Do natural disturbance regimes  provide realistic guidelines for  managing  early-successional habitats  in New England fo...
Major forest types in northern U.S. Lull (1968)
 
 
~ 1880
~ 1930 >50% of forest vertebrates utilize early-successional stands
 
Obligate users RELATIVE USE 0 1.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 AGE OF STAND 0.5
Golden-winged warbler USGS
FOREST CLEARING FARM ABANDONMENT FOREST MATURATION Relative abundance of early-successional habitats RETURN TO PRE-COLUMBI...
How much was there?
source: Harvard Forest
Methods to Estimate  Natural Disturbance Regimes   Lorimer and White (2003) <ul><li>Sedimentary pollen and charcoal </li><...
Large-scale fires infrequent in New England, ~800-1,200 years  1790 survey in NY found that 1% of landscape burned or open.
Small-scale wind storms:  kill one to several trees.  In eastern U. S., 0.2- 2%/year of all forests are affected by wind t...
Large-scale wind storms:  hurricanes or tornadoes at irregular intervals (1635, 1788, 1815, 1938, and 1944). 1938 hurrican...
Approximate return interval of  damaging (F2) hurricanes in  New England. Boose et al. (2001) 85 yr 150 yr 380 yr >380 yr
 
Wilson 2005 Lumber Exports (Wilson 2005) vs Witness Trees Projections (Lorimer 1977): very different estimates of the prom...
Northern Hardwoods seedling/sapling (1-15 yrs):  1-3% young pole (15-30 yrs):  1-3%   2-6% Pitch Pine- Scrub Oak seedling/...
Trani et al. (2001) Early-successional forests in the eastern U.S. 9% 4%
What About Biotic Disturbances?
Contemporary Herbivores
flooded forest  pond  wet meadow  shrubs  forest
Open water areas created by beaver dams on the Kabetogama Peninsula, northern MN . 1940: 1% of area 1986: 13% of area John...
Northern Hardwoods seedling/sapling  1-3% young pole    1-3% beaver flowages  ~ 3.5% (Gotie and Jenks 1982)   5-11% (Lorim...
Even if we can accurately estimate HRNV, are these values relevant  in contemporary landscapes?
40/mi 2 1100/mi 2 POPULATION DENSITY
Hoving (2001) Road Density in the Northeast
 
 
 
 
0 20 40 60 80 100 COMPOSITION (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 RACCOON/CANID TRACKS CANIDS RACCOONS LANDSCAPE FOR DEV AGR
   2.5 ha    5 ha Winter mortality: Patches   69% 35%
OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY FOOD QUALITY LARGE PATCHES SMALL  PATCHES THRESHOLD? CONDITION-SENSITIVE PREDATION
9 JAN 16 JAN 23 JAN 30 JAN 6 FEB 13 FEB 20 FEB 27 FEB 6 MAR 13 MAR 20 MAR 27 MAR 3 APR 10 APR 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 UN:C  RATIO ...
New approaches needed to provide habitat
Parcelization or Fragmentation potential to mimic  natural disturbances restoration of shrublands/ modified disturbance re...
MANAGING INDUCED METAPOPULATIONS: may require deviating from HRNV ME NH VT NY MA CT RI
 
 
 
DESCRIBING HABITAT  DISTURBANCES Size Frequency Intensity
 
Do natural disturbance regimes  provide realistic guidelines for  managing early-successional habitats  in New England for...
 
Human-generated disturbances
Pisgah Forest in southwestern New Hampshire three years after 1938 hurricane.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

John A. Litvaitis - Case Study From Our Neighbors in the Eastern U.S.

710 views

Published on

John A. Litvaitis - Case Study From Our Neighbors in the Eastern U.S.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
710
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
59
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

John A. Litvaitis - Case Study From Our Neighbors in the Eastern U.S.

