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Value Engineering, What's not to love?

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Value Engineering is a good thing but it is usually confused with cost cutting which is not the same. Done well VE results in better function as well as reduced cost. This seems paradoxical until we try it.

Presentation from the 2015 AECB conference in Sheffield

Published in: Design
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Value Engineering, What's not to love?

  1. 1. Nick%Grant% Value&Engineering; What’s&not&to&love? AECB&Conference Sheffield&2015 Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  2. 2. Value%=% Func@on% Cost% Value&Engineering The%originators%of%VE%found%that%reducing%cost%oDen% increased%func@on.% Value%engineering%(VE)%is%systema@c%method%to%improve% the%"value"%of%goods%or%products%and%services%by%using% an%examina@on%of%func@on.%Value,%as%defined,%is%the% ra@o%of%func@on%to%cost.%Developed%at%GE%in%WW2.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  3. 3. FuncCon&of&Buildings? •  Protec@on% •  Comfort% •  Physical%health% •  Mental%health% •  Impress%other%architects??% •  Others?% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  4. 4. The%crea@ve%process%is%in%formula@ng%the%problem.% Once%that%is%done%in%the%right%way,%it’s%all%rou@ne% table%work.%The%problem%is%solved % Piet%Hein% Art is solving problems that cannot be formulated before they have been solved. The shaping of the question is part of the answer.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  5. 5. Value,&a&branding&problem? Value&Engineering Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  6. 6. Value%Engineering% Cost%CuYng% VE&vs.&Cost&cuIng Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  7. 7. OpCons&to&reduce&cost •  Do%less%–%smaller%building% •  Pay%less%–%play%the%market%–%be%ruthless% % •  Improve%efficiency%–%do%more%for%less% •  Efficient%use%of%space,%materials,%form,% labour% •  Sufficiency%+%efficiency%=%sustainable% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  8. 8. Can&we&put&a&price&on&sustainability? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  9. 9. High&cost,&what&is&the&value?& ‘AspiraConal&green?’ Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  10. 10. What&funcCons&should&we&aspire&to? •  Zero%impact?% •  Net%zero%energy?% •  Plus%energy?% •  Autonomous?% •  Living%Building%Challenge?% •  Local?% •  Urban/Rural?% •  Innova@on% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  11. 11. InnovaCon&as&a&goal%
  12. 12. Why&my&passion&for&VE? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  13. 13. Lucas%Electrathon%1979,%finished%39th%out%of%60%entrants% Cheap%and%cheerful%f%low%cost%and%low%value% (Youngest%entrant,%cheapest%vehicle)%% % Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  14. 14. Cedric&Lynch&–&an&inspiraCon& Radical&VE,&2nd&cheapest&vehicle&in&the&race? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  15. 15. From&soup&Cn&motor&to& TTXGP&winning&machine Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  16. 16. My&formaCve&years,&1980s Parent’s%coiage%industry%chocolate%factory%–%quality%and%economy% GEC%Diesels%–%student%appren@ce%design%engineer% UCL%–%mech%eng% Warwick%Uni%–%EDAT% CAT%–%engineering%vol’,%stand%in%site%engineer% London%Innova@on%Network%–%GLC%–%Cedric%again!% Neater%Eater%–%feeding%aid% Reading%–%Walden,%Small%is%Beau@ful,%Zen%&%The%Art%of%Motorcycle% Maintenance%etc% % VE%was%a%recurrent%theme%for%me% % Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  17. 17. A&very&formaCve&year;& GEC&Diesels&1981[1982 Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  18. 18. GEC&Diesels& •  Inspired%by%VE,%tried%to%introduce%Japanese%Quality% Circles%&%mech’%pencils!% •  Unions%v%management,%blue%collar%v%white%collar% •  Culture%of%conflict,%conserva@sm,%class% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  19. 19. Neater&Eater Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  20. 20. VE&&&Brainstorming;& a&powerful&technique Modern%Toss% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  21. 21. Kaizen& “change&for&beber” (Management%bollockspeak%alert)% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  22. 22. What%happened%to%the%Bri@sh%Motorcycle%industry??%
  23. 23. Unintended&benefits&of&VE •  Cost%goes%down%but%performance%oDen%goes%up% •  Less%waste% •  Less%admin%(e.g%fewer%components%or%variants)% •  Sense%of%worth%and%team%spirit%if%all%involved%and% benefit%shared% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  24. 24. Cost%benefit%assumpCons 1997% Suggests%cost/performance%correla@on%with%one%anomaly.% Lowest%water%use,%best%score,%middle%price%
  25. 25. Market%transformaCon 2003% Market%transforma@on%in%6%years%
