Concepts & Definitions – Sustainable Development of Tourism Conceptual Definition (WTO, 2004) Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability.
<ul><li>Thus, sustainable tourism should: </li></ul><ul><li>Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation. </li></ul>
Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them. http://www.world-tourism.org/frameset/frame_sustainable.html
<ul><li>WTO – STEP </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sustainable Tourism Eliminates Poverty” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor - e.g. micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs), or community based enterprises (formal economy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary giving/support by tourism enterprises and tourists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http:// www.unwto.org/step/mechanisms/en/ms.php?op =2 </li></ul>
Sustainable Tourism Sustainable tourism is about refocusing and re-adapting. A balance must be found between limits and usage so that continuous changing, monitoring and planning ensure that tourism can be managed. This requires thinking long-term (10, 20+ years) and realising that change is often cumulative, gradual and irreversible. Economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development must include the interests of all stakeholders including indigenous people, local communities, visitors, industry and government. http:// www.sustainabletourism.net/index.html Questions for tour operators. Are you operating in a sustainable way? http://www.sustainabletourism.net/questions.html
Group Task Devise a list of criteria for a certification programme for tour operators and resorts. Each group should focus on one of these areas and present at least 6 measurable criteria. Economic Social / Cultural Environmental Your criteria must be specific so you could use it to assess whether or not a company is operating in a sustainable way.
Sustainable Tourism School Award Using your assessment criteria assess how sustainable tourism is in the following examples. Horizontes Adventure holidays (Costa Rica) http:// www.horizontes.com / Basecamp Explorer (Kenya) http:// www.basecampexplorer.com/masaimara/en Yachana Lodge (Ecuador) http://www.yachana.com/ Black Sheep Inn (Ecuador) http://www.blacksheepinn.com/ Kasbah Toubkal (Morocco) http://www.kasbahdutoubkal.com/ Vysoky Tatras National Park (Slovakia) http://www.tanap.org/en/
According to you assessment which is the most sustainable? What are some of the examples of good practice which can be used by other?