Ecological Strategies of Northeastern Scrub-shrub Birds Scott Schlossberg David King Dept. of Nat. Res. Conservation  U.S....
 
 
 
Shrubland birds
Shrubland management, 12000 BC R. Askins,  Restoring North America’s Birds , 2000
Shrubland management now
USFS Forest Inventory & Analysis
Brown  Thrasher Field Sparrow Chestnut-sided Warbler Eastern Towhee Common Yellowthroat Golden-winged Warbler
Questions <ul><li>What ecological strategies do shrubland birds follow? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we take advantage of tho...
Forests and shrublands high uncommon large permanent Forests Habitat extent Edges Patch size Patch lifespan low prominent ...
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </l...
<ul><li>Generalized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted t...
Silvicultural openings vs. old fields
Silvicultural openings vs. old fields King et al,  For .  Ecol .  Mgmt ., 2009
Aber,  Ecology  1979 60:18-23 Succession
Succession Schlossberg & King,  J. Wildl. Mgmt . 2009 Year after logging Relative abundance
Birds in wetlands and uplands
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High disper...
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High disp...
Successional stage: early late Dispersal rate: high low
 
Schlossberg,  Condor , 2009 Mean return rates: Forest = 0.36 Shrubland = 0.35
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typi...
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typi...
Whitcomb et al.,  Forest Island Dynamics Indigo Bunting Northern Cardinal
 
 
Meta-analysis <ul><li>Studies: report bird abundance in edges and interiors of regenerating clearcuts in the eastern U.S. ...
avoids edges prefers edges
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typi...
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typi...
Seymour et al.,  For .  Ecol .  Mgmt . 2003 Natural canopy gaps Severe fire and wind Disturbance dynamics in eastern fores...
Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts
Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts  Schlossberg and King 2007 Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rode...
Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts  Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rodewald and  Vitz 2005 Alder ...
 
Bird abundances in rights-of-way
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized   Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typi...
Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Typical dispersal rate ...
Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul>
 
Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul>
Small openings create more fragmentation 16 ha affected 40 ha affected 1 clearcut, 9 ha 9 groupcuts, 1-ha each King  et al...
Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul><ul><li>Simple ...
Mitchell et al. 2003
Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul><ul><li>Simple ...
 
What we need to know <ul><li>Landscape ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Nesting success </li></ul><ul><li>Post-fledging ecology <...
Post-fledging habitat use by forest birds C. Chandler, thesis, 2007
King et al.,  J .  Zoology , 2006 Fink, thesis, 2003
low? high? Post-fledging survival ??? ??? Population growth rate high low Nest success
Acknowledgments <ul><li>Natural Resources Conservation Service, Inventory & Assessment Division </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Fis...
 
Area sensitivity in wildlife openings R. Chandler, thesis, 2006
Litvaitis 2003 Shrubland management now
Study Study location Study sites DeGraaf 1992 New Hampshire  8 Fink et al. 2006 Missouri 6 Rodewald & Vitz 2005 Ohio 24 Ta...
Imbeau et al.,  Ecography  2003
Evidence from western birds
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Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds

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  • When we think of the Northeast, we think this…
  • … and this, lots of forest.
  • Variety of s-s habitats in NE, make up significant percent of land area
  • Large, diverse bird community. Historically, habitat maintained by natural disturbances
  • … like this guy here. Unfortunately, mastodons aren’t around any more, so we have to do the work ourselves to maintain shrublands
  • Today, most s-s habitats maintained by deliberate management/anthropogenic disturbances. Ideally we’d have enough habitat that we wouldn’t have to worry about the details of management…
  • Unfortunately, not enough.
  • And now bird pops. tanking. THis is our motivation for our work on s-s birds. Given declining bird pops. and habitat limitation, imp. to determine the best ways to manage for them.
  • One way to think about ecol. strategies of s-s birds is to compare shrublands and eastern forests, where birds are well-studied. Forest are relatively permanent…
  • Based on ecology of shrublands in NE, here’s what we might expect. If go to literature, can find people saying these things about s-s birds. (After introducing each one): Really, this is what we hope for—would make management easy!
  • Going to go through these 4 areas 1-by-1 and see if the data support our predictions. Start w/hab. relationships. People call s-s birds generalists—why? Live in multiple habitats, clearcuts, swamps, especially suburbs. Hoping to avoid that sort of anecdotal reasoning…so we went out and surveyed birds in the field.
  • Contrast dandelions (r-selected, poor competitors, high dispersal rate) with
  • Site fidelity review methods
  • For forest birds, edges can be a major conservation issue—depressed abundances and increased predation rates along edges. Often think about edge effects in terms of forest fragmentation.
  • If you go out into these fragmented forests and look at s-s birds,…
  • Significant for 8 of 17 species.
  • Truism in conservation biology that larger patches are better, define minimum patch sizes for forest birds
  • Historical changes in s-s habitat; success in restoring forest; less success in restoring shrublands/natural disturbance regimes
  • Idea that s-s birds are edge specialists became so well entrenched that the two became essentially synonymous
  • Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds

    1. 1. Ecological Strategies of Northeastern Scrub-shrub Birds Scott Schlossberg David King Dept. of Nat. Res. Conservation U.S. Forest Service University of Massachusetts Northern Research Station
    2. 5. Shrubland birds
    3. 6. Shrubland management, 12000 BC R. Askins, Restoring North America’s Birds , 2000
    4. 7. Shrubland management now
    5. 8. USFS Forest Inventory & Analysis
    6. 9. Brown Thrasher Field Sparrow Chestnut-sided Warbler Eastern Towhee Common Yellowthroat Golden-winged Warbler
    7. 10. Questions <ul><li>What ecological strategies do shrubland birds follow? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we take advantage of those strategies to manage bird populations? </li></ul>
    8. 11. Forests and shrublands high uncommon large permanent Forests Habitat extent Edges Patch size Patch lifespan low prominent small ~20 years Shrublands
    9. 12. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    10. 13. <ul><li>Generalized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    11. 14. Silvicultural openings vs. old fields
    12. 15. Silvicultural openings vs. old fields King et al, For . Ecol . Mgmt ., 2009
    13. 16. Aber, Ecology 1979 60:18-23 Succession
    14. 17. Succession Schlossberg & King, J. Wildl. Mgmt . 2009 Year after logging Relative abundance
    15. 18. Birds in wetlands and uplands
    16. 19. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    17. 20. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    18. 21. Successional stage: early late Dispersal rate: high low
    19. 23. Schlossberg, Condor , 2009 Mean return rates: Forest = 0.36 Shrubland = 0.35
    20. 24. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    21. 25. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    22. 26. Whitcomb et al., Forest Island Dynamics Indigo Bunting Northern Cardinal
    23. 29. Meta-analysis <ul><li>Studies: report bird abundance in edges and interiors of regenerating clearcuts in the eastern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Edge: within 30 m of forest edge </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: ≥ 60 m into clearcut </li></ul>
    24. 30. avoids edges prefers edges
    25. 31. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    26. 32. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size </li></ul>
    27. 33. Seymour et al., For . Ecol . Mgmt . 2003 Natural canopy gaps Severe fire and wind Disturbance dynamics in eastern forests
    28. 34. Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts
    29. 35. Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts Schlossberg and King 2007 Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rodewald and Vitz 2005 Alder flycatcher Blue-winged warbler Black-and-white warbler Cedar waxwing Common yellowthroat Chestnut-sided warbler Field sparrow Indigo bunting Mourning warbler Prairie warbler
    30. 36. Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rodewald and Vitz 2005 Alder flycatcher CC Blue-winged warbler CC CC Black-and-white warbler CC CC CC Cedar waxwing CC Common yellowthroat CC CC Chestnut-sided warbler CC Field sparrow CC CC CC Indigo bunting CC CC CC CC Mourning warbler CC Prairie warbler CC CC CC
    31. 38. Bird abundances in rights-of-way
    32. 39. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Generalized Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>High Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to patch size Area-sensitive </li></ul>
    33. 40. Ecological strategies of shrubland birds <ul><li>Specialized habitat preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Typical dispersal rate </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid edges </li></ul><ul><li>Area-sensitive </li></ul>
    34. 41. Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul>
    35. 43. Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul>
    36. 44. Small openings create more fragmentation 16 ha affected 40 ha affected 1 clearcut, 9 ha 9 groupcuts, 1-ha each King et al. 1998
    37. 45. Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul><ul><li>Simple shapes to minimize edge </li></ul>
    38. 46. Mitchell et al. 2003
    39. 47. Management implications <ul><li>Diversity of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Larger openings better </li></ul><ul><li>Simple shapes to minimize edge </li></ul><ul><li>Partial cutting is not a panacea </li></ul>
    40. 49. What we need to know <ul><li>Landscape ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Nesting success </li></ul><ul><li>Post-fledging ecology </li></ul>
    41. 50. Post-fledging habitat use by forest birds C. Chandler, thesis, 2007
    42. 51. King et al., J . Zoology , 2006 Fink, thesis, 2003
    43. 52. low? high? Post-fledging survival ??? ??? Population growth rate high low Nest success
    44. 53. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Natural Resources Conservation Service, Inventory & Assessment Division </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service </li></ul><ul><li>C. Chandler, R. Chandler, B. Mazzei </li></ul>
    45. 55. Area sensitivity in wildlife openings R. Chandler, thesis, 2006
    46. 56. Litvaitis 2003 Shrubland management now
    47. 57. Study Study location Study sites DeGraaf 1992 New Hampshire 8 Fink et al. 2006 Missouri 6 Rodewald & Vitz 2005 Ohio 24 Talbott & Yahner 2003 Pennsylvania 20 Yahner 1987 Pennsylvania 6 Elliott 1987 Maine 8 Kerpez 1994 Virginia 8
    48. 58. Imbeau et al., Ecography 2003
    49. 59. Evidence from western birds

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