  26. 26. Constraints “Here%is%one%of%the%few%effec@ve%keys%to%the%design% problem%—%the%ability%of%the%designer%to%recognize%as% many%of%the%constraints%as%possible%—%his%willingness% and%enthusiasm%for%working%within%these%constraints.% Constraints%of%price,%of%size,%of%strength,%of%balance,% of%surface,%of%@me%and%so%forth.”% “I%have%never%been%forced%to%accept%compromises% but%I%have%willingly%accepted%constraints.”% % Charles%Eames%% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  27. 27. Performance&gap&=&low&value& how&to&design&out?& Code%4%buildings%with%comfort%problems,%a%waste%of% insula@on.% % Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  28. 28. Value%Engineered (3.5%billion%year%design%@me) Why%do%they%always%look%like%birds?% What%can%we%guess% about%this%bird%just%by% looking%at%it?%% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  29. 29. Freedom& Design%freedom% As%free%as%a%bird% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  30. 30. Architecture? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  31. 31. Form&factor&double&whammy Higher%FF%=%more%wall%and%roof% =%more%cost% % Higher%FF%=%more%heat%loss%=% more%insula@on% % More%insula@on%=%more%cost%+% thicker%walls%=%bigger%footprint/ less%floor%=%even%more%cost% % Before%we%even%think%about% complexi@es%of%build,%shading% etc% Passive%House%Design,%Vallen@n%&%Gonzalo%%% FF%=%Heat%loss%area/useful%floor%area% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  32. 32. Form&&&Heatloss;& not&just&buildings Guess%where% this%owl%lives% Compensa@ng%for% too%compact%a%form% by%adding%fins% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  33. 33. OpCmum&form? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  34. 34. PHPP&Tools&to&help&maximise&value& Simple&scenario&tracker Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  35. 35. OpCmisaCon& Savings&for&negaCve&cost Floor%thickness,%span,%ducts,%sound% Op@mum% Ceiling% heights?% % •  Tall%ceilings%are%nice%but% costly%–%heat%loss%area%and% materials%plus%planning% constraints.% •  Use%the%height%where%it%has% maximum%benefit.% •  Clever%design%can%help% deliver%a%Tardis%illusion.% % Window%cill%&%head%he ights?% safety,%escape,%blinds,% storage%etc,%etc.% ? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  36. 36. FenestraCon Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  37. 37. Windows&[&performance For%UK%Building% Regula@ons,%the% performance%of%these% two%windows%can%be% considered%the%same% % But%with%PHPP,%you%have% to%calculate%them% individually% % How%could%you%op@mise% the%window% performance%through% design?% Poor%Installa@on% Tradi@onal% mullions% Uwindow%%=%% 1.8W/m2K% % Thermal%bridge% free%installa@on% Simplified%design% Uwindow%%=%% 0.8W/m2K% % Warm/AECB%Carbonlite%Course% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  38. 38. FenestraCon&Theory&–&(PH&windows) Larger%windows%with%low%frame% factor,%all%the%same%size.%Net%gain% except%north.% Smaller%windows%on%N,%E%&%W%have%more%frame% and%less%glass.%Only%south%has%net%gain.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  39. 39. Passive Solar
 What does a free lunch cost? Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  40. 40. Gains%4000%kWh/a%–%losses%1863%kWh/a% Window%area%36%m2% =%59%kWhm2.a% • About%£6‘saved’%per%m2%window%per%year%@%80p/kWh*% • Gets%worse%the%more%glass%you%add!%(u@lisa@on%factor,%solar% shading,%addi@onal%mass%f%all%cost)% • BUT,%free%if%you%needed%the%window%area%anyway.% *(3%%discount%rate,%20%year%life,%£400/m2%window%cost,%100%%u@lisa@on%–%YMMV)% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  41. 41. Do%your%own%sums this%spreadsheet%of%yours%doesn't% appear%to%make%any%sense% yeah%its’s%bollocks%innit% Modern%Toss% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  42. 42. Design&out&mechanical&shading& (UK&Climate) Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  43. 43. Wall&depth&as&free&shading Progression%windows%from%Green%Building%Store%in%Cae%Duff% Passivhaus%by%Charles%Grylls%&%Mike%Whi~ield% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  44. 44. No&mullions,&large,&fixed Fixed%windows%30%%cheaper%–%the%larger%windows%are%fixed% % no%flue% now!% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  45. 45. Free&summer&shading? Trees%shade%in%winter%as%well%as%summer% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  46. 46. Glass&to&floor •  Glass%below%about%800mm%does%almost%nothing%to% increase%useful%daylight.% •  It%provides%solar%gain%in%winter%but%is%harder%to% shade%in%summer.% •  It%needs%to%be%safety%glass.% •  Glazing%to%floor%connec@ons%are%harder%to%detail% than%walls%plus%more%heat%loss%and%air@ghtness%is%a% challenge.% •  IMHO%it’s%a%bit%of%a%design%cliché%now.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  47. 47. High&drama,& low&cost Fixed%glazing%c.a.%30%% cheaper%than%opening% windows,%much%cheaper% than%sliding%doors.