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  2. 2. SECTION A – LIFESTYLE MAGAZINES Tips: • Read the questions carefully/ underline key words • The questions are ALWAYS based on the same key concepts (GENRE, MEDIA LANGUAGE, REPRESENTATION) • The questions are ALWAYS worth the same amount of marks • Remember to P.E.E! • Use key media words wherever possible
  3. 3. Q1. GENRE – 10 MARKS My Personal Style Rules Do you have a personal style? A signature look? I’m not really sure I do. Although I fear there’s probably a book of magazine editor’s laws somewhere that says I should. I asked my husband to pinpoint mine. He looked a bit pained and said, “I don’t know! One day you have an Annie Hall vibe and the next you’re in a hot dress. What’s going on there?” It’s a question I get all the time, and I’m yet to come up with an answer…. …Enjoy the issue! Jo Elvin, Editor. Includes Conventional CONTENTS Celebrity Fashion Health Beauty Sex/relationships Advice Astrology Fiction etc.. Front cover dominated by an image of a celebrity or model looking directly in the camera Includes a Chatty EDITORIAL (letter from the editor to the reader)
  4. 4. A MODEL ANSWER - GENRE The magazine ‘Easy Living’ is an example of a women’s lifestyle magazine because of the content. The term ‘lifestyle’ defines everything that fits into everyday life and a pure example of this in this extract is the contents page. There are several teasers on the page alongside images, including the words, “Real Life”, “Fashion”, “Emotional Intelligence” and “Beauty.” Therefore, by covering the main light hearted priorities in a women’s life it proves that this is a lifestyle magazine. Another way that we know this extract is lifestyle is through the use of text, specifically the teasers on the front cover. An example of this is where it says, “What your friends really think of you.” Through the use of direct address, it pin points what events happen in a woman’s day- to-day life. Furthermore, this proves that the magazine ‘Easy Living’ is an example of lifestyle. We also know it is a conventional lifestyle magazine as the front cover is dominated by an image of a model looking directly into the camera. NOTE: Model answers are based on the “Easy Living” extract from your mock exam. Your answers in the final exam will depend on the lifestyle magazine extract you are given on the day!
  5. 5. Q2 MEDIA LANGUAGE – 20 MARKS LAYOUT SYMMETRICAL ORDERED BALANCED ORGANISED TEXT-DOMINATED ASYMMETRICAL CLUTTERED BUSY SCRAPBOOK STYLE CHAOTIC IMAGE- DOMINATED In COLUMNS SYMMETRICAL LANGUAGE Onomatopoeia Repetition Exclamation Pun Misspelling Slang Personal pronouns Colloquialisms Alliteration Rhetorical question Formal/informal style Direct mode of address Friendly tone Anecdotal COLOUR Connotation Denotation Typography Serif Sans serif Typeface Specialist typeface BOLD Itallics KEY WORDS
  7. 7. MODEL ANSWER - LAYOUT Layout is used to create effect throughout the extract, and an example of how it is used is the front cover. The front cover of Easy Living has a symmetrical design giving it a chic, classic and organised look. This creates effect because it uses the correct layout in order to attract a certain target audience. Using this example, by keeping this magazine as a classic design but also including a chic, modern look will attract women from a middle-class background who lead a traditional lifestyle however they like to be up to date. Therefore, layout is used to create effect in order to attract the correct target audience.
  8. 8. LANGUAGE TECHNIQUES • Onomatopoeia – Bang! Pop! Crash! • Repetition – Go, go, go! • Exclamation – Wow! • Pun – David Peckham: Becks does Only Fools and Horses • Misspelling - Sista • Slang – OMG! • Personal pronouns – You will love this as much as we do. • Colloquialisms – (chatty) -Hey, how’s it going? • Alliteration – figure-fixing. Top treats. • Rhetorical question – feeling blue? Editorial—a letter from the editor to the reader often referred to as an opinion piece Formal/informal style Direct mode of address— speaks directly to the reader Friendly tone Anecdotal—includes little personal stories eg. The other day I was in a club with my mates and Katie Price walked in! Relates to the content of the magazine—this summer I am wearing...
  9. 9. MODEL ANSWER -LANGUAGE Language is also used in order to create effect. This is shown on the front cover in which a coverline reads “skin you’ll be raring to bare” which includes the use of direct address. By targeting the reader specifically through the use of the word “you” it creates a false relationship with the audience due to synthetic personalisation. This creates effect because the reader feels they are on a par with the magazine, giving them a sense of pride. Therefore, language is used to create effect in this extract to make the reader feel they can connect with the magazine.
