TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Different Names of the Szekler Alphabet
2. Origin of the Szekler Alphabet
3. History of the Szekler Alphabet
4. List of the Szekler Signs
5. The Szekler Letters
6. Usage of Capital and Lower Case Letters
7. The Direction of Signs
8. The Szekler Logograms
9. Szekler Sentence Signs
10. Szekler Ligatures
11. The Expanded Nicholsburg Sign Case
12. The Direction of Writing
13. Variations of the Szekler Writing
16. Runic Artifacts from the Stone Age
17. Runic Artifacts from the Metal Age
18. Era of Classical Szekler Artifacts
19. Written Artifacts from the Hun, Avar and Homecoming Era
20. Modern Usage of the Szekler Alphabet
21. Parallel Proposals
22. Code Setup
Introduction and based on Hungarian chronicles and other evidences other
groups of Hungarians are also of Hun descent.
The Szekler runic writing is the writing of Hungarians, The following historical study is written by the researchers
which has been established during the Stone Age based on the signs of the Board of Writing History established in 1991. The
and symbols of an ancient religion, in order to record writings in researchers include Simon Péter, Szekeres István, Varga Géza, and
Hungarian. Since the Stone Age this writing has not been forgotten, Varga Csaba. With the research of these writers, major changes
and there were always users of it. have taken place during 1993 and afterwards with regards to the
study of the Szekler writing. The characteristics of the group
Based on artifacts found, it has been used by Scythians, include the interest in research of theory, and answering questions
Huns, and the Avars. For the evidence of the integral evolution of in an academic and unique manner.
the signs there are examples in folk (such as the ones used on
ceramics), and also in monarchic and religious symbolism (holy Simon Péter, a senior lecturer university professor has
crown, bauble, the king’s robe, and the signs in catholic churches). successfully written a study in 1993 which reckoned the hypothesis
Its origin of being from the Stone Age is proven by the similarities of the Szekler writing being of ancient Turk origin.
in the writing style compared to Chinese, Chukch, and Native
American findings. Based on the probability calculations carried Szekeres István researches the parallels with the ancient
out the coherence between these parallels cannot be explained as Turk and Chinese writings, which he has published in his study in
being random. The writing uses words and syllables, sentence signs 1993 and in his upcoming new book.
representing multiple sounds at once, logograms, and besides these
characteristics it has a sophisticated alphabet. The direction of Varga Géza is the founder of the Board of Writing History,
writing is based on the materials used to write with and to write on, and he has also published many books and written hundreds of
and allegorization differences. Therefore it could either be vertical, articles. He researches the history and theory of writing, deciphered
left to right, right to left, symmetric, or a circular fashion. many runic texts; and runs many online forums.
The writing has been preserved from falling into the past Varga Csaba is not only a creative thinker but also a great
and being forgotten by the Szekler people. The Szeklers (a group of researcher, and the author of many famous books.
Hungarians) are Hun descendants. The Szeklers had an independent
state and a separate history in Transylvania during the five hundred The proposal has been requested by a Szekler organization
years after Attila’s death until the arrival of the Hungarian which has been running for 90 years and has hundreds of members.
(Magyar) tribes with the leadership of Arpad. This independence The author who has Szekler ancestors aimed to anticipate his
lead to the attributes of the Szekler culture during the next knowledge about Szeklers, and explain his academic viewpoint.
millennium, including the usage of Hun writing. They live in the
eastern parts of the once known Hungarian Kingdom, which since The work which has been done with the help of three
First World War became part of Romania. They have Hun ancestry, mailing lists and dozens of online forums, was open to monitoring
and inspection by anyone. The proposal’s request was also sent to
the representatives of Szekler and Magyar scholars including Gazda
József, Erdélyi István, Sándor Klára, Szász Tibor András, Czeglédy
Katalin, Vásáry István, Szabó Mihály István and others.
XX.th century when the Szekler alphabet was given its name,
1. Different Names of the Szekler Alphabet scholars only took into consideration the mentioning of runes in
ancient Hungarian chronicles, but not metal, ceramic, and bone
The Szekler alphabet is given many different names, about archeological evidences and other painted findings.
which there are many debates, which is the right one to be used.
The “Szekler alphabet” is a more proper name given for
this type of writing as a whole, since this is not based on any of
Usually it is given the name „ runic writing”, since the
the ways the letters were actually written during different ages.
alphabet made up of runes. This name however is not proper
What could go against this is however the fact that based on the
enough if the Szekler alphabet is being differentiated from other
archeological evidences from the Stone Age, giving the „Szekler”
similar alphabets, since runes were also used by other nations
name to the alphabet is anachronistic. This can be avoided by
including Germans and Turks. Therefore this gives base to many
simply referring to the findings from the Stone Age as the „pre-
misunderstandings and inaccurate hypothesis and studies.
In the past two centuries the name that was most
Naming the alphabet „ancient Hungarian alphabet”
commonly used is the „Szekler runic alphabet”. This way the
indicates that it was used by all of the Hungarians (Magyars). For
alphabet can be uniquely identified.
foreigners it is also easier to understand, similarly to names such
as the „ancient Persian alphabet” or „Elamic scripts”. Based on
The name of the „Sumerian cuneiform” alphabet has
historical records, this alphabet is never mentioned with a name
similar origins, since it is also made up of the nation’s name that
that includes „Hungarian” (Magyar) in it. The exception that can
used it and the way the letters were written. The Sumerian
be made is the IX.th century Constantin legend, which mentions
cuneiform alphabet only used the „arrow-headed characters”,
the writing of Magyars and Avars, but it refers to these people as
however there are many different types of the Szekler runic
Turks. This evidence however is purposely left out from the
alphabet. The name Szekler runic alphabet was given by scholars
Finno-Ugrist historians' writings, since it would deny the
during the XIX.th and XX.th century, since it was only used by
preconception of Finno-Ugric origin of Hungarians. From
Szeklers. Based on the archeological evidences found in Pécs,
Contantinus Porphyrogenetus (Constantin the VII.th) who wrote
Bodrog-Alsóbű and Sopronkőhida and other findings taken into
around 950 A.D., knew that the Hungarians were also referred to
account, this alphabet was not only used by Szeklers, but all the
as Sabir (Savartu Asfalu/ szavartü aszfalü) – therefore based on
Magyars as a whole. However, referring to it as the „ Szekler
these earlier times, we could not be talking about „Hungarian
runic alphabet” can be accepted, since the Szeklers were the ones
writing”. Chronicles written centuries after, only refer to only the
who kept the alphabet alive and passed it on from generation to
Szekler writing. Based on archeological evidences from the Stone
generation for centuries.
Age, referring to the alphabet as Hungarian could also be
anachronistic, however the „pre-Hungarian alphabet from the
Naming the alphabet based on the way it was written, the
stone age” could be given.
tally is gratuitous, since this way of „writing” the runes is only
one of the many ways it was written. During the XIX.th and
Thelegdi János in his work titled Rudimenta written in Attila, it is practical to call it the „classical Szekler alphabet”.
1589, mentions „Hun letters”. The writing also includes a This so called classical alphabet however can not be separated
prologue by Baranyai Decsi János, in which he refers to a and discussed separately since these writings have a continuous
„Scythian alphabet”. During those times, these were the so called unity.
traditional references to this type of writing. Benczédi Székely
István in 1559 mentions the Szekler writing as „writing written in
Hunnia”. Verancsics Antal (passed in 1573), Otrokócsi Fóris
Ferenc (1693), Bél Mátyás (1718) and Dezsericzky Ince József
(1749) all refer to the Szekler alphabet as Hun-Scythian writing.
