Liu 7506

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Liu 7506

  1. 1. Urban Environmental Welfare In China: Valuation Indicators And Regional Variation Jianchang Liu, Jingzhu Zhao, Hongbing Deng State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, RCEES, CAS, Beijing 100085, China Apr., 2008
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>With the growth of urbanization, China economy greatly developed over the past decades. </li></ul><ul><li>More people get more convenience from urban construction including broad municipal roads, clean water supply, perfect drainage system, scenic urban landscape, high work efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile, relevant environmental problems, large city problems, such as green land degradation, increased road traffic, serious air pollution, water shortage, poor environmental endeavor, pollution incident and justle in recreation, shopping and health-care accessibility, confronted by Chinese government. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>These two-sided environmental changes are reflected in the crucial role of sustainable development in recent governmental papers. </li></ul><ul><li>At an international level this focus is apparent in numerous scientific publications and other documents concerning liveability and urban planning. </li></ul><ul><li>So far, science has not advanced a comprehensive framework to analyze these issues in an integrated manner. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A recent review of relevant literature (Leidelmijer et al. 2002) revealed that no generally accepted conceptual framework in relation to well-being has been developed, nor any coherent system to measure and properly evaluate aspects of, and trends in environmental quality. </li></ul><ul><li>The concepts of urban environmental quality and related terms such as livability, quality of life and sustainability enjoy great public popularity and form a central issue in research-programmes, policy making, and urban development. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the context in which environmental quality is used in research and policymaking is seldom uniform (van Kamp et al., 2003). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Urban Environmental Welfare Evaluation <ul><li>Characteristic of Urban System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “society-economy-nature” ecosystem, city has the general characteristics of the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the large density of population, the simplification of food chain, and the decline of the self-regulation ability, the complex urban system also show the special characteristics, such as integration, dependence, and frangibility, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Definition of UEW System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The review of definitions shows that within the fields of environmental quality, quality of life and sustainability a broad variety of models and definitions is used and that the discussion about their applicability is well under way. The general key issues were used to compare the core concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Figure 1 and Figure 2, the concepts of livability, quality of place and sustainability overlap: they all refer to (aspects of) the person-environment relationship (van Kamp et al., 2003). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A conceptual model of factors that contribute to community quality of life from a human ecological perspective (Shafer et al., 2000) </li></ul>Environment Viable Community Convivial Movable Economics Livable Quality of life
  8. 8. <ul><li>Quality-of-life components (Mitchell, 2000) </li></ul>Health Quality of life Natural resources, goods and services Physical environment Community development Personal development Security
  9. 9. <ul><li>Urban-environmental-welfare components </li></ul>Environmental justle Urban environmental welfare Environmental security Environmental cost Environmental coziness Environmental cleanness Environmental resource
  10. 10. <ul><li>Definition of UEW System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urban-environmental-welfare (UEW), is proposed to substitute for the overlap of concepts of livability, quality of place and sustainability. UEW, as the person-environment relationship, represents not only a part of urban environmental quality but also urban human well-being. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Figure 1 and Figure 2, the concepts of livability, quality of place and sustainability overlap: they all refer to (aspects of) the person-environment relationship (van Kamp et al., 2003). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Evaluation of UEW System </li></ul>More large, more good % X18 Reduced rate of industrial sulfur dioxide More large, more good % X17 Discharge standard-meeting rate of industrial wastewaters More large, more good % X16 Standard-meeting rate of drinking water source Environmental security More large, more good Yuan/person X15 Productive value of castoff per capita More large, more good % X14 Ratio of environmental cost to GDP More large, more good 10 4 Yuan X13 GDP per urban resident Environmental cost Some value between large and small values is the best ℃ X12 Annual temperature Some value between large and small values is the best % X11 Annual humidity More much, more good m 2 /person X10 Housing area per capita Environmental coziness More much, more good % X09 Waster treated ratio More much, more good % X08 Drainage treated ratio More much, more good d X07 days meeting the second grade of air quality standard Environmental cleanness More large, more good 1/10000 X06 Number of medical More large, more good - X05 Ratio of electric power supply to use More large, more good - X04 Ratio of water supply to use Environmental resource More large, more good m 2 /person X03 Municipal road area per capita More large, more good m 2 /person X02 Green belt area per capita More small, more good person/km 2 X01 Urban population density Environmental justle Classification Unit Code Name Index Subsystem
