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What is a clause?
What is a clause?   A clause is a grammatical unit that   <ul><li>includes, at minimum, a  predicate  and an explicit or i...
What is a proposition? <ul><li>A proposition is that part of the meaning of a  clause  or  sentence  that is constant, des...
Examples (English) <ul><li>The following example sentence contains two clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>It is cold, although the...
What is a subordinate clause? <ul><li>A subordinate clause is a clause that is embedded as a constituent of a matrix sente...
Noun clauses: subjects and objects <ul><li>A nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase. </li>...
Noun clauses: subjects and objects <ul><li>Noun clauses are dependent clauses that perform the same fuctions that regular ...
<ul><li>Suddenly, on the sand in front of him, he spied  what looked like a magic lamp.  </li></ul><ul><li>( what looked l...
Identify the type of function <ul><li>The fact that you’re restricting me to one wish really isn’t kosher, you know </li><...
Conjuctions for noun clauses <ul><li>What – that – who – whom – where – whatever – whichever (one) – wherever – whomever <...
The use of who – whom whoever, and whomever.  <ul><li>Who and whoever are used as subjects, while whom, and whomever are u...
<ul><li>I can transport whomever you’d like right here in the twinkling of an eye (formal English, precise, correct) </li>...
That and whom <ul><li>When a noun clause begining with  that  or  whom,  functions as a direct object. They can be omitted...
Embedded questions <ul><li>noun clauses are sometimes embedded questions with IF and WHETHER.  </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. I wo...
Last note <ul><li>the noun clause sometimes includes the phrase  the fact that… </li></ul><ul><li>the fact that you’re res...
exercises <ul><li>Underline the noun clauses and classsify them as subject-s, direct object-do, or object of prepositions-...
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What is a clause

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What is a clause

  1. 1. What is a clause?
  2. 2. What is a clause?   A clause is a grammatical unit that   <ul><li>includes, at minimum, a predicate and an explicit or implied subject , and </li></ul><ul><li>expresses a proposition . </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a proposition? <ul><li>A proposition is that part of the meaning of a clause or sentence that is constant, despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the clause: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The tall, stately building fell is said to express propositions corresponding to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The building is tall.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The building is stately.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The building fell.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples (English) <ul><li>The following example sentence contains two clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>It is cold, although the sun is shining. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main clause is it is cold and the subordinate clause is although the sun is shining . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is a subordinate clause? <ul><li>A subordinate clause is a clause that is embedded as a constituent of a matrix sentence and that functions like a noun, adjective, or adverb in the resultant complex sentence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Noun clauses: subjects and objects <ul><li>A nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I know that he is here . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From where I stood , I saw the horse. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Noun clauses: subjects and objects <ul><li>Noun clauses are dependent clauses that perform the same fuctions that regular nouns do: Subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of preposition (prepositional phrases). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Suddenly, on the sand in front of him, he spied what looked like a magic lamp. </li></ul><ul><li>( what looked like a magic lamp is a noun clause functioning as a direct object ) </li></ul><ul><li>What was making him sad was the fact that his ladylove wasn’t with him </li></ul><ul><li>( What was making him sad was the fact that his ladylove wasn’t with him functioning as a Subject) </li></ul><ul><li>I’m having a real problem figuring out what I want </li></ul><ul><li>(What I want is a noun clause functioning as the object of a preposition ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Identify the type of function <ul><li>The fact that you’re restricting me to one wish really isn’t kosher, you know </li></ul><ul><li>My contract says that whoever lets me out gets one wish </li></ul><ul><li>I guess that there’s only one way to find out </li></ul><ul><li>I thought you said (that) you wanted ºa bridge to Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder if this is one of those magic lamps, like Aladdin’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you realize how far it is Hawaii? </li></ul><ul><li>I can transport whomever you’d like right here in the twinkilng of an eye </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conjuctions for noun clauses <ul><li>What – that – who – whom – where – whatever – whichever (one) – wherever – whomever </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>My contract says that whoever lets me out gets one wish </li></ul><ul><li>you’ll grant me whatever I wish </li></ul>
  11. 11. The use of who – whom whoever, and whomever. <ul><li>Who and whoever are used as subjects, while whom, and whomever are used as objects in formal English. Many native speakers don’t use whom and whomever. </li></ul><ul><li>My contract says that whoever lets me out gets one wish (whoever-subject of the clause verb lets) </li></ul><ul><li>I can transport whomever you’d like right here in the twinkling of an eye </li></ul><ul><li>(whomever is the object of the clause verb like) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I can transport whomever you’d like right here in the twinkling of an eye (formal English, precise, correct) </li></ul><ul><li> I can transport whoever you’d like right here in the twinkling of an eye (informal English, not strictly correct) </li></ul>
  13. 13. That and whom <ul><li>When a noun clause begining with that or whom, functions as a direct object. They can be omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>I guess that there’s only one way to find out </li></ul><ul><li>I guess there’s only one way to find out ( as the clause is a DO, THAT can be omitted) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Embedded questions <ul><li>noun clauses are sometimes embedded questions with IF and WHETHER. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. I wonder if-whether this is one of those magic lamps, like Alladdin’s </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-words (who-whom-which-when-where-how-how many-how much) uses mormal word order, not question word order </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. how far is it to Hawaii? </li></ul><ul><li>do you realize how far it is to Hawaii? </li></ul><ul><li>NOT-do you realice how far is it to Hawaii? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Last note <ul><li>the noun clause sometimes includes the phrase the fact that… </li></ul><ul><li>the fact that you’re restricting me to one wish really isn’t kosher, you know </li></ul>
  16. 16. exercises <ul><li>Underline the noun clauses and classsify them as subject-s, direct object-do, or object of prepositions-op </li></ul><ul><li>There are four noun clauses that are embedded questions. Write each direct question before it was embedded </li></ul>

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