8 Microclimates

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8 Microclimates

  1. 1. Microclimates Wrapup
  2. 2. How does the urban environment affect? • Temperature – the urban heat island • Wind; speed and direction • Rainfall and storm intensity • Humidity • Fog
  3. 3. Urban Microclimates and Pollution
  4. 4. Photochemical Smog • Photochemical smog forms when volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides react with sunlight to form smog containing ozone, liquid particulates and other pollutants (e.g. the brown haze of nitrogen dioxide). • PM10s are very small particles both naturally occurring (pollen) and man-made (e.g. from car exhaust fumes). They greatly contribute towards smog formation. • Smog can cause great discomfort (especially for those suffering from asthma or bronchial disorders) and even death. • Cities such as LA with high car usage (5 million cars burning 40 million litres of petrol a day) are very susceptible to photochemical smog. • The clear, calm, high pressure conditions frequently experienced in LA are also ideal for smog formation
  5. 5. Modifications of Rural Micro-Climates • Forest micro-climates (deforestation and afforestation) • Farming and crops • Hedgerows • Lakes and dam constructions

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