Socioeconomic Indicators as a Complement to Life Cycle Assessment

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Socioeconomic Indicators as a Complement to Life Cycle Assessment

  1. 1. Socioeconomic Indicators as a Complement to Life Cycle Assessment The Case of Salmon Production A Presentation for IntLCA Portland, Oregon, October 2007 Credit: American Rivers <ul><li>Sarah Kruse 1 Anna Flysjö 2 , Nadja Kasperczyk 3 , and Astrid Scholz 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotrust </li></ul><ul><li>SIK-Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The Institute for Rural Development Research (IfLS) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Project Background & Overview <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for seafood products is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>The impacts of both the modern fishing and aquaculture industry are not widely understood </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to provide a basis upon which consumers and producers can make sustainable choices and policymakers can promote improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>LCA of major salmon fishing & farming systems globally </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: North-East Pacific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 2005 to March 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: North-East Atlantic and Chile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 2007 to December 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Take accepted socioeconomic sustainability standards and operationalize them as a set of widely applicable indicators that complement the traditional LCA framework </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator Categorization and Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Application to Salmon Production Systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Indicator Selection <ul><li>Use both top-down and bottom-up approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on finding indicators to describe existing standards and broad societal values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge limitations of and gaps in existing data as well as industry specific needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three indicator criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practicability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Indicator Categorization and Definition <ul><li>Process resulted in two categories of indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive: General and Specific </li></ul></ul>Fair Price for Salmon Fair Wage Production Costs Example Maybe Maybe Yes Comparability Specific General General Applicability Quantitative or qualitative Quantitative or qualitative Quantitative Measurement method No No Yes Relation to the functional unit Specific General Descriptive Indicators Additive Indicators Indicator Characteristic
  6. 6. Indicators for Salmon Production <ul><li>Distance traveled </li></ul><ul><li>Access to bathroom/potable water </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum age of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Age distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Right to organize </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination/gender </li></ul><ul><li>Forced labor </li></ul><ul><li>Hours worked per week </li></ul><ul><li>Employment benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Fair wage </li></ul>Descriptive General <ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths/Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacency </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered person hours </li></ul><ul><li>Owner-operator </li></ul><ul><li>Person hours of production </li></ul><ul><li>Latent quota </li></ul><ul><li>Value-added </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Fair price </li></ul><ul><li>Labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to income </li></ul><ul><li>Production costs </li></ul>Descriptive Specific Additive
  7. 7. Example - Price Indicator * These values are approximations based on a case study from Cordova, Alaska to Portland, Oregon. $44.06 $37.45 $41.85 Consumer Pays Wholesale/Retail $19.31 $13.31 $17.79 Transport (Cordova to Portland) $19.20 $13.20 $16.84 Wholesale Pays Processor $8.04 $8.04 $8.04 Processor Pays Fishery Smoked Fillet Frozen Fillet Fresh Fillet   Price Per Kilogram of Troll Caught Alaska Chinook*
  8. 8. Example - Value Added Indicator * These values are approximations based on a case study from Cordova, Alaska to Portland, Oregon.    Consumer $24.75 $24.13 $24.07 Wholesale/Retail $0.11 $0.11 $0.95 Transport (Cordova to Portland) $11.15 $5.16 $8.79 Processor $8.04 $8.04 $8.04 Fishery Smoked Fillet Frozen Fillet Fresh Fillet   Value Added Per Kilogram of Troll Caught Alaska Chinook*
  9. 9. Example – Novel Use of LCA Data <ul><li>Can calculate the integrated “food miles” and associated emission intensity </li></ul>
  10. 10. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Difficulty with integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to data and data gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess of tradeoffs between stakeholders, indicators and pillars of sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining “baselines” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Complement” versus “Integration” </li></ul><ul><li>Generally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop indicators that are widely applicable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on a limited number of indicators in the first case study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Study Specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lenfest Ocean Program </li></ul><ul><li>Project team </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants N. Kasperczyk, M. Gorny, J. Ford, N. Arsenault </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotrust communications and design staff </li></ul><ul><li>Countless generous data sources </li></ul>

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