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Population 7 - European Migration Intro


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Population 7 - European Migration Intro

  1. 1. An Introduction to European Migration
  2. 3. Slavery <ul><li>Migration usually results from labour shortages and surpluses being balanced by the movement of people (labour) </li></ul><ul><li>This began in earnest during the time of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>From 1442 the Portuguese were enslaving Africans and bringing them back to Portugal to work as labours. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Europe to the “New World” <ul><li>Between 1846 and 1939 around 51 million people left Europe (12% of the population). </li></ul><ul><li>The main destination was the USA, with Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and others also popular places. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain (+ 8 million) and Germany (+ 3.5 million) supplied the largest numbers. </li></ul>
  4. 7. Since WW2 <ul><li>During the 1950s many Europeans wanted to leave (an opinion poll at the time suggested 25% of UK residents would leave if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>The boom times of the 1960s led to a high demand for labour. the UK turned to the Caribbean and Indian sub-continent, France to North Africa and Germany to Yugoslavia and Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>Net immigration reached around 10 million </li></ul>
  5. 8. The Closing of the Door <ul><li>Opposition to immigration was already growing but the 1973 OPEC oil crises was the final catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries went into recession, doors were closed and guest workers expected to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many had already put down roots and a steady stream of family members joining migrants continued </li></ul>
  6. 11. Current Issues and Trends
  7. 13. Refugees and Asylum Seekers <ul><li>Refugees (under the 1951 Geneva convention a person with “well founded fear of persecution”) and asylum seekers (a term developed by governments during the 1990s to cope with the fact that many “refugees” were actually economic migrants). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000 Europe received over 400,000 applications for asylum with the biggest groups from former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. </li></ul>
  8. 14. Illegal Immigrants
  9. 15. The Expansion of the EU <ul><li>Free movement of persons is one of the fundamental freedoms guaranteed by European community law (Article 39 of the EC Treaty) and is also an essential element of European citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>But, countries are allowed to phase this in based on national policies and requirements – the UK opened its doors (over ½ million Poles came within the first year), Austria and Germany have not. </li></ul>
  10. 17. The EU-15 vs. the Rest
  11. 18. Final Thoughts <ul><li>Ageing populations, rising dependency ratios and labour shortages vs. gangs, people smuggling and modern day slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrant, multi-cultural societies thriving in a integrated globalised world vs. racism, social un-rest and the return of the neo-Nazi. </li></ul>
  12. 21. Essay <ul><li>Essay title: </li></ul><ul><li>Is it simply a case of “ cheap nannies, cheap restaurants and Polish plumbers”? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain the increase in migration into the UK from 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse and evaluate its socio economic impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline and give reasons for the current trend of migrants returning to their home countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Max word count: 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>Correct referencing of the article provided plus at least three other sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of a case study of economic migration. </li></ul>