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Bilingualism 1st part


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Bilingualism 1st part

  1. 1. Enrique Arias Castaño
  2. 2. Do You Speak English - Big Train - BBC comedy.wmv
  3. 3. Bilingualism Definition Maximalist Minimalist FunctionalThe almost native To have linguistic To use 2 or morecontrol of two abilities even in a languages in daily life,languages minimal way over regular basesBloomfield, 1935 Macnamara, 1969 Grossjean, 1982 “Bilingualism as a countenance” (Hornberger 1989)
  4. 4. Intensification Bilingual• Subject (English) • Curriculum is articulated through the 2 languages (content – language)• 10 Hours • Language as a “resource”• Language as an aim • Content is a way to acquire• Foreign language teachers the language • Bilingual subjects –• “Trained teachers” Specialists • “no trained teachers”
  5. 5. Bilingualism- Bilingualism as a social phenomenon- Societal bilingualism- Bilingualism as an element of cross cultural communication or conflictBilinguality-Bilingualism as an individual phenomenon-Individual bilingualism-Effects of bilingualism on mental processes
  6. 6. Interdisciplinary nature of bilingualismLanguages in contactCommon occurence of bilingualismDomains of language useDiglossiaLanguage shift
  7. 7. • More than the sum of two monolinguals (Grosjean, 1985)• Degree of bilingualism• Language as a tool of cognitive functioning• Influence of feedback mechanisms• Codeswitching in bilingual development development
  8. 8. Definitions based on levels of proficiency (maximal and minimal) -balanced bilinguals -semilingualsDefinitions based on use (functional) -conversational fluency (BICS) -academic language competence (CALP)
  9. 9. What conclusions can we come toabout the nature of bilingualism ingeneral, and as related to theColombian context in particular?
  10. 10. Total immersion program% of 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50Lgegrade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
  11. 11. Partial immersion program% of 75 75 75 75 75 75 50 50 50 50 50 50Lgegrade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
  12. 12. Preview-Review Methodology Preview (first language) View (second or target language) Review (first or second or foreign language)
  13. 13. 1 Teacher does not repeat in the other language what has been taught in the first phase of the class2 `Bilingual` methodology but no codeswitching Principle of language separation3 Flexibility of different stages
  14. 14. Advantages and disadvantages of ´Preview-Review´Objective of Cali Research Project (Marulanda, 1995)To compare the level of acquisition of mathematicalconcepts, using two instructional strategies: thetraditional method (all in English) and the `Preview-Review` methodology
  15. 15. AdvantagesParents more involved in children´s learning of MathsStudents understood mathematical concepts more easily “A mi me favoreció porque primero lo hicimos en español. Eso me dio una idea de lo que íbamos a hacer en inglés “porque con el español ya tenía más alternativas para comprender el inglés”
  16. 16. Conclusions from studyReview-Review had helped most students understand the new concepts presentedResults of Maths evaluations for Preview-Review group were higher than for control groupEvidence that Maths class was more motivating
  17. 17. Team Teaching Methodology Stage 1 Establishing the problem and bibliographical consultation (English teacher) Stage 2 Establishing knowledge and personal conclusions (Science teacher) Stage 3Formulation of hypotheses and experimental design (Science teacher) Stage 4 Report of conclusions (English teacher)
  18. 18. Advantages and requirements of Team TeachingLanguage and academic or conceptual development are seen as parallel processesNo danger of one being subordinated to the other (different teachers)Possibility of harmonious integration Teachers need time and space to plan and develop curriculum appropriatelyTeachers need to be open and tolerant towards different teaching styles and able to work together.
  19. 19. Team teaching and evaluationSelection of appropriate content matterAdjustment of language demands in evaluation of content knowledgeModification of scoring criteriaInformed expectations about rate of acquisition of measurable language gains in specific skill areas
  20. 20. ImplicationsPreview-Review and Team Teaching as methodological alternatives to current consensus on dividing the curriculum into the use of English and SpanishInclusion of different modules in different languages in certain subject areas