55. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Don't take my word for it 55
  56. 56. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Aside Servlet and Reactive Programming 56
  57. 57. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Reactive Programming 57 Responsive Message Driven ResilientElastic image credit: reactivemanifesto.org
  58. 58. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Servlet 4.0 and Reactive Programming • Non-blocking IO in Servlet 3.1 – ServletInputStream • #setReadListener, #isReady – ServletOutputStream • #setWriteListener, #isReady – ReadListener • #onDataAvailable, #onAllDataRead, #onError – WriteListener • #onWritePossible, #onError 58
  59. 59. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Servlet 4.0 and Reactive Programming • Asynchronous in Servlet 3.0 – ServletRequest#startAsync – AsyncContext • #addListener, #dispatch, #complete – AsyncListener • #onComplete, #onError, #onStartAsync, #onTimeout • Event-driven – Server-Sent Events 59
  60. 60. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 60
  61. 61. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 61
  62. 62. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Existing API is designed for One Request == One Response. • HTTP/2 destroys this assumption. • It will be challenging to do justice to the new reality of One Request == One or More Responses. • We must not simply bolt the “One or More Responses” concept onto some convenient part of the existing API. 62 Challenges in Exposing HTTP/2 Features in Servlet API Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  63. 63. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Request/Response multiplexing • Binary Framing • Stream Prioritization • Server Push • Header Compression • Upgrade from HTTP/1.1 – ALPN or (NPN) – 101 Switching Protocols 63 HTTP/2 Features Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  64. 64. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Request/Response multiplexing • Binary Framing • Stream Prioritization • Server Push • Header Compression • Upgrade from HTTP/1.1 – ALPN or (NPN) – 101 Switching Protocols 64 HTTP/2 Features Potentially Exposed in Servlet API Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  65. 65. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Add method HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse – int getStreamId() 65 Request/Response Multiplexing Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  66. 66. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Add a new class Priority – boolean exclusive – int streamId – int weight • Add method to HttpServletRequest – Priority getPriority() • Add methods to HttpServletResponse – Priority getPriority() – void setPriority(Priority p) 66 Stream Prioritization Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  67. 67. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Push resource to client for a given url and headers • May add callback for completion or error of a push • Not at all a replacement for WebSocket • Really useful for frameworks that build on Servlet, such as JSF 67 Server Push Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features
  68. 68. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 68 Server Push Servlet 4.0 Big Ticket New Features Browser Server Thread A servlet.service() GET /index.html Server discovers browser will need style.css and script.js request.dispatchPushRequest("style.css") request.dispatchPushRequest("script.js") Server Thread B servlet.service() synthetic GET /style.css synthetic GET /script.js Server Thread C servlet.service() style.css script.js index.html
  69. 69. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Server Push public class FacesServlet implements Servlet { public void service(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse resp) throws IOException, ServletException { //.. HttpServletRequest request = (HttpServletRequest) req; try { ResourceHandler handler = context.getApplication().getResourceHandler(); if (handler.isResourceRequest(context)) { handler.handleResourceRequest(context); } else { lifecycle.attachWindow(context); lifecycle.execute(context); lifecycle.render(context); } } } Example of Potential Use from JSF 69
  70. 70. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Server Push public class ExternalContextImpl extends ExternalContext { //… public String encodeResourceURL(String url) { if (null == url) { String message = MessageUtils.getExceptionMessageString (MessageUtils.NULL_PARAMETERS_ERROR_MESSAGE_ID, "url"); throw new NullPointerException(message); } Map attrs = getResourceAttrs(); ((HttpServletRequest) request).dispatchPushRequest(url, attrs); return ((HttpServletResponse) response).encodeURL(url); } //… } Example of Potential Use from JSF 70
  71. 71. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 71
  72. 72. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 • JEP 110 http://openjdk.java.net/jeps/110 • Easy to use API • Covers only the most common use cases • Supports both HTTP/1.1 and 2 • Builds on Java API classes going back to Java 1.2! 72
  73. 73. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 73 HttpClientHttpClient.Builder HttpRequest.Builder HttpRequestHttpRequest
  74. 74. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 • A handful of classes – HttpClient, built by HttpClient.Builder • Holds information for creating one or more HttpRequests – HttpRequest, built by HttpRequest.Builder • one request/response interaction – HttpResponse – Body Processors • HttpRequestBodyProcessor • HttpResponseBodyProcessor Small footprint 74
  75. 75. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 • Blocking mode: one thread per request/response – send request – get response • Non-blocking mode – Using ExecutorService and CompletableFuture – Full support for HTTP/2 Server Push Small footprint 75
  76. 76. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 • Negotiation of HTTP/2 from 1.1 – ALPN or plaintext • Server Push – Support for PUSH_PROMISE frames • HPACK parameters HTTP/2 features 76
  77. 77. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Our Plan for Your Time Investment Why HTTP/2? HTTP/2 Big Features How Servlet Might Expose These Features Java SE 9 Support for HTTP/2 Summary and Current Status 1 2 3 4 5 77
  78. 78. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Summary and Current Status • Servlet 4.0 brings HTTP/2 to Java EE – 100% compliant implementation of HTTP/2 – Expose key features to the API • Server Push • Stream Prioritization • Request/Response multiplexing 78
  79. 79. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Summary and Current Status: HTTP/2 • December 2015 Submit HTTP/2 to IESG for consideration as a Proposed Standard DONE • January 2015 Submit HTTP/2 to RFC Editor DONE • February 2015 Publish HTTP/2 as an RFC 79
  80. 80. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Summary and Current Status • JSR-369 just formed on 22 September • Tentative Delivery Schedule – Q3 2015: expert group formed – Q2 2015: early draft – Q3 2015: public review – Q4 2015: proposed final draft – Q3 2016: final release 80
  81. 81. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | How to Get Involved • Adopt a JSR – http://glassfish.org/adoptajsr/ • The Aquarium – http://blogs.oracle.com/theaquarium/ • Java EE 8 Reference Implementation – http://glasfish.org 81
  82. 82. Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Safe Harbor Statement The preceding is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle. 82

×