This is the oldest known name used for the alphabet. The rightful
usage of „Hun-Scythian writing” can justified by the fact that
Scythian and Hun findings can be read and understood with the
Szekler alphabet. Therefore the usage of „Hun-Scythian writing”
would be appealing, however this way it would be harder to
differentiate the Hun and Scythian findings from the Szekler ones.
The „Szekler runic alphabet” or the „Szekler alphabet” is
the most reasonable name given. First and foremost because these
are the names most commonly known and used. Also, the name
given should not have to follow the current academic standpoint,
and every one of its approaches about the subject. It is enough, if
the given name of the alphabet can uniquely differentiate it.
Under the wider reference of the Szekler alphabet the
findings from the Stone Age and earlier times are also included,
which can be read with the Szekler runes (just like the findings of
Latin letters in Australia), and also folk evidences, symbols of
reign, and religious artifacts. While referring to the Szekler
writings during the different ages, it is important to differentiate
them such as „pre stone-age Szekler runes”, „Szekler runes and
its similarities with Chinese writings” and so on.
The narrower reference of the Szekler alphabet includes
findings after the famous king of the Huns, Attila, and evidences
to present the different eras. In case we would really want to
indicate that the Szekler alphabet mentioned is the one used after
2. Origin of the Szekler Alphabet This theory stated the accepted view of “academics” until
1993, regardless the fact that it has never been reasoned in an
The academic views have changed many times about the accurate manner. The most followers of this theory could have said
Szekler alphabet in the past couple of centuries. is that these writings have 16 signs which are more or less similar
formally, and 5 are similar both meaning and form wise. However,
Kézai Simon writes in his chronicle written around 1282 this degree of similarity can be found with other distant writings,
A.D., that the Szeklers like “they say it” use the writing of the but these have never been analyzed. It has never arisen, that the
Blaks. It has not been clarified whether Kézai’s writing can be similarities can be explained based on other reasons than deriving
relied on, and who could have been these Blaks mentioned in his the Szekler alphabet from the ancient Turk writing. The fact has not
work. In case if the early Christian (Blak, Wlach, Olah, Olasz been mentioned and regarded, that other writings (including the
/Italian/) Magyars would have been mentioned (the Huns had three Hittite hieroglyph writing) has around 20 formal, and some
Christian Bishoprics in the Merv, Herat and Gurgan oaziases), it meaning similarities as well.
would explain why the classical Szekler artifacts of writing were
found in churches. Followers of the ancient Turk derivation (in opposition with
the Magyar historic traditions, and with no linguistic proofs)
During the 1500’s it was mentioned as the Hun-Scythian regarded the Huns not Magyar (Hungarian) but Turkish speakers.
writing– referring to Magyars under the Hun and Scythian names – Based on this, they concluded that the Szekler writing had to be
mentioned earlier. adopted. According to this theory the most likely transmitters were
the Turks; because based on the Finno-Ugric theories the Magyars
Nagy Géza in 1890 (before solving the enigma of the originate from the Ural Mountains, and on their way to the
ancient Turk writing) in one of his presentations based on formal Carpathian-Basin they could have not any other people who knew
similarities, compared the Szekler writing to the ancient Turk this runic alphabet.
writing. His followers based on the formal similarities and the left
to right direction of writing assumed that the Szekler writing could In 1993 the book of Simon Péter, Szekeres István, and
have derived from the ancient Turk writing. Sebestyén Gyula in the Varga Géza was published, titled the “Magyar Writing During the
1900’s identified that the direction of writing is due to the Bronze Age” (Bronzkori Magyar Irásbeliség, Budapest,
technique used to write runes, and not an absolute characteristic of Irástörténeti Kutatóintézet). Simon Péter – based on a wide range of
these writings – however his findings were disregarded by the studies – has concluded that Szekler writing was not originated
Finno-Ugrist authors. based on writing history studies and facts, but was subordinated to
false historic preconceptions. According to him the Szekler signs
The ancient Turk derivation theory was explained in depth were “blessed” with the ancient religion’s hieroglyph signs, from
within Nemeth Gyula’s study in 1934, titled “The Magyar Runic south of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, during the II. Millennium
Writing” (A Magyar Rovásirás). From this it is obvious that the B.C. Szekeres István and Varga Géza compared the Szekler signs
theory has no established foundation, since the basic audits have with many signs of “world/universe models” (logograms). Later it
not been done. proved to be theoretically important, since the world models were
originally the signs of the ancient religion of the Stone Age. With
the cooperation of the three researchers, many Szekler signs’ alphabets” (Frig Kiadó, Budapest – Frig Publishing, Budapest)
pictographic and meaning contents were cleared, and were able to writes about important aspects of writing – unfortunately not read
reconstruct the continuity of acrophonics. Based on this it became by many people – and finds proof from the Ice Age and the
evident, that the Szekler letters originate from Magyar logograms: following ages. Based on the signs he concludes that the writing
the Szekler writing is the creation of the Magyars. was worked out for the Magyar (Hungarian) language.
After the work was published, the followers of the ancient
Turk derivation have acknowledged that the origin of the Szekler
writing is unclear. Sándor Klára in 1996 (A Székely Irás Megiratlan
Történetei, Erdélyi Múzeum – The Unwritten Stories of the Szekler
Writing, Museum of Transylvania) have stated that academics do
not know the Szekler writing, or do not know enough about it:
“every basic question is unclear”.
This however is only the viewpoint of the academic
“scholarship”. Instead of the academic “scholars” who sabotage the
research of the Szekler writing, it is the independent academic
researchers who do the real research and come up with worthy
Varga Géza in his book published in 1999 (A Székely
Rovásirás Eredete, Budapest, Irástörténeti Kutatóintézet – Origins
of the Szekler Runic Writing, Budapest) puts the origins of the
Szekler writing in the Stone Age, due to the relation to the Mas
d’Azil and Native American signs, and the purpose of the world
model functionalities. “The Szekler writing’s sign forms are top
and front variations of world models, and also derive from the
symbolism of world models… The first usage of the signs was in the
Ararat… in a wider sense they were used to decorate ritual utensils
during the Ice Age… during the population of the new world the
pre-Szekler writing was used in Eurasia… the Szekler writing is
direct descendant of the earliest known, phonetic writings of
Varga Csaba in his book “Jel, jel, jel, avagy az ABC 30,000
éves története – Sign, sign, sign or the 30,000 year old history of
3. History of the Szekler Alphabet graves. The Tibetan and Native American mandala sand-
dispersal technique has most likely developed from the
The Szekler Alphabet’s origin is parallel with the Homo “writing” of the Paleolithic.
Sapiens Sapiens’ inhabitation of Eurasia and America.
The people spreading out from the Middle East joined
the groups earlier mentioned, and connected cultures. It is
The first signs of the Szekler alphabet have already
likely that during the beginning, the same or related writing
existed during the coldest period of the ice age (approximately
styles were used in Eurasia and in America. The explanation
50 000 years ago). The most important of these is the “f” (föld
that can be given why the letters and signs have not changed is
– Earth) sign. This sign is the map of the created and ordered
due to the religious meanings of them, which did not allow
world (the Eden surrounding the Ararat Mountains). The
radical changes. Therefore the development of writing has kept
reason why this sign can be found among many ethnic symbols
the pre-Szekler alphabet in the form which was used for
is because it was developed when the ancestors of these people
lived in this Eden, what we could call a “common homeland”
(100-50,000 years ago, during the period of interglacials).