  12. 12. Methodology <ul><li>Values of Indices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The indicators and values are from the China City Statistics Year Book </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Weighting All Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Analysis Procedure for Regional Variation of UEW </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The total index of UEW level for key cities of China </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Shenzhen was the highest with the total UEW index of 0.73, </li></ul><ul><li>followed by Hangzhou, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Haikou, Beijing, Guilin, Xiamen, Yantai, Suzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo and Kunming. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest one is Haerbin City with the total index of 0.43. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results and Discussions <ul><li>The subindex of UEW for Key Cities of China </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In terms of the environmental justle index, Shenzhen was highest with the subindex of 0.87, followed by Zhuhai, Zhanjiang, Yinchuan, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Qinhuandao, Huhehaote, Suzhou and Beihai. The lowest one is Shantou City with the total index of 0.05. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of the environmental resource index, Shenzhen was highest with the subindex of 0.69, followed by Ningbo, Lanzhou, Xi’ning, Beijing, Huhehaote, Hangzhou, Kunming, Tianjin, Taiyuan, Wenzhou and Guiyang. The lowest one is Shantou and Lianyungang with the total index of 0.15. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of the environmental cleanness index, Haikou was highest with the subindex of 0.95, followed by Yantai, Guilin, Qinhuandao, Dalian, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Nantong, Kunming, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Suzhou and Hefei. The lowest one is Haerbin and Lanzhou with the total index of 0.52. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In terms of the environmental coziness index, Natong was highest with the subindex of 0.89, followed by Guilin, Suzhou, Changsha,,Fuzhou,Chengdu,Beihai,Wenzhou,Nanjing,Zhuhai and Wuhan. The lowest one is Xi’ning City with the total index of 0.55. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of the environmental cost index, Kunming was highest with the subindex of 0.58, followed by Xiamen, Ningbo, Yantai, Suzhou, Nanjing, Guilin ,Shenzhen and Qingdao. The lowest one is Xi’ning City with the total index of 0.05. In terms of the environmental security index, Haikou was highest with the subindex of 0.96, followed by Kunming, Nanjing, Dalian, Ningbo, Shijiazhuang, Yantai, Jinan and Suzhou. The lowest one is Xi’ning City with the total index of 0.57. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Regional Variation of Environment Welfare Levels in China </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The cities in East China and South China have a prior development to other regions like those cities of Middle China, Southwest China and Northwest China. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be seen that these similar cluster cities in Southeast China are most at the moderate stage of ecological sustainability and economic development, and those cities in West China with the similar cluster are at primary stage of ecological, economic and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it reflects a un-synchronization that environmental changes is not dependant on socioeconomic development. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other causes to determine the environmental changes such as regional characteristics, uses of natural resources, living habits, production mode, weather diversity, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Based on the review of domains of environmental quality, quality of life and sustainability (a broad variety of models and definitions), a new conceptual model, urban environmental welfare (UEW), is proposed to integrate environmental quality and human well-being in this paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The UEW valuation theory framework was established to quantitatively monitor and evaluate the environmental changes of urbanization. The evaluation index system of UEW consisted of 6 secondary indices and 18 third indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>Six secondary indices include environmental justle, resource, cleanness, coziness, cost and security index. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used as a weight estimation technique during the integrated evaluation procedure. Cluster analysis method is employed to calculate the regional variation for 46 key cities of China according to subsystems structure of UEW. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The environmental welfare level is highest in Shenzhen with the total UEW index of 0.73, followed by Hangzhou, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Haikou, Beijing, Guilin, Xiamen, Yantai, Suzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Kunming and other cities. The lowest one is Haerbin City with the index of 0.43. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of different subsystems, different cities appear to be various orders. It can be seen that cities in Southeast China show higher environmental welfare levels than those in Northwest China. </li></ul><ul><li>The environmental impacts of urbanization in different cities vary from regional nature, economic increase, regional characteristics, uses of natural resources, living habits, production mode, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Thank You! Any Comments and Questions are welcome!

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