Water Quality and Urban Wastewater Management in China

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Presented by Yusha Hu at the Beijing Energy & Environment Roundtable on Jan 21, 2009.

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  • Water Quality and Urban Wastewater Management in China

    1. 1. Water Use in China: Ensuring a Sustainable Future Water Quality and Urban Wastewater Management in China Yusha Hu January 21, 2009 Beijing Energy & Environment Roundtable Hosted by Beijing Energy Network
    2. 2. WATER RESOURCES HUMAN USE Presentation will focus on the process of returning water to the natural environment
    3. 3. Why focus here? <ul><ul><li>“ The water pollution problem is the biggest headache. While pollution in some areas has been controlled, overall we feel that there is no fundamental improvement.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice Minister Suo Lisheng of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)’s Ministry of Water Resources (2001-2005), 2005 interview </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Source: Hu, Hongying and Yudong Song. 2006. Water environmental situation and control in China. ESPC Key State Joint Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Tsinghua University. 54% 72%
    5. 5. Average Water Qualities in Northern and Southern Rivers (1991-2005)‏ Source: World Bank 2006, data from China Environmental statistics Yearbook (various years)‏
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>COD/BOD Nitrogen Inorganic (Organic matter) (Heavy metals, etc)‏ </li></ul></ul>Who's polluting what? <ul><ul><li>Domestic Industry Agriculture </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Distribution of Water Use Across Sectors Ministry of Water Resources 2005 Statistic Bulletin on China Water Activities
    8. 8. China's Urban Wastewater Management The Impact of Policy and Financing
    9. 9. Current Situation and Goals Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    10. 10. Capacity vs. Performance Huge variation in performance: Bottom 1/3 using less than 50% of hydraulic design capacity, top 1/3 using nearly 100% China National Auditing Office: 77% of audited wastewater treatment plants were underutilized Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    11. 11. No Money for Operation or Maintenance Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    12. 12. Prices too low for water and discharge fees
    13. 13. Wastewater not reaching treatment plant <ul><li>Wastewater plant </li></ul><ul><li>Run by BOT joint venture, private firm, or privatized government department </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage network </li></ul><ul><li>Typically run by district and municipal drainage department </li></ul>Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities No integration!
    14. 14. Efforts to Improve Performance 11 th 5-Year Plan Water Treatment Investments Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    15. 15. A closer look: Differences between cities Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    16. 16. Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities High investment from municipal governments
    17. 17. For Perspective: South Korea Source: World Development Indicators & S. Korea Ministry of Environment Statistical Yearbook, cited in World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities Korean GDP per Capita vs. Percent Wastewater treated
    18. 18. <ul><li>Current standards based on the body of water a plant is discharging to, not the economic situation of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Can be as high as Class IA: secondary, tertiary treatment required </li></ul>Uniform Standards or Transitional Standards? Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities
    19. 19. <ul><li>Standards must reflect reasonable goals and take into account resources of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal cost of meeting extremely high standards better spent in other sectors of pollution abatement </li></ul>Transitional standards!
    20. 20. <ul><li>Integrated Wastewater Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage networks and treatment plants need to be run by same entity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decrease municipal investment, allow less complicated and more flexible private sector participation </li></ul><ul><li>Higher progressively priced water tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Set enforceable standards </li></ul>Lessons Learned and Conclusions Source: World Bank 2007: Improving the Performance of China's Urban Water Utilities

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