The oldest known archaeological finding, on which
readable writing can be seen, is the 7,500 years old cow statue
The antecedent of the Szekler alphabet was able to
from Szentgyörgyvölgy. The statue is a model of the universe,
spread to areas in Eurasia close to where the ice boundaries
on which we can see how people imagined the world and God.
ended, and to America. This can be prooved by the 20-20
On it the “szár – stem”, “sarok – corner”, “ég - sky”, “Ten”
formal similarities between the signs of Mas d'Azil, signs by
words are visible. These “sz”, “s”, “g” and “nt, tn” letters are
Native Americans and the Szekler alphabet.
also present in the today known Szekler alphabet, and have
developed from these old writings.
The beginnings of the phonetical Joma liturgy could be
placed during the times at the end of the Paleolithic. It kept the
The many times mentioned clay tablets from Tatárlaka
name of the “ruler” of the Eden during the Paleolithic in the
(Tataria) also contain letters which can be found in the Szekler
North Eastern parts of Eurasia and America. With the help of
alphabet, but many of them have foreign origin. According to
the Szekler alphabet the text “Joma földje – Joma's Land” can
Záhonyi András’ theory, the tablets are maps of the stars –
be read and partially understood, the text which has survived in
representing a view of the universe - and he is most likely right.
Eurasian and American copies.
It can also be added, that the reason why many of the
letters/symbols are similar to ones of Sumerian origin, because
The writing technique of the Paleolithic was the sand-
the constellation representation was widely known and used
dispersal, painting and the signs carved into stone by hitting it
among many people. The design of the circular tablet matches
with rocks. The okker, or sand-dispersal findings can be seen in
the letter “f” (Föld – Earth) in the Szekler alphabet. This fact
proves that the tablet from Tatárlaka represents a view of the
universe. According to Chinese chronicles, the Chinese people
learned how to write from the ancestors of the Huns. “Culture
Letter from the Szekler alphabet also match other originates from the wise rulers of the beginnings, from whom
written findings within the Carpathian-basin and surrounding the Xia Dynasty originates from, whom are ancestors of the
areas, such as the ones from Tordos-Vincsa, Cucuteni, and Huns”. Evidence for this is the fact that relations with the
Karanovo. Chinese and Chukch writings, Siberian cave drawings, and
Scythian and Hun written findings are all in support of this
The writing technologies from the Paleolithic – based Chinese chronicle.
on archeological findings – also include carving into clay.
Based on archaeological findings, the nomad people
from the steppes knew and used the Szekler alphabet. The
Metal-age Szekler alphabet used by Scythians, Huns, Avars, and Magyars
was again present within the Carpathian-basin, where it was
The metal works from the Metal Age made it possible known from earlier times as well.
for the runic writing to develop, since stone knifes were most
likely good for carving letters into wood. Due the technique Written findings by the Huns include the Joma liturgy
used for writing, the shape of letters and the direction which of a Hun crown from Aluchajdengi; the Hun badge from
they are written have also changed. Earlier writing was done Budapest, on which the word “North“(észak in Hungarian) can
from left to right, that changed to right to left (in case of be seen written with Szekler letters. Around 531 A.D., during
carving into wood). The old symbolic ligatures and painted the Oazis of Merv, the Holy Crown (Szent Korona) was made
symbols/letters the original left to right writing direction was for the Huns, on which the script “great king: great land” can
kept. An example of this is the writing on the bowl from be read written with the Joma liturgy. The Avars who lived
Afrasijabi (X.th century). during the Magyar conquest of the IX.th century, made a
nozzle with Szekler letters on it. It has survived the centuries,
On the area of Eden, the knowledge of the pre-Szekler and was found in Bodrog-alsóbű. The golden bowls and other
alphabet was kept for very long. Writings from this central area findings from Nagyszentmiklós are also made by the Avars. On
from different ages are visibly related to the Szekler alphabet. these findings it is not the runes that can be identified with the
This is why in many writing styles (Hittite hieroglyphs, Szekler writing, but the religious symbols and characters,
hieroglyphs from Urartu, symbols from Tepe Vahjai, etc.) there which have not yet been analyzed accordingly and well
are approximately 20-20 similar symbols, which in some cases enough.
have similarities even in meaning and in sounding. The earliest The Huns and Avars used the pre-Szekler alphabet all
historical resources remembered that this writing was over the Carpathian-basin, written in a syllabifying style.
developed by ancestors of the Hungarians. According to
Phoenician tradition, the Phoenicians got their writing from the
Taautos – “tátos, táltos” in Hungarian, who are shamans. Age of the classical Szekler Alphabet
The writing was kept alive by the Szeklers in
Transylvania. Over time the syllabifying way of writing slowly
became effaced, but not fully forgotten. However after King
Attila's death there were still sentence and words signs being
At the end of the period (during present times) the
“modern users” of the Szekler alphabet garble its
characteristics. Instead of the symbol orders of the Szekler
alphabet the Latin order is being used; the sentence signs and
logograms are also questionable; and there is a new rule
regarding the usage of mirror images of letters.
Today the original runic technologies have effaced, and
have been taken over by writing on paper and using computer
software. During the time of transitions – accordingly to what
is used to write with and write on - paper, stone plates, and so
on, the left to right direction of writing is being more
commonly used. Two or three devotees of the “modern” usage
– a group that spreads this popular fallacy – holds on to the
right to left writing on paper. The potters and egg painters, who
hold on to the old traditions, still use the left to right way of
The archaeological findings of the classical Szekler
alphabet include the scripture from Alsószentmihály; the brick
with Szekler writing on it from Székelyderzs; the scripture from
Dálnok, Bögöz, Csík, Constantinople; the calendar of the
Marsigli count; the alphabet from Nicholsburg; ceiling painting
4. The Szekler writing’s sign order and number of signs 13 syllabeles (enc, eck, encs, end, aty, ety, ak, unk, nj, emp, ek,
The signs of the Szekler alphabet are not fully estimated
At least 3 logograms (us quot;ősquot;/ancient,old/, ent quot;Tenquot;, engy
and summed up in an organized way. The full collection of signs of
the Szekler alphabet represents a historical value. quot;nagyquot;/ great, big/).
1 sentence sign (tprus quot;tapar usquot; = quot;szabír ősquot; /”Sabir
The modern (XX.th and XXI.st century) writing styles with
a few exception narrows writing down to letters. Users of writing ancestor”/).
today do not know that the Szekler alphabet also contains sentence
The Nicholsburg alphabet (is varied; besides letters also
signs and logograms. The publications disregard the usage of word
contains sentence signs and logograms) kept the order of the
and sentence signs. Instead what is being used, are signs of
thousands years old Szekler writing’s original order. Without
different vowel harmonies, liturgies, and sometimes “mysterious
separation, it contains both letters and signs of different vowel
capita dictioniums” are mentioned. The authors mainly define the
harmonies. This order is closely related to the Ugarit and Khazar
Szekler writing as letter writing and its collection of signs are called
writings’ sign orders – meaning it corresponds with the earliest
ABC’s / alphabets. However, the facts oppose this.
signs of Latinate characters, a representation of a 4,000 year old
tradition. The letters mostly originate from the names of gods, or
their traits and characteristics; their orders are assigned based on
their contents within the ancient religion. This ranking is also
present in the Chukch word-sign order, in which the “godly trios”
can be identified in the beginning. This historical order of signs is
only kept by the Nicholsburg alphabet; every other Szekler alphabet
– with regard to its time’s academic discipline – follows the order
of the Latin alphabet.