  10. 10. TYPOGRAPHY • Typography—arranging type to make it look appealing • Serif—fonts that have little edges to them look more serious • Sans serif—sans means without. Sans serif means without the little edges—looks more fun and less formal • Typeface—a family of fonts • Specialist typeface—unusual and unique fonts used to make the magazine stand out. • How is it used: • Colours • Size • Positioning • Spacing • Upper/lower case • Itallics • Bold • House style—keeping the style of the magazine consistent • *Don’t just say what they have done, explain why they have done it and the effect that it has on the reader* Uses mainly SERIF fonts to make it look more formal and mature. MASTHEAD and MAIN COVERLINE have largest fonts Uses SPECIALIST TYPEFACE for MASTHEAD and ‘OMG District 3’. Use of HANDWRITING style fonts to make it look more personal.
  11. 11. MODEL ANSWER - TYPOGRAPHY Typography is used in this extract to create effect and this is also shown on the front cover. The masthead used in this extract is written in relaxed, sophisticated sans-serif font which correctly reflects how the magazine is targeted towards a mature, sophisticated type of woman. By not including a serif font in the making of the masthead it gives the reader the idea that this magazine contains light hearted, modern information throughout the magazine. Furthermore, through the use of the masthead, the audience are given an insight as to what the content of the magazine will be like, therefore creating effect.
  12. 12. COLOUR Connotation – suggested meaning or association Eg. The colour red has connotations of passion, danger and love. The colour pink implies femininity, fun and frivolity The colour white suggests purity and innocence
  13. 13. MODEL ANSWER - COLOUR Colour is also used to create effect and this is shown on the contents page. Due to the fact that this issue of the magazine was published in summer 2008, the colour scheme suites it appropriately by using bright, vibrant shades to promote happiness and femininity. By using a vibrant red, blue, purple, yellow, mauve, green and orange it connotes certain things according to the title. An example of this is red used with the words “Real Life” because red can connote love, death, danger and romance due to its versatile meaning. Therefore, colouring is used in this magazine to create effect, in order to almost direct the reader into certain moods and thoughts.
  14. 14. Q3. REPRESENTATION – 20 MARKS • You need to show how lifestyles have been represented in the extract – assumes men and women think a certain way and hold certain ideals. Write about the text as well as the images – use specific examples. • Talk about positive and negative representations • Is it stereotypical? • Talk about what is missing as well as what is there eg. Representations of homosexuality, people with disabilities and ethnic minorities. Look for things like: Body ideals, relationship ideals, women all want to look good and be good housewives and be healthy, men all want to be cool and have perfect muscles, we all aspire to look like models and celebrities. We all want to look young. These things make us happy.
  15. 15. A MODEL ANSWER - REPRESENTATION Discuss the ways in which women and/or femininity are represented in the extract. In this extract, women are represented negatively and one reason fro this is because of the use of language. An example of this is in the editor’s letter in which Susie Forbes writes, “How to look good on holiday – a subject we tackle at some length in this issue – is surely one of life’s biggest conundrums.” By using the “we” it uses direct address to assume that the women who’d read this magazine have nothing more concerning in their lives than fashion. This therefore represents women negatively because it results back to how a classic housewife should act – to just look nice and cook the meals. However, women are also represented positively on the front cover. An example of this is the image of Kylie Minogue and the teaser beside which reads, “KYLIE MINOGUE 50 AND fabulous”. This portrays women positively because although Kylie has had a publicly tough life, she is still shown to be beautiful, pure and happy through the use of the image. By smiling promiscuously, it gives off the impression that even at forty women can still be sexy. Therefore this gives women a sense of pride and rewards as to the ‘guts’ of certain women. On the contrary, women are also represented negatively on the front page. A teaser reads, “The marriage crime you don’t even know you’re committing”, and this portrays the impression that firstly a woman’s life revolves entirely around marriages and families. Due to this it implies that all women are capable of is marriage and possibly not an actual career. Also, by saying that the audience wouldn’t “even know” they’re committing the certain crime, it is slightly degrading by implying that they possibly don’t have the brains to understand. Finally, women are also evidently represented positively on the contents page. By including information on a physical activity which is set aside from typical women’s sports like yoga and jogging, it reinforces how women are capable of doing the same amount and styles of physical activity as males. Furthermore, the audience will gain a sense of pride in themselves, when the magazine implies that all women are capable of such things. The magazine notably excludes representations of homosexuality and women with disabilities. The assumed readership is heterosexual and stereotypical.
  16. 16. SECTION B – TV COMEDY Tips: Don’t mix up the questions! Learn the difference between audience pleasures and scheduling and institutions You only have 30 mins for section B – 15 mins per question SO Don’t waffle – get as many points down as you know Use examples from the programmes for audience pleasures.
