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Passivhaus Archive Hereford


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Hereford Archive and Records Centre (HARC) is the first Certified Passivhaus Archive building in the UK and only the second in the world. The building was designed by Architects Architype and constructed by Kier Construction. This presentation describes some of the lessons learnt and presents monitoring data from the first year of operation.

Published in: Environment
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Passivhaus Archive Hereford

  1. 1. The first Passivhaus Archive in the UK HARC Hereford Presented at: The 20th International Passivhaus Conference Darmstadt AECB Annual Conference Norwich July 2016 Nick Grant Alan Clarke Elemental Solutions @ecominimalnick @AR_Clarke
  2. 2. Architect: Architype Ltd, Contractor: Kier Construction,M&E Consultants:E3, Cost Consultants:Arcadis,Energy & Environment:Alan Clarke and Nick Grant, Structural Engineers:Eastwood and Partners, Certifier:WARM, Client:Herefordshire Council. Image Nick Grant
  3. 3. Datum40.00 50.97 50.97 d ashe dline ind icates p ossibil ee xten sionto r epository EPDM Single ply roof Single ply roof Ground Floor Signed Fire Exit Clear footpath from building to muster point - minimum 1800mm from building & 1050mm wide M M M Fire assembly point Fire engine access & turning zone Fire management plan to include provision for egress through secure gates Disaster recovery acces (all floors) 45000 45000 45000 45000 Drawn by Scale Dwg no. Dwg Title Client Project Revision Checked by Date @ A1 Check this drawing is the latest revision. Do not scale from this drawing. Do not use the information on this drawing without checking all dimensions on site. Do not use any areas indicated for either valuation, puchase, sale or any other form of legally binding contract. Do not reproduce any part of this drawing withour prior written consent. Notes 4 1 : 200 Herefordshire Archive & Records Centre Herefordshire Council Site Fire Strategy Plan GA020 02 Jul 12 MBTMc 6920 CONSTRUCTION Revision Schedule Rev Date Description Drawn Checked 1 28 Sep 12 Stage E issue NA MB 2 22 Apr 13 VE issue NA MB 3 09 Aug 13 Issued for Stage F RE MB 4 04 Mar 14 General amendments to bring in line with recommended VE proposal LM MB 14 - 20 temp 40-60 RH 18-25 temp Many considerations: Security Fire Logistics Quarantine Daylight Public access, attractive Multifunction Future expansion etc etcetc . . . Photo store: 12°C 30% RH I will just consider temperature and RH! Repository: 13-20°C 35-60% RH Image Architype
  4. 4. Easily isolated zones 0 Ground Floor 0 1 First Floor 4590 1 2 Second Floor 8330 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 Office roof 8715 Parapet 13445 Lower External Ground level -170 Level 11 10138 1 DD235 Top of foundation -725 DPM Course Airtightness course 4 Repository roof 11870 1 DD205 1 DD204 1 DD213 1 DD050 1 DD150 1 DD051 1 DD215 14 - 20 temp 40-60 RH 18-25 temprepositories service atrium offices Image Architype Records Centre, offices, conservation labs, teaching etc 1130m2 1321m2
  5. 5. Key design strategy: Office isolated from repository 20—22°C this side all year 13-18°C this side is ideal Image Nick Grant
  6. 6. <0.04 ach @ 100Pa with doors sealed (Final test 0.4 ach included doors to office – air leakage route) Airtight details developed with contractor – their first Passivhaus Image Nick Grant
  7. 7. Cost effective construction – concrete blocks and planks – no frame Larsen trusses and blown cellulose. Arts Council suggest £3,500/m2 HARC was £1,980/m2 (turnkey). Image Nick Grant
  8. 8. Image Nick Grant
  9. 9. Records Centre - timber frame. Same details as developed for the earlier schools. (glass area is for architecture not Passivhaus) Image Nick Grant
  10. 10. Image Nick Grant Atrium exhibition area between repositories and offices
  11. 11. Repository energy balance • Simplest form • Low IHGs 0.6W/m2 • c.a. 1 air change/day supply air vent • No HRV • Temp 13-20°C • No cooling(except photo store) • Inspired by Tim Padfield & Danish archives PHPP 7
  12. 12. Moisture balance - monthly model Annual average humidity is about right +/- depending on English weather. Options: 1. Close control air conditioning 2. Passive buffering 3. Control vent on phychrometrics 4. Trim supply air humidity in summer (100m3/h, < 10-15 litres H2O/day