Diagram 1. The Nicholsburg Alphabet
The Nicholsburg alphabet
The Nicholsburg alphabet which originates from the 1400’s,
contains 46 signs. Out of these are:
- 29 letters(a, b, c, cs, d, j, e, f, g, gy, h, i, l, ly, m, n, ny,
o, p, r, zs, s, t, u, v, ö, ü, sz, z)
Thelegdi János in his academic description written in 1598,
titled Rudiment, specifies 65 Szekler signs in the following
- “The Szeklers of Transylvania (Erdély) have 32 letters”. (23
consonants and 9 vowels)
- “The Szeklers have a few signs to shorten the text, which
are annexed to the consonants and vowels. “ (He introduces
- “There are also other annexations, where two consonants
Diagram 2. Hand written Nicholsburg alphabet; kept the original sign order of
the Szekler alphabet; it should be expanded, since there are no differentiated annex without a vowel.” (He introduces 9 liturgies)
sign for the short and the long vowels
“They also have few syllables which are similar to reptiles
based on their form. These are not formed by actual letters.
These are called heads of words (capita dictionum) by the
Szeklers.” (He introduces 3 signs)
Thelegdi clearly states, that the Szekler writing contains not
only letters, but syllable signs as well. Mentions a third group of
signs - the capita dictionum - which are called syllable signs,
however their word-sign characteristics can be seen. Thelegdi
breaks up the order of Szekler signs, and categorizes the different
types of signs into separate lists.
The above mentioned two lists of signs differ – not explained in
the current text – the Szekler sign lists are not identical. None of the
lists of the Szekler signs contain all of the Szekler writing’s full
Diagram 3. The signs of the Nicholsburg alphabet being compared to Ugarit, sign collection, and all of them somewhat differ from one and
Etruscan, Latin, Khazar, Phoenician, Aramaic, Phlevi and Greek signs
The number of signs
The known number of the Szekler writing could be as many
as 80-100 – which order of magnitude is a characteristic of syllable
writings. The exact number of signs – for many reasons – however
can not be defined easily. One reason is due to the option of
ligature formations, which indicates the creation of further signs.
Another reason is due to the picture like traits of signs. During
the natural evolution of writing, the writing which has developed
from picture-writing contains many forms that could be seen as
usages of decoration. In the case of readable decorations it is only a
question of decision, whether they are regarded as writing signs or
not. Due to these reasons, in the storage rooms of museums, on the
pages of books and on many objects there are a lot of signs which
still need to be reviewed and taken into account.
5. The Szekler Letters These early alphabets do not differentiate between the
“low” and “high” vowels, which is essential in order to write in
Hungarian. Due to this, a reform has started, with the main reason
In the past couple of centuries the usage of logograms and
to differentiate between the “low” and “high” vowels.
sentence signs have effaced compared to the usage of Szekler
During the XX.th century (developed based on Magyar
Adorján’s initiation) Forrai Sándor and Libsich Győző put forward
Today the users of the Szekler writing mostly use the
a suggestion for the modern Szekler writing’s letter case. These
Szekler letters. The poly-sound signs are only mentioned as
modern letter cases have one sign from the long and one from the
interesting examples. The usage of the poly-sound signs are only
short vowels based on the older sign variations. Their decisions
used in special cases, however these usages are becoming more
were random, without any logical principal – due to which the
above mentioned writer’s letter cases differed.
The usage of folklore, symbols of reign and religious signs
In 1996 the writer of this text also developed a letter case
will be mentioned in more depth in a different chapter.
(Diagram 3.), which differs in two ways from other modern letter
cases. One way is that the long vowels are represented with longer
signs, and short vowels are with short. Also the o, ó, ö, ő signs are
similar to each other like in the Latin alphabet. These
characteristics will enable the learning and usage of the alphabet to
Diagram 1. The alphabet from Thelegdi’s Rudimenta – 1598 (right to left)
Diagram 2. Anonymus alphabet from Marosvásárhely – 1753 (right to left)
The modern alphabets are basically the same based on the
number of signs and pronunciation, functional difference is on
present in certain signs.
The alphabet could be amended with the “dz”, “dzs” and
the “closed e” sings, however this would not have any functional
relevance. The existence of the “dz” and “dzs” sounds are disputed.
Otherwise those sounds can be written with the signs made up of
“d” + “z” and “d” + “zs”. The “closed e” is only used by a few
while speaking, therefore the usage of the signs would only cause
problems in usage for most people.
None of the modern alphabets have had great effect on the
Szeklers in Transylvania, who carry on the traditional way of
writing inherited from their ancestors.
The small differences among the alphabets do not interfere
with the understanding of writing. Someone who knows one of the
alphabets is also able to read the other ones and vice versa.
ram 3. The alphabet suggestion of Varga Géza in 1996
6. Capital and Lower Case Letters of the Szekler Alphabet
Using capital and lower case letters are essential for the so
called modern way of writing.
There are many reasons for the usage of unknown capital
and lower case letters for runic writing.
Later on when writing runes was done on paper, there are
examples of differentiating capital and lower case letters. There is a
lower case “r” and also the capital “R”. These were differentiated
by Bél Mátyás, by marking one as “r” and the other as “R”, and
Szamosközi used capital letters as well.
Diagram 2. Letter written by Szamosközi István; the capital letters are visibly
written with a larger font (early 1600’s)
Diagram 1. Sign case by Bél Mátyás, including the differentiation of capital and
lower case “r” (Early 1700’s)
The modern usage of writing also dictates the usage of
capital letters. Since using the Latin alphabet, we got used to
starting the sentence and certain words with a capital letter, which
leads to a more precise and elaborate way of writing. Therefore, we
should not exclude the usage of capital letters while writing with
the Szekler runes. Instead, we should enable the usage of capital
letters, which has been done so by people earlier.
In the case of the letter “r”, the differentiation of “r” and
”R” could be done as learned from Bél Mátyás. With other letters,
we have to follow the example of Szamosközi István, and simply
writing letters with a larger font in case if it is a capital letter.
7. The Direction of Signs In conclusion of the above statements: there is no such rule
which suggests the usage of mirror images of signs. The “rule”
created by Hosszú Gábor and his followers can not be supported by
In this section, what will be discussed is whether the mirror written traditions. Examples other than the text from
image of Szekler signs could be used or not. Constantinople which have been written from left to right, all
contradict their “rule” of using mirror images. The spreading of
There is only one classical written document, in which the such false information to masses is a great mistake.
mirror images of the signs were used: a text from Constantinople.
The signs on this artifact differ from the most commonly used way The usage of mirror images could be done for ligatures or
of writing, and it is written from left to right. It was written in a for aesthetic reasons, but there is no reason and need for it in the
sultan’s court, by a Hungarian ambassador who has been held Unicode standard.
hostage there. Németh Gyula has thought it was done as secret
writing - he was right.
Hosszú Gábor and his followers based on this extraordinary
example which has been done for a “special” occasion, has made
up a general rule – wrongfully - not considering the counter
examples. According to this “rule” which does not have enough
examples as support, suggest that the mirror image of signs should
be used while writing from left to right. Libish Győző, Szakacs
Gábor, and Friedrich Klára teach children according to this wrong
theory, falsifying the real way of writing the Szekler runes.
