1 Climatic Hazards Introduction

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1 Climatic Hazards Introduction

  1. 1. A Hazardous Environment An environment is hazardous when a physical event overlaps with human populations creating the hazard or disaster
  2. 2. Climatic (Atmospheric) Hazards
  3. 13. The Answers <ul><li>Tornado, Oklahoma </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane, Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclone Sidr, south western Bangladesh (this week) </li></ul><ul><li>Drought, Darfur region, Sudan (ongoing) </li></ul><ul><li>Baobab tree, Savannah </li></ul><ul><li>Larsen B ice-shelf, Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>El Nino Southern Oscillation </li></ul><ul><li>Acid rain, Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion which can lead to skin cancer; apparently Nicole Kidman had some on her leg. </li></ul><ul><li>Photochemical smog, Los Angeles </li></ul>
  4. 14. Climatic Hazards Summary <ul><li>Tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Nina </li></ul><ul><li>The enhanced greenhouse effect (climate change) </li></ul><ul><li>Acid deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of urban micro-climates </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of rural micro-climates </li></ul>
  5. 15. Climatic Hazards Event Key Questions <ul><li>What are the headline facts and figures? </li></ul><ul><li>When? Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? What are the causes? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent are human interactions with physical processes responsible for the hazard? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the hazard affect people and the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What has been the human response? </li></ul>
  6. 16. Factors influencing the impact of climatic hazards
  7. 17. How do humans respond to climatic hazards?
  8. 18. Forecast vs. Prediction <ul><li>Forecast “is a relatively imprecise statement of time, place and nature of the expected event” (Bishop) </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction “is a relatively precise statement of the time, place and ideally the nature and size of the event, i.e. a precise forecast” (Bishop) </li></ul>
  9. 19. Risk vs. Vulnerability <ul><li>Risk is the level of exposure of a population to a particular hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability is the “ability of a person or group to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of a natural hazard” (Blaikie et al 1994) </li></ul>

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