  1. 1. Do natural disturbance regimes provide realistic guidelines for managing early-successional habitats in New England forests? 
  2. 2. Major forest types in northern U.S. Lull (1968)
  3. 5. ~ 1880
  4. 6. ~ 1930 >50% of forest vertebrates utilize early-successional stands
  5. 8. Obligate users RELATIVE USE 0 1.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 AGE OF STAND 0.5
  6. 9. Golden-winged warbler USGS
  7. 10. FOREST CLEARING FARM ABANDONMENT FOREST MATURATION Relative abundance of early-successional habitats RETURN TO PRE-COLUMBIAN CONDITIONS ?
  8. 11. How much was there?
  9. 12. source: Harvard Forest
  10. 13. Methods to Estimate Natural Disturbance Regimes Lorimer and White (2003) <ul><li>Sedimentary pollen and charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Presettlement land surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions by early naturalists </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of disturbance history in old-growth stands </li></ul><ul><li>Modern records and aerial photos </li></ul><ul><li>Computer models </li></ul>
  11. 14. Large-scale fires infrequent in New England, ~800-1,200 years 1790 survey in NY found that 1% of landscape burned or open.
  12. 15. Small-scale wind storms: kill one to several trees. In eastern U. S., 0.2- 2%/year of all forests are affected by wind throw. At any time, 5-50% of a forest may be affected.
  13. 16. Large-scale wind storms: hurricanes or tornadoes at irregular intervals (1635, 1788, 1815, 1938, and 1944). 1938 hurricane affected >240,000 ha in New England Boose et al. (2001)
  14. 17. Approximate return interval of damaging (F2) hurricanes in New England. Boose et al. (2001) 85 yr 150 yr 380 yr >380 yr
  15. 19. Wilson 2005 Lumber Exports (Wilson 2005) vs Witness Trees Projections (Lorimer 1977): very different estimates of the prominence of white pine (>10x), indicating a large difference in the frequency and scale of disturbance in these forests.
  16. 20. Northern Hardwoods seedling/sapling (1-15 yrs): 1-3% young pole (15-30 yrs): 1-3% 2-6% Pitch Pine- Scrub Oak seedling/sapling: 10-30% young pole: 10-30% 20-60% (Lorimer and White 2003)
  17. 21. Trani et al. (2001) Early-successional forests in the eastern U.S. 9% 4%
  18. 22. What About Biotic Disturbances?
  19. 23. Contemporary Herbivores
  20. 24. flooded forest pond wet meadow shrubs forest
  21. 25. Open water areas created by beaver dams on the Kabetogama Peninsula, northern MN . 1940: 1% of area 1986: 13% of area Johnston and Naiman (1990) How large an area affected?
  22. 26. Northern Hardwoods seedling/sapling 1-3% young pole 1-3% beaver flowages ~ 3.5% (Gotie and Jenks 1982) 5-11% (Lorimer and White 2003)
  23. 27. Even if we can accurately estimate HRNV, are these values relevant in contemporary landscapes?
  24. 28. 40/mi 2 1100/mi 2 POPULATION DENSITY
  25. 29. Hoving (2001) Road Density in the Northeast
  26. 34. 0 20 40 60 80 100 COMPOSITION (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 RACCOON/CANID TRACKS CANIDS RACCOONS LANDSCAPE FOR DEV AGR
  27. 35.  2.5 ha  5 ha Winter mortality: Patches 69% 35%
  28. 36. OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY FOOD QUALITY LARGE PATCHES SMALL PATCHES THRESHOLD? CONDITION-SENSITIVE PREDATION
  29. 37. 9 JAN 16 JAN 23 JAN 30 JAN 6 FEB 13 FEB 20 FEB 27 FEB 6 MAR 13 MAR 20 MAR 27 MAR 3 APR 10 APR 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 UN:C RATIO 4 3 3 3 4 5 6 3 2 5 13 11 13 13 12 6 2 9 7 7 8 5 5 5 8 5 4 4
  30. 38. New approaches needed to provide habitat
  31. 39. Parcelization or Fragmentation potential to mimic natural disturbances restoration of shrublands/ modified disturbance regime (“sliding scale”) modified disturbances (large and clustered/connected) limited extreme Forest Age young old
  32. 40. MANAGING INDUCED METAPOPULATIONS: may require deviating from HRNV ME NH VT NY MA CT RI
  33. 44. DESCRIBING HABITAT DISTURBANCES Size Frequency Intensity
  34. 46. Do natural disturbance regimes provide realistic guidelines for managing early-successional habitats in New England forests? 
  35. 48. Human-generated disturbances
  36. 49. Pisgah Forest in southwestern New Hampshire three years after 1938 hurricane.

×