The early folk artifacts including the Joma liturgy, the
logograms on the furnace tiles from Magyargyeromonostor, and the
salt shaker from Sopronkőhida all include signs of which the mirror
images have been used. These however were done so not because
of the direction of writing, but because of the composition,
symmetry, or creation of ligatures.
Many artifacts include writing from left to right, however
these are not mirror images of the signs. An example of this is the
Avar ring in the Museum of Szolnok, the bowl from Alsopáhok and
other classic Szekler artifacts.
8. The Szekler Logograms
The following list of signs includes logograms from foreign
origins, which has many reasons.
For folk, ruling and religious symbols we constantly use
many logograms and sentence signs from the Szekler alphabet, - These logograms enable the illustration of the continuum of
however a regular person does not know much about these acrophonics
logograms. - They also document that the Szekler writing’s symbols
consist of old and widely used group of signs. In other
Potters copy the designs and signs passed on to them from words: the pre-Szekler writing from the Stone Age had a
potters of earlier times, while they have no understanding of their role in the creation of other alphabets. This statement is
meaning, or they just simply make up new explanations based on proven by the list of acrophonics, which have unveiled
folk etymology. concepts of the ancient religion through Hungarian words.
- The logograms also prove that the group of Szekler signs
The few satisfying exceptions – when the potters and other can not be narrowed down to the ones of the classical
professionals have kept the explanations based on the ancient Szekler era of writing. Signs and hieroglyphs which ought
religion – have an astonishing significance. The potters from to be only symbols for decoration should also be included.
Vámbér and Vámfalu regard the Szekler “us” (ős - ancestor) The cross-over of signs tremendously continuous, and can
logogram used by them as the folk alternative of Isten (us Ten -“ős- not be separated. Distinction of signs based on hieroglyphic
Ten” - God) – just like the Hittite people did. There are also a few and decorational usage seems easy and rational, however
exceptions that were always available for academics to find out this way of separation is eliminated due to their long and
about, however their origin and meaning were never known. These understandable associations.
examples include the “us” (ős) sign from the Nicholsburg alphabet,
the writing of “egy usten” (one God) from Énlaka, and the It can not be expected that the Szekler writing will have
Hungarian coat of arms. similar characteristics as other European writings, since this way of
writing has a unique history and features. Understanding these
The Szekler logograms below include the illustration for the concepts – for example the number of signs, their form and right
continuity of acrophonics, during which the picture like logograms direction of writing – are essential to describe the parameters of the
have formed into linear letters. Not all of these logograms are Szekler writing.
included in this study, since that would extend the length in a great
extent, and also not all of the studies with regard these logograms
have been finished.
These picture like signs represent matters about the ancient
religion, which could be understood and read just like the linear
variances – except they do not stand for certain sounds, but for
The picture above includes the corner stone from Csencsó, World Tree from Velemér; and the “us” (ős) logogram from the
plate from Asópáhok, keratinous horn, the “corner” logogram from Nicholsburg alphabet.
the Hungarian Holy Crown, and the “s” letter from Énlaka from left
Diagram 3. The “ős” logogram; the symbol of the Sun God on the Milky Way
during Christmas; according to the ancient religion, the Sun God is the father of
Diagram 1. The “corner” logogram and the letter “s” represent the World Tree
(tree that reaches up to the sky - based on Hungarian mythology), which also
corresponds with the Szekler “sz” sign, (“sz” is pronounced as “s” in English)
that looks like a branch, “szár” in Hungarian. The word “sarok” (corner)
derives from the word “szár” and king “Og” mentioned in the Old Testament;
similar to the symbol of Heracles, the father of the Scythians; represented on
the corners of world models.
The “Ten” logogram on a rock from Mas d’Azil; the cave
drawing of “us Ten” from Siberia; the “Egy usten” (one God)
ligature from Énlaka and the “Joma ten” ligature from
Magyarszombatfa; and the “nt/tn” sign from the Marsigli and
Nicholsburg alphabet all from left to right
Diagram 4. The “Ten” logogram made up of “t” and “n” ligatures; the Earth’s
The logogram of “egy” (one) on a logogram from Mas axis represented with the World Tree; during the Stone Age it was read as
“Ten”; due to the changes in the tools used for writing runes and the fact that
d’Azil; on the temple of Assur, on a Hun diadem, on the king’s
the meaning of it based on the ancient religion was forgotten, therefore during
robe, and on a flag from the era of the Árpád dynasty; and the letter the Christian ages it was read as “nt”; the Isten (ős Ten - God) during the Stone
“gy” from the text “eGY AZ ISTEN” (God is one) from Énlaka, Age, for the Etruscans the word “Tin” meant the “main God”, in Chinese tien
which is read as “egy” (one) from left to right. means “sky, god”, and in Sumerian tin means “life”.
Diagram 2. The logogram of “egy” (one) and the Szekler “gy” (egy) sign;
portrayal of the milky-way sign; the lines across represent the two eclipses
during solstice; the symbol of the one year cycle of the Sun God.
The treasures from Nagyszentmiklós, the Hun Holy Crown,
The logogram of “ős” from Eastern Europe, published by
design from the pouch found in Karos, ligature from Énlaka
Pletyneva, on a metal plaque from Ural (III.-I. century B.C.); from
a robe; from the ceramic signs of Vámfalu; from the design of the
Diagram 5. The “Isten” (us Ten - God) logogram; the ligature is made up of the
“us” and “Ten” signs; it resembles the Milky Way / World Tree, which was
referred to as God according to the ancient religion.
Hittite metal plaque, part of a Chinese tile, the Chinese lolo
“sky” logogram and the letter “g” of the Szekler text from Énlaka
Diagram 8. The “sky” logogram and a drawing of the World Tree
The Holy Crown, the robe of the king, fresco from
Martonhely, the logogram meaning “good” on a plate from
Alsópáhok; and the Szekler “j” (jó-good) sign by Kajoni János and
from the Nicholsburg alphabet
Diagram 6. The “jó” (good) logogram and the Szekler “j” (jo-good) sign; the
artist who painted the fresco in Martonhely during the 1300’s used these signs
to refer to a river – the word “jó” has double meanings: good and river; the
symbol of the Milky Way
From the coat of arms of Otto Bajor
Diagram 9. The “country” logogram; it can be found in the coat of arms of the
Durer family (Hungarian origin), in which it represents Hungary; and can also
be found in the Hungarian coat of arms; in Sumerian writing the three hills
The Chinese “acclivity” (the road to high above), the Hun mean “country”.
belt end from Csorna, the Avar saltshaker from Sopronkőhida, the
silver bracelet of Ibrány from around the IX.th century, logograms
on the king’s robe and on the furnace tile from
Magyargyerőmonostor, the Szekler “m” (magas-high) sign by Bél
Diagram 7. The “magas” (high) logogram; this stair like mountain shapes
The pre-Columbian coat pin from Chile, the Holy Crown,
represent the road leading to high above.
plate from Alsópáhok, plate from Magyarszombatfa, and the tile
from Velemér with the “Earth” logogram on it and the “f” (Föld-
Earth) sign based on the Nicholsburg alphabet
Diagram 10. The “earth” logogram is the map of Eden; a reminder of the value
and the place of creation
The Avar ring from the museum of Szolnok; part of the text
Drawing of Orion, the Chinese “father” sign, the robe, the
Diagram 13. The Avar ring from Szolnok. The poem including the logograms
Szekler “ty” (atya-father) sign by Kajoni and of the Nicholsburg
“magas” (high), “ég” (sky), “kő” (stone) and “Föld” (Earth) can be read on the
ring; „Magas ég(i) kő! Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő! Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő!
Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő föld(je)!”. In the text the linear version was used for
Diagram 11. The “atya” (father) logogram and the “ty” Szekler sign; the the “magas” logogram, and “kő” logogram that was used is the one similar to
simplistic representation of the Orion asterism the one known from the corner stone of Csencső. The direction of writing is left
The Egyptian Ra “Sun God” hieroglyph, Hittite “ru”
syllable sign, Chinese “Sun” logogram, the “ra/gyogó/” (ragyogó -
bright/shining in Hungarian) logogram on a plate from Alsópáhok;
and the Szekler “r” from the Nicholsburg alphabet and the Thelegdi
Diagram 12. The “ra/gyogó/” logogram and the letter “R” are the symbols of
the Sun God.
9. The Szekler Sentence Signs
The Szekler sentence signs are ligatures made up of
logograms, similarly like the signs in the Chinese alphabet.
The signs have developed over millenniums to their perfect
forms, and have survived due to their meaning based on the ancient
Certain ones from the group of readable signs have been
forgotten, while others are still commonly used, such as the one in
the Hungarian coat of arms. Due to the 1500 years of Christian
influence, the meanings of the signs which are still being used
today are not commonly known. With the help of Szekler letters,
these signs can be read and understood.
Portion of a ruling cave text from Tusnád (V-VIth century);
design from an Eastern European finding (VIII-X-th century)
Diagram 2. Two variances of the “sarok Isten – corner God” sentence signs; the
symbol of the Milky Way; variances of the ligatures made up of the “sarok”
(corner), “ős” and “Ten” logograms; the version from the steppes is made up of
the “szár”, “Og” and “Isten” logograms; the symbol of King Og – Heracles in
Greek, the ancestor of the Scythians; it resembles the legitimacy of the Hun-
Szekler-Magyar dynasty’s ruling power based on the origins of the ancient
Cave drawing from Siberia (1500 B.C.), Hungarian pouch
design from the IX.th century
Diagram 1. The “Isten” (God) sentence sign: the symbol of the Milky Way (the
sky reaching tree); ligature made up of the “us” and “Ten” logograms
Artifacts from Eastern Europe by Pletyneva (VIII-X.th
century); design on the Hungarian scepter
Diagram 4. The “God of the sky” sentence sign; ligature made up of the “Egy”,
“us” and “Ten” logograms; includes the World Tree supporting the sky from
below; the middle text could be read as “sarokisten” (“corner-god”), however it
was most likely read as “szár Og Isten” or “Szár Égisten” (“Szár, God of the
Ligature form the Unitarian church of Énlaka
Diagram 3. The “Egy Isten” (one God) logogram; the ligature made up of the
“Egy”, “us” and “Ten” logograms; the sentence sign portrays the sky reaching
tree on these world models – resembling God – that is why they were put on the
Middle of the plate from Alsópáhok
Diagram 5. The “jó Ra/gyogó/ Isten” (the good /and shining/ God) sentence
sign; the ligature made up of the “Ra(gyogó)” and “Isten” logograms; the
highlighted sign of “Ra(gyogó)” is the symbol of the Egyptian Sun god, sign
of the Chinese “Sun” logogram, related to the Hittite “ru” syllable sign and
alike with the Szekler “R” letter
The Hungarian coat of arms with the double cross (Ottó Bajor)
Brick from Székelyderzs
Diagram 7. The “Egy ország” (one country) sentence sign; part of the
Hungarian coat of arms from the Hun ages; ligature made up of “Egy” (one)
Diagram 6. The text written on the brick: “Miklós, Du ten papp(j)aquot; ( Miklos,
and “ország”; symbolizes the pole that leads to the sky (heaven) above; based
priest of Du ten) – text on top; in the middle it has the “Du ten” sentence sign
on the pantheist ancient religion, the double cross is identical with God, and the
(bottom); this sentence sign is a ligature made up of “Ten” and the “Du”
triple hills are representing the surroundings of God (in this case Hungary)
Diagram 8. Sentence sign of “Ten ország(a)” (Country of Ten); ligature
consisting of “Ten” and “ország” logograms
Ceramic from Anasaz, painted Csángó Easter egg
Diagram 9. The sentence sign of “Joma Föld(je)” (land of Joma); symbolizing
the Milky Way and the centre of the Earth; ligature made up of the “jó” (good),
“magas” (high) and “Föld” (Earth) logograms; identical with the sign of the
Milky way from the Stone Age representing God, and the world created by God
Diagram 11. The “Joma ten” sentence sign; symbolization of the Milky Way
(the sky reaching tree); ligature made up of the “jó”, “ma”, and “ten”
Bowl from Afrasiab
Diagram 10. The “Joma szár föld(je)” logogram
Hungarian pouch from Tiszabezdéd – IX.th century (top);
symbolizes the crack in the Milky Way during Christmas with the
Plate from Magyarszombatfa
sign of God in it; ligature consisting of “ős” (ancestor) and the
Szekler “D” (Du) sign – the Du god name is the equivalent of Dana
End of a Hun belt
Diagram 14. The “ős ég” sentence sign from a Hun buckle
Diagram 13. The “ős Egy” sentence sign from a Hun belt; symbol of the Milky
Way; ligature made up of “ős” (ancestor) and “Egy” (one) logograms
10. Szekler Ligatures
Ligatures from Burgenland (Magyarszombatfa); Afrasiyabi;
It is an important characteristic of the Szekler writing that Obi-Ugor; Hun (Aluchaydeng, China); Native Amercian (Anasazi)
during its known history, it has always included ligatures – signs “joma” ligature; the Szekler “j” (by Thelegdi János) and the letter
put together into one. “m” (by Bél Mátyás)
According to certain explanations, the Szeklers have Diagram 1. Joma ligatures from Burgenland to the Americas
developed these ligatures in order to save time and space while
The first ligatures were developed since pictography during
writing. This however, as we will see later on, is only part of the
the Stone Age was not able to record abstract concepts and certain
reason. Facts do not support the assumptions of Püspöki Nagy
grammatical elements. The creators and users of writing had two
Péter, in which he states that the Szekler ligatures were made due to
options if they wanted to record certain things that included
the influence of ligatures consisting of Latin letters. These Szekler
something they were not able to represent with pictographs: either
ligatures regarded by many as ones consisting of letters, without
the montage technique or the writing using of letters. The Chinese
any real meaning, however these assumptions are also false.
writing due to linguistic reason took the first path, while the
Latinate writing the second. If the Szekler writing includes both of
These are common mistakes, like many other theories about
these with great amount of examples, it means that the Szekler
the Szekler writing, which are all made up without knowing the
writing was created during this time (Stone Age), while this was an
origins of this writing.
The origins of the Szekler ligatures date much earlier, and
its compositions have many reasons.
It is enough to understand this, by just simply comparing
the Scythian, Hun, Avar and Szekler ligatures with the Eastern (i.e.:
Chinese) montage techniques. These techniques pre-date the similar
occurrences if ligatures composed of Latin letters, and they even
pre-date the Latin letters itself. The Szekler ligatures – with
Scythian, Hun and Avar influences – represent Eastern traditions,
and that is why the “Joma” ligatures for example could be followed
and traced back in time from Burgenland (Őrség), through the
Diagram 2. The “ba” type ligatures by Thelegdi
Turanian plains to China, and even to the Americas.
