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Can We Emulate Early Seral Forest Through Silviculture


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Can We Emulate Early Seral Forest Through Silviculture

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Can We Emulate Early Seral Forest Through Silviculture

  1. 1. Can we emulate early seral forest through silviculture? Klaus J. Puettmann Edmund Hayes Professor in Siviculture Alternatives Adrian Ares Research Associate Oregon State University
  2. 2. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management of vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after stand replacing disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after partial disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Thinning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Gaps </li></ul></ul></ul>Outline
  3. 3. Early seral forest <ul><li>conditions after a disturbance that removes overstory </li></ul>Background
  4. 4. <ul><li>Structure: “Open growing space”; allowing for establishment of vegetation and associated insects, animals, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift towards “tall” canopy layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition: dominance of early successional species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts towards late seral species (within and among canopy layers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacies from pre-disturbance vegetation </li></ul>Background
  5. 5. Legacies <ul><li>Important for ecosystems processes and function </li></ul><ul><li>Influence development of early and late seral conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprouting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover that prevents establishment of early seral species </li></ul></ul>Background
  6. 6. Suislaw NF Willamette NF From Yang et al. 2005 Structural development of plantations Conifer cover
  7. 7. 20 years 6 years 13 years Management – Stand replacing disturbances ODF land OR Coast Range
  8. 8. Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Management – Stand replacing disturbances “ Arrested” stand development Ceanothus after wildfire, Umatilla NF
  9. 9. P. Anderson, USFS L. Kayes L. Kayes 2 nd growing season 3 rd growing season Management – Stand replacing disturbances Impacts of legacies – Sprouts Timbered Rock, BLM
  10. 10. P. Anderson, USFS Management – Stand replacing disturbances Shrub removal No treatment Hardwood control initially maintains “open” structure
  11. 11. T. Harrington USFS Management – Stand replacing disturbances Intensive hardwood control accelerates dominance of conifers
  12. 12. Unmanaged 125 snags/ha (range 21-229 ) Management – Stand replacing disturbances
  13. 13. Natural regeneration (no salvage logging or planting) suggest longer early seral phase Management – Stand replacing disturbances # dominant seedlings established
  14. 14. Conifer size distribution M. J. Lopez 2008 <ul><li>Management (salvage, fuel treatment, planting, </li></ul><ul><li>release) speeds up conifer dominance </li></ul><ul><li>* Spatial evenness (!!) </li></ul>Management – Stand replacing disturbances
  15. 15. > 15 feet = gap How many gaps are in ODF plantations? Management – Stand replacing disturbances Low density Gap Road Measurement line
  16. 16. Puettmann and Berger 2005 Management – Stand replacing disturbances Gaps contain early seral vegetation, but disappear as stands develop 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 YEAR planted % area in gap
  17. 17. Spatial scale and variability Timber production Structural Diversity Management – Stand replacing disturbances
  18. 18. No management Management – keep gaps open Gap - scale Management – stand replacing disturbances Ongoing studies:
  19. 19. 6% of plantation in gaps Does wildlife notice the difference? Gap and stand scale Management – Stand replacing disturbances Ongoing studies:
  20. 20. YSTDS - Christy Flats Management – Partial disturbances Thinning and gaps = managing for early seral legacies in mature forests
  21. 21. Control High Moderate Variable density Modified from Berryman, unpubl. Management – Partial disturbances
  22. 22. Structural development: Herbs take advantage of disturbance Tall shrubs recover slow Study Results From Ares et al. 2009 Management – Partial disturbances
  23. 23. Harvesting layout to protect shrubs (legacies) Management – Partial disturbances
  24. 24. From Ares et al. 2009 Management – Partial disturbances Early seral herbs are responsive: structure and composition C = Control LC = Low complexity thinning MC = Moderate complexity thinning HC = High complexity thinning
  25. 25. Management – Partial disturbances Shrub layer slow to recover and dominated by “legacies” C = Control LC = Low complexity thinning MC = Moderate complexity thinning HC = High complexity thinning
  26. 26. Early seral vegetation 11-years after thinning Management – Partial disturbances “ Long-term” impact C = Control HD = High density MD = Moderate density VD = Variable density
  27. 27. Lindh and Muir 2004 Management – Partial disturbances
  28. 28. <ul><li>Gap influence </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages early seral vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to “gap” </li></ul><ul><li>Early seral species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for light (large gaps only) </li></ul></ul>Fahey and Puettmann, FEM 2008 Competitor Management – Partial disturbances
  29. 29. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>Distinction between structure and composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow vegetation development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Short-term versus medium term impacts of management practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Choice of legacies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning and gap creation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to scale allows early seral legacies in mature forests </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Acknowledgements: </li></ul><ul><li>L. Kayes, P. Anderson, T. Harrington, M. Lopez, J. Shatford, D. Hibbs and all people involved in the various thinning studies </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and comments? </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>