  17. 17. Q1. INSTITUTIONS (CHANNELS) AND SCHEDULING INSTITUTIONS/ CHANNELS • Licence fee—what we pay to have the BBC without adverts • PSB—Public Service broadcasting—like the BBC purpose to educate and inform as well as entertain • Non-PSB—can show what they want for entertainment • Commercial—channels financed by showing adverts • Terrestrial—BBC1, BBC2, ITV1 and Channel 4 • Digital—all other channels AUDIENCE • Psychographic personality, values, opinions, lifestyles • Demographic—age, social bands, gender, nationality • Mass— wide audience/ the masses • Niche – small audience SCHEDULING • Showcase—show off new programmes • Premier time slot—best time to schedule for maximum audience • Watershed—after 9pm adult content can be shown • Rolling programme—repeats the same programmes • Mixed schedule—doesn’t repeat • Stripped schedule—shows the same programmes • Prime time—when the most viewers watch the most popular shows • KEY WORDS
  18. 18. A MODEL ANSWER – INSTITUTIONS AND SCHEDULING 4a) Discuss two TV or radio comedies you have studied. Discuss why they were scheduled: -on the channels that chose them -on the days and times they were transmitted. My two comedies are Have I Got News for You (HIGNFY) and The Big Bang Theory. HIGNFY is scheduled on BBC 1 at 9pm on Friday nights and it is repeated the next day. It fits BBC1 as it is a mainstream programme that will appeal to a wide audience because it is funny. It is also educational as it covers serious subjects like politics, so this makes it fit Public Service Broadcasting because it is funded by the licence fee and so has to have a reason for charging people to watch it. Friday night is a good time for comedy as it is a wind down time of the week, so BBC1 always shows comedy at this time. 9pm is a good time as it is after the watershed so it can contain swearing and adult or rude subjects. The programme that follows is usually a comedy as well because it can inherit HIGNFY's audience. The programme can also be downloaded on BBC iplayer. The Big Bang Theory is shown on E4. It shows many episodes back to back throughout the week but the current series is scheduled at 8pm on a Thursday and is immediately followed by another episode at 8.30pm. The Big Bang Theory fits E4 because it is a channel aimed at young people who are the target audience for this programme. It also fits because E4 shows a lot of comedy shows, especially 'cool' shows from America. E4 can do this as it a niche audience channel that is not covered by PSB (Public Service Broadcasting) regulations as it is not a terrestrial channel. This means it can have stripped schedules and repeat programmes over and over again that are aimed at young people. This makes it easier for young people to know what is going to be on E4. The repeated episodes of Big Bang are shown at lunchtimes and early evening as they are not considered important enough for prime time but the current series episodes have a prime time slot. It can also be downloaded on 4oD. The BBC would not show an American import like Big Bang because it is supposed to make it's own programmes. E4 would not show HIGNFY as most of it's audience are much older than the E4 audience.
  19. 19. Q2. AUDIENCE PLEASURES HAVE I GOT NEWS FOR YOU panel game show almost live Paul Merton and Ian Hislop infotainment different guests/presenters every week quiz people performing as themselves unscripted humour comes from attacking people and events in the news attacks the rich and powerful BIG BANG THEORY Sit-com based on characters in everyday situations just for entertainment regular characters drama has a narrative narrative resolution people acting as characters we sympathise with the characters Scripted Sheldon and Penny BOTH use verbal comedy intellect is cool
  20. 20. A MODEL ANSWER – AUDIENCE PLEASURES 4b) Explain how these two programmes offer their audiences different pleasures. HIGNFY is very different to Big Bang as it is an almost live comedy panel game show about recent events in the world whereas Big Bang is a sitcom where the comedy is based on characters and everyday situations. HIGNFY is 'infotainment' as it offers some education on the news events of the week, whereas Big Bang is simply for entertainment. HIGNFY has regular stars - Paul Merton and Ian Hislop - that the audience can tune in and see sparring with each other every week. This is similar to the regular characters in Big Bang, such as Sheldon and Penny, who are in some ways like a family who the audience can drop in on regularly. One big difference is that HIGNFY is presented by different people every week and has different guests and the audience can tune in to see who will be presenting this week and how well they will do. Big Bang on the other hand usually has more or less the same cast in every episode, but different storylines for the audiences to follow. Big Bang is a drama, so it has episodes with narratives that are resolved at the end of the episode. This gives the audience the pleasure of a story being told. HIGNFY follows a similar pattern every week but, but there is little sense of a narrative resolution - one team will win the competition, but this is really a throwaway ending. The quiz is an excuse for people to be funny. Big Bang will have situations where we can sympathise with the characters as well as laugh with them or at them. For example, when Leonard is unlucky in love or when Raj can't talk in the presence of women. HIGNFY is more about people performing for TV as themselves so we tend to judge them on how well they have performed instead of feeling for them.