Diagram 3. The “bb” type ligatures by Thelegdi
Certain ligatures are included in the historic (Nicholsburg)
list of Szekler signs. The ligatures that are included in this writing
are really old, like the “nt/tn” (Ten) ligature known from the Stone
Age. Similar examples can be found in old Persian cuneiforms,
which evolved from the local linear writing. In this writing besides
the syllables, god Ahuramazda has a special sign. This Persian
example corresponds with the Szekler “Isten” (God) logogram
(composed of the “us” and “ten” signs) in the Nicholsburg
alphabet, which according to “academics” have not been used
during the classical Szekler era.
Diagram 4. Comparison of Szekler and ancient Turk ligatures; certain ligatures
Other examples of ligatures can be found by Thelegdi have similar or corresponding pronunciations, however their forms are
János, Kajoni János, and Bel Mátyás, however these rarely different; this indicates that a semantic relation connects them – maybe the
correspond with each other, or with their most likely equivalents in meaning in the ancient religion?
Turk writing. None of these ligature lists could be regarded
complete, since not every possible syllable has a sign. This The mistaken aspiration can be felt which aim to make the
indicates that during the history of writing, the ligatures did not ligature assortment complete. Putting together such a list of
have a constant assortment, only the creation of ligatures has been ligatures for a Unicode standard would not make sense, since these
passed on from generation to generation – besides the most ligatures are rarely or not even used at all while writing everyday
commonly used and most important ligatures. texts.
According to our standpoint, the aim to create a list for
writing that enables the usage of ligatures with a complete set (like
the one by Michael Everson and Hosszú Gábor) are false and
mistaken in their basics. It is unnecessary and maybe even
impossible to create such a set of ligatures that enable writing texts
in Hungarian. A clear and concise example of such writing using
ligatures can not be found during the history of writing. The By this we do not say that the inclusion of ligatures is
development and teaching/popularization of such writing would not complete, since the set of ligatures were never completed. Later on
be easy either. For the characteristics of the Hungarian language, however, if there is a need, other ligatures will be added to the set.
the most precise way of writing texts is by using letters. This is why
the Szekler writing has a great and concise case of letters, but an
incomplete and not corresponding group of ligatures. During the
classical Szekler era certain words from the ancient religion, and
also sentence signs making up ligatures that enabled the recording
of suffixes, postfixes, and certain words were used – however a
complete set was unlikely created.
We do not need these, because we do not use them
whatsoever. For the proposal for a Unicode standard, we can not
consider the usage of ligatures while teaching children how to write
(which usually tend to be on either wood or paper), based on artistic
usages and “selfish games” of academics. Children have to be
taught these ligatures, however this does not mean that a standard
for computer users should include all the ligatures. The
composition of a complete set of ligatures is for the academics, or
the purpose of artistic fields, but not for such a standard
In the standard, only the most important ligatures should be
- The Nicholsburg alphabet should be included in the
fundamental characters within the Unicode standard,
including its ligatures.
- The secondary set of characters should include the ligatures
by Thelegdi and certain other important ligatures, such as
the “Joma”, “Egy orszag” (one country), “Isten” (God), and
“sarokisten” (corner-god). The reasons for these include
their importance based on the ancient religion, and their
traditional usage in Szekler writing.
Diagram 3. Table of ligatures known by Németh Gyula based on known
artifacts; as many authors there are, as many sets exist
11. The Expanded Nicholsburg Sign Case that the polyphony of the Szekler writing will be forgotten and
thrown away. There are modern examples, where beautiful,
The Nicholsburg alphabet kept the original sign case of the sometimes pictographically composed, polyphonic signs are being
Szekler alphabet, however there are no distinct signs for the short used. These examples can be found among important ceremonial
and long vowels, therefore the expanding of the signs are applications. An example of this is the “One God” (Egy Isten)
necessary. ligature from Énlaka, that can not be understood without the “nt/tn”
(Ten) and “us” (ős – ancestor) ligatures of the Nicholsburg
The suggested case of signs has two purposes: alphabet. If the following generations are not taught these
hieroglyphs, it will result in less and poorer ceremonial writings for
First and foremost it keeps the historic order of signs of the our temples and less people will understand – read – the messages
Nicholsburg alphabet in its original form. The Nicholsburg sign of our ancestors on archeological artifacts. The “modern usage” of
order and case is given so much significance, since its most writing can not set constraints for the Szekler writing and make its
important signs follow each other mostly the same way like the anticipation poorer, just so it can be learned more easily. Also, it
signs of the Khazar, or the Ugarit cunic alphabet. The Nicholsburg can not be a requirement for the writing to be very similar to the
alphabet keeps the thousands year old legacy of sign orders, that Latin alphabet.
has to be emphasized and kept for the Unicode standard. The
standard has to communicate the original order of Szekler signs for The purpose has a double objective: the modern usage has
the people getting familiar with it, if the technical possibilities to be aligned with the conventionality and legacy of the writing.
allow this. The other sign orders are nothing but a collection of These purposes – in opposition with certain views – do not
signs representing the Szekler alphabet based on the order of the eliminate each other. Among the Nicholsburg signs the
Latin alphabet. In case the Unicode standard will be used for the monophonic signs (letters) of the Szekler alphabet are present,
Szekler alphabets representation – if technical possibilities allow which is needed for the “modern usage”. The Nicholsburg signs
this – it has to be avoided that the Szekler letters are shown in the however have to be expanded with the signs in order to differentiate
order of the Latin alphabet. the long and short vowels. In certain cases the signs of the
Nicholsburg alphabet have to be changed to the ones being
The other intention of the proposed sign order is the support commonly used – for example instead of the “gy” sign of the
of usage for the Szekler writing today. Generally – based on false Nicholsburg alphabet, the double-cross has to be used, since that is
assumptions – people think that for writing with the Szekler the commonly used sign.
alphabet all that are being used today are letters. For example it is
true that it is easier to teach children how to write with the Szekler The sign case proposed has to be differentiated from the
letters, if the letters being taught are the equivalents of the Latin actual, full sign corpus – this however is a separate objective and
alphabet. However, this is not the full and right way of modern duty, not part of this Unicode proposal.
usage of the Szekler alphabet. It is because this way what the
children being taught is a portion of the alphabet, a distorted and
constricted, Latinized version of the Szekler writing. The care for
children (or the misunderstanding of modern usage) does not mean
Diagram 1. The expanded Nicholsburg sign case of the Szekler
12. The Direction of Writing of writing. This way it can be seen that the direction of writing is
the aftermath of the technical development of writing, which has to
When debates escalate countrywide about which direction alter due to the technical changes. For example the writing
the signs should be written, the distinction has to be made when to technique using wood – which has been identified by Sebestyén
write left to right, and when right to left. Gyula – corresponds with the right to left way of writing.
Therefore, for the suggested direction of writing the writing
The direction of writing usually does not depend on the techniques and its changes have to be examined.
national identity of its users. Also, it can not be said that certain
writing only has one direction which it is written in: since we there The Szekler writing’s direction during the Stone Age – due
are examples for certain way of writings in which there are more to the sand scattering, cave drawings and painting – was left to
ways for the direction of writing. This is very true for such writing right. This can be ascertained based on the Joma ligatures from the
that has been used for thousands of years – such as the Szekler Stone Age.
writing. For this way of writing there are examples in which the
direction of writing is left to right, vertical, circular or right to left.
