Population 5 Mortality


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Population 5 Mortality

  1. 1. Mortality The one certainty in our lives
  2. 2. So its simple, its just about comparing death rates!
  3. 3. Ukraine Ethiopia Japan France Algeria Ecuador Death rate Country
  4. 4. 16.07 Ukraine 14.67 Ethiopia 8.98 Japan 8.55 France 4.62 Algeria 4.21 Ecuador Death rate Country
  5. 5. 16.3% 16.07 Ukraine 2.7% 14.67 Ethiopia 21.0% 8.98 Japan 16.2% 8.55 France 4.8% 4.62 Algeria 5.1% 4.21 Ecuador % pop over 65 Death rate Country
  6. 6. 1000 4500 7600 7800 31100 33100 Infant Mortality GDP per capita PPP Country
  7. 7. 1000 Ethiopia 4500 Ecuador 7600 Algeria 7800 Ukraine 31100 France 33100 Japan Infant Mortality GDP per capita PPP Country
  8. 8. 91.9 1000 Ethiopia 22.1 4500 Ecuador 28.7 7600 Algeria 9.5 7800 Ukraine 3.4 31100 France 2.8 33100 Japan Infant Mortality GDP per capita PPP Country
  9. 9. Measuring Mortality <ul><li>Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with using CDR (Crude Death Rates) is it affected by the age structure of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>If all other things are equal CDR goes up as the average age of the population goes up. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Measuring Mortality <ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>It is an AVERAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution levels, conflict, occupation, shelter, food, medical facilities, income, literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>You can split the total population into different groups (cohorts) to compare some of these differences within a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich v poor, urban v rural, male v female, ethnic groups, age groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy figures can be affected by high IMR. If you survive infancy you could live much longer than the life expectancy figures suggest. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Measuring Mortality <ul><li>Age Sex Specific Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>The death rate for a particular age group within the population (male/female) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common… </li></ul><ul><li>INFANT MORTALITY (First year of life) </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD MORTALITY (First 5 years) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Measuring Mortality <ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Many deaths in this age group are preventable (low birth weight, jaundice, gastroenteritis, pneumonia) and therefore IMR decreases dramatically as medical care is improved. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason IMR is seen as an accurate indicator of development. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Measuring Mortality <ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors which affect IMR which are linked to development. </li></ul><ul><li>Status of women and income </li></ul><ul><li>Educational level of mother </li></ul><ul><li>Age of mother </li></ul><ul><li>Also birth interval </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mortality trends <ul><li>MEDCs main decrease in late industrial revolution. Due to improved sanitation, water, housing, reduction in pollution, improved medical care. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Manchester - 29 years </li></ul><ul><li>Sheffield – 33 years </li></ul>
  15. 19. Mortality trends <ul><li>LEDCs main decreases in second half of twentieth century due to improved medical care particularly immunisation programmes such TB and Polio, successful eradication “Roll back Malaria” programmes in Asia and South America. </li></ul>
  16. 23. Mortality trends <ul><li>Malaria continues to kill between 1 and 3 million people a year mainly in Sub Saharan Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV Aids has had a huge impact on populations. </li></ul><ul><li>SARS, Asian Bird Flu, potential pandemics? </li></ul>
  17. 24. HIV Aids <ul><li>Botswana , 39% adults infected,, females (vagina, males with multiple partners, female carers) ARVs now used to keep people with HIV alive. </li></ul>
  18. 26. Epidemiological Transition Model LEDC ____________________________________ MEDC Infectious diseases ____________ Degenerative diseases Cholera, TB, Aids, Diarrhoea, Malaria, Typhoid Cancer, Heart disease
  19. 27. Disease Categories Endogenetic (from inside) Congenital diseases from birth and degenerative diseases resulting form old age. Exogenetic (from outside) Environmental conditions, social habits and hazards.