  13. 13. Buffering (roughly) 13 Max vent air H20 imbalance: ≈ +/-10 kg/day EMC @ 40% RH ≈ 6.5% EMC @ 60% RH ≈ 8% = 13 %RH/% EMC change c.a. 150,000* kg of paper etc. 10kg H20 x 30 days = 0.2% change in EMC = 2.6% change in RH (* Half of archivist’s estimate and ignoring building fabric moisture capacity) EMC of a paper sample from repository measured at 6.9% @ 45% RH
  14. 14. How long to dry 1,800 t of concrete?? September 2014 Image Nick Grant Alan Clarke working the antique chemistry balance Home brew test kit March 2016
  15. 15. They said it wouldn't work: Sceptical client in design meeting: “The Titanic was said to be unsinkable” Alan Clarke’s reply: “We are designing the iceberg” Compromise: an iceberg with a BMS controlled heating system . . .
  16. 16. Titanic Versus Iceberg Image Nick Grant 4 sensors/store, alarms, duplex boilers, duplex pumps etc. . . An airtight concrete box wrapped in old newspaper. . .
  17. 17. L April May June
  18. 18. Troubleshooting 1 Unwanted hot water running through repository pipework. Losses from insulated pipe was enough to heat the building! - Fix - valves shut manually (Large fan coils to meet 1kW peak heat load/floor!)
  19. 19. Troubleshooting 2 Photostore dehumidifier installed backwards so running inefficiently and generating unwanted heat in the service core. Fixed in June 2015
  20. 20. Troubleshooting 3 Faulty sensor wiring made the heating come on when already above set-point. A year to fix but heating isolated so not a problem for now. How fast/automatic does heating response need to be?
  21. 21. J L Valves to repository shut, fans turned off Smart building Stupid building
  22. 22. February 2016 (no heating since June) Did we really need an emergency standby boiler?? Very slight fluctuations in RH with outside conditions.
  23. 23. March 2016, vent reduction experiment Vent rate reduced from 250 to 100m3/h for whole repository building and dehumidification switched off on 4/3/16 as an experiment. RH crept up +2% but even more stable. In equilibrium with walls? Time will tell!
  24. 24. Punch thanks to Lloyd Alter
  25. 25. Very even conditions Original M&E consultants argued for circulating fans, standard practice to avoid “cold spots“ . Would have required cooling for the fan gains. Ground floor 17.00°C 50% RH First floor 17.86°C 46% RH Top floor 17.87°C 49% RH 25
  26. 26. Supply air Dehumidification (if needed) • Ventilation is the main source of H2O • So make building as tight as possible • Supply c.a. 1 air-change per day • Trim supply air when outside air humidity is ‘high’ • Don’t try and control on room RH.
  27. 27. What we imagined DX coil for seasonal dehumidification – on/off control Small fan 100 – 150m3/h 1.2 air changes/day (c.a. 30W) Filter Uninsulated duct Uninsulated duct
  28. 28. What we got Now we know it works we can just use the cooling coil. (but because it uses chilled water we need to protect from frost somehow)
  29. 29. Energy use – inc’ labs & offices June 2014 – March 2016 - whole building Gas 11kWh/(m2.a) c.a. £1,000/a Electricity 34kWh/(m2.a) c.a. £11,000/a PE ≈ 100 kWh/(m2.a) Hopefully electricity use will decrease as building dries out and lighting and other controls are sorted?? TFA: Records Centre 1321m2 Repository 1130m2 Total 2451m2
  30. 30. Lessons Reducing ventilation, heat, cooling and dehumidification load to a very low level allows radically simplified control strategies – a gentle nudge. Supply air dehumidification @ about 2 air changes/day successfully stabilised RH before the building was fully dry. Simple is really hard to get built!
  31. 31. PD 5454 range Open Energy Monitor remote access by Alan Clarke Temperature °C Outside air
  32. 32. supply air settings changed 17/6/16 > a month later Offered to change settings PD 5454 range Open Energy Monitor remote access by Alan Clarke
  33. 33. Next time • No BMS – save money and improve reliability • Simpler dehumidification of air supply • No frost coil (uninsulated ducts, turn fan off in extreme) • Apply lessons learnt to the cooled photo-store • Simpler heating – electric panel heaters?
  34. 34. Image Nick Grant Questions?