Diagram 1. Text from Constantinople, which was written as a secret document,
therefore the direction of writing is left to right, and the letters are also mirrored
– it is not such a text that is a good representation/illustration of the direction of
writing and how the mirroring of letters should be done; this is the only text
found which has the writing direction left to right, with mirrored signs
Regardless of the above mentioned text, it is commonly
thought that the direction of Szekler writing is right to left. What
lead to this mistaken theory is the neglect of studies, and the
military occupations which lead to purposely falsifying the history
of Hungarians. Academics are unable to agree upon the direction of
writing – since they do not know the history of Szekler writing. The
history of Szekler writing can not be narrowed down to a short
period, which is only a part of the whole development of this
writing. The history of the writings development has to be Diagram 2. The Afrasiabi bowl’s (IX.-X.th century) direction of writing is left
understood, which happened throughout the evolution of this way to right, without mirroring the signs
Diagram 3. Zakariás János’ (Jesuit priest) letter from 1756; containing Latin
During the Iron Age the usage of knife enabled runic
words written with runic letters from left to right, without using the mirror
writing, due to which the direction of the Szekler writing has images of signs
partially changed: the direction of runes made on wood became
right to left; and the painted artifacts remained using the left to right
direction. During the era of the classical Szekler writing, due to the This classical usage was kept in the journals of the
runic technology the right to left direction of writing was the academics of the time. However, these only informed about the
commonly used way. usage of runes and the following transition time, including only the
daily usages of writing. Artists who painted on furniture and
ceramists have used the original left to right direction for writing.
Egg painters and ceramists also used the circular way of writing,
and carpenters who made grave-markers wrote vertically. These
were mostly thought by academics to be only decorations, and did
not give much attention to them. This lead to the creation of false
theories, therefore their observations can not be generalized to the
Szekler writing as a whole. The Hungarian language has kept the
certainty, that our writing was originally a pictographic writing –
for example the Hungarian “irás” (writing) word has both meaning
of “wririntg” and “drawing/painsting”. Due to this, the Szekler
writing can not be narrowed down to the linear, everyday usage.
Similarly, we can not conclude anything about the direction of
writing based on the classical (runic – when letters were carved)
During the classical era of the Szekler writing, it can be
seen that while the carving of runes into wood somewhat faded, and
was not as commonly used, and writing on paper became more and
more common using the left to right direction of writing (just like
in the history of Latin and Greek writings).
writing is left to right. This group propagates that the Szekler
writing should be first and foremost written from right to left,
without any support to this. This is only true for cases when the
writing is being done on wood and using runic techniques. Forcing
writing done on paper and on computer to be right to left is a fatal
misunderstanding, which evolved from not understanding the
development of writing.
Diagram 4. Plate from Alsópáhok with the “jó Ra(gyogó) Isten” (good, shining
God) text from left to right, without using the mirror images of signs
During the era of modern usage, the left to write writings
are created in large numbers. For example, Csete Ildikó’s writing
on a flag in a church in Ópusztaszer, or the statue of the
homecoming Hungarians includes a text from left to right. Within
the commonly used word processing files, the runic letters are also
written from left to right. There is no reason for us to avoid such a
natural evolution of writing artificially – by that, the Szekler
writing would be “unnatural”, and harder to use.
The group consisting of Hosszú Gábor, Libisch Győző,
Szakács Gábor and Friedrich Klára, does not know the history of
Szekler writing. There are many examples which prove that they Diagram 5. The Hun emblem (V.th century) found in Budapest with “észak”
(North) written on it from left to right, without mirroring the signs
purposely eliminate findings and theories that go against their
ideology. Libisch Győző for example purposely left out a Hun
emblem from a collection of runic artifacts, because its direction of
The Unicode standard – for printed text – for computers and
writing done on paper; therefore for the Unicode standard only the
left to right direction of writing is appropriate, the other direction is
pointless and only makes it harder to write.
Diagram 6. The ring from Békéscsaba (XI.-XII.th cenrury) with text from left to
right, without mirroring its images
13. Variations of the Szekler Writing
The Szekler letters can be used in a variation of ways,
enabling rich expressionism. It not only records thoughts with the
help of letters, but represents deep meaning with regard the ancient
The Joma ligature for example not only kept the name of
God Joma, but it also informs and makes reference through the
pictographic meaning of signs that the Joma ligature is identical to
the road leading to the sky above – the Milky Way. While the
name of a god can also be read out of the sign it can be said that:
other meanings represented by the signs can not be stated, or at
least not too concisely.
The meaning of signs will remain unknown to the reader,
unless the reader knows about the ancient religion.
The opposite is also possible: due to the pictographic
meaning of signs it is not even realized that they could actually be
read – for example logograms from the fresco in Martonhely with
Due to these alterations, the recording of characteristics of
the Szekler writing is complicated. On the other hand, a writing that
had developed naturally – ones including signs that show the
transition from pictographic signs into modern letters – could be
Diagram 1. The diagram above illustrates the rich expressionism enabled by the
Szekler alphabet; each line records the words “Egy Isten” (one God) in different
- Based on literature, the text could be a “universe model”;
symbol of reign or ancient religion; memoir; alphabet;
border-stone; letter etc. It can be said with regards to the
artifacts found, that with this type of writing many religious,
geographic, economic and historic events have been
- Based on the type of sign: it could be a sentence sign,
logogram, syllable sign, or a letter.
- Based on graphic sign creation, it could be an elemental
pictograph, or a ligature created by them.
- The creation of ligatures is a characteristic of Eastern (i.e.:
Chinese) montage techniques.
- Due to ceremonial reasons, the Szekler signs are used in
combination with other signs of different writings – for
example on the artifacts from Nagyszentmiklós. This usage
has developed due to the strong ancient religious meanings
of Szekler signs. Just like how the Egyptian hieroglyph
writing was also used for ceremonial occasions besides the
hieratic and demotic writings.
- The hieroglyph usage has ancient religious significance,
where in certain cases it includes picture like sentence signs
or logograms. Its opposite is the writing of letters.
- Within the writings with letters we can differentiate the
ones including words written out fully and ones using
apopohony. The ones using apophony does not record
vowels, or at least not always.
14. Interpunctuation desire for layered expressionism has changed the characters of
Among the old writings interpunctuation was not as
important as for modern writings. The interpunctuation for the Szekler writing and other runic
writings only included disjunctive signs, but the usage of these
signs was not common. Maybe the fact that writing was done on
wood did not enable the development of characteristics for
interpunctuation. On the other hand, the usage of printing-press and
its neutrality towards the form of signs actually helped the usage of
Due to this, the Szekler writing does not have its own, and
In this case, there are three options to choose from.
- The Szekler writing will be used without the usage of
interpunctutation, and it will be accepted that the Szekler
writing (due to its form) will not elaborately present every
- Its own interpunctuation signs will be developed, while also
keeping the old disjunctive signs. However, this would be a
complicated and unnecessary option.
- The interpunctuation of the Latin writing commonly known
by people would be used. This option seems to be most
likely accepted for the Szekler writing, and it is the most
commonly used form used for writing today.
Writings during historic times adopted the internationally
Diagram 1. The copy of the text from Csik in Marosvásárhely using
used customs of writing, if it was usable. Therefore, we should not
do otherwise with regards interpunctuation.
The change is related to the spread of writing to the masses,
Due to this reason, the interpunctuation for the Szekler
and also due to the rising requirements of actuaries and writers. The
writing uses the commonly used signs for Latinate writing. This
usage should continue and made stronger.