% % % % Passivhaus%by%Bjørn%Kierulf,% Createra,%Slovakia% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  48. 48. More&examples Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  49. 49. More&examples Passivhaus%in%New%Zealand% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  50. 50. More&examples Another%NZ%Passivhaus%with%T&T%balcony%doors%but%no%other%opening% windows% % % % % % % % % % % % Jon%Illiff,%eHaus,%Wanganui%% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  51. 51. m2&window&cost&in&UK •  Calcula@on%based%on%a%current%Passivhaus%Project,%Cae%Duff% •  26m2%windows%and%doors% •  134m2%TFA%(PH%methodology%so%c.a.%150m2%GIFA)% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  52. 52. How&to&make&glazing&expensive •  Add%50%%glazing%area% •  Add%extra%shading%to%deal%with%subsequent%overhea@ng% •  Add%sliding%doors% •  Add%steel%structure%to%accommodate%sliding%doors% •  Throw%in%some%corner%windows%with%sky%hooks%to%hold% the%roof%up%% •  Add%10%f%15%%on%build%cost?% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  53. 53. Clever&skylight&alternaCve NZ%Passivhaus%LED%virtual%skylight%in%bathroom% % % % % % % % % % % % Jon%Illiff,%eHaus,%Wanganui%% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  54. 54. Structure Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  55. 55. As%in%nature:% structure air barrier insulation wind and weather external structure Nick%Grant,%AECB%2015%
  56. 56. Not&like&these Green%style%over%func@on% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  57. 57. This%is%good% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  58. 58. Mike Whitfield super-insulated traditional cruck frame extension This%is%good% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  59. 59. Sjölander da Cruz This%is%good% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  60. 60. This%is%good% Cavity%wall,%(or%ICF)%floor%joists%don’t%penetrate%plaster%air%barrier% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  61. 61. Also&on&the&outside… Very%fiddly,%lots%of%tape,%not%robust% Wind%&%water%@ght%&% cheaper%to%build% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  62. 62. Wall/floor%junc@on% Adding%complexity%to%standard%detail%to%reduce%heat%loss% Expensive,%difficult%to%build% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  63. 63. Simpler% ADer%VE% Why?%
  64. 64. More&VE&but&not&there&yet! Why?% Parsons%Whiiley% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  65. 65. Glasgowfmarble%floor/founda@on% Image%Ruth%Busbridge% Wahroonga%Passivhaus% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  66. 66. Rendered%ICF%selffbuild%Monmouth% % % Sarah%Brown%Architect%Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  67. 67. A%Cmber%frame%innovaCon Nick%Grant,%Charles%Grylls%&%Mike%Whi~ield%
  68. 68. As%light%as%a&balloon&(frame)
  69. 69. Passivhaus%Clehonger% By%Mike%Whi~ield% Image%Nick%Grant% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  70. 70. Passivhaus%Garway% Mike%Whi~ield%&%Charles%Grylls%
  71. 71. Details%have%evolved%over%a% number%of%projects%
  72. 72. Nick%Grant,%Charles%Grylls%&%Mike%Whi~ield% Design%for%easy%onfsite%build% Flexible%window%loca@on%
  73. 73. Structural slab Lod ©%Elemental%Solu@ons% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  74. 74. Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  75. 75. Nick%Grant,%Charles%Grylls%&%Mike%Whi~ield% Simple%services%by%Alan%Clarke%and%Green%Building%Store%
  76. 76. Turning&clever&ideas&into&actual&savings Barrier%1;%change%management% Floor%joists%ordered%ready%cut%to%save% @me%but%to%wrong%length%because%of% another%VE%change%omiYng%strip%of%OSB% behind%ledger).%Will%work%fine%next%@me!% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  77. 77. Beware%the%anchoring%effect% Value%engineering%makes%it%easier%to%stay%on%budget.% For%cost%savings%you%need%to%reduce%the%budget.% How%many%projects%are%under%budget?% The%anchoring%effect Barrier%2;%the%exis@ng%budget%
  78. 78. VE&Services See%Alan%Clarke’s%presenta@ons.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  79. 79. What&about&design&fees! •  Designer%paid%more%to%reduce%costs?% •  Designer%can%apply%VE%to%design%process%so%fees% should%reduce!% •  %%fee%basis?% •  Other%ways%to%be%paid?% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  80. 80. Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%
  81. 81. Summary •  Sustainability%can’t%be%an%expensive%aspira@on% •  VE%can%reduce%cost%AND%improve%func@on% •  VE%must%be%integral%with%the%design%process%from% day%one% •  The%whole%team%need%to%be%involved% •  Keeping%a%team%together%allows%progress% •  Func@on%and%budget%must%be%clear% •  VE%is%a%crea@ve%endeavour%and%is%fun%to%do.% Nick%Grant,%AECB%Conference%Sheffield%2015%

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