The Influence of  Land Uses allocation  in City's circulatory flows. J. TSOUDEROS, PROFESSOR  N.T.U.ATHENS, GREECE.   D. D...
Each  Urban system   shapes its ecological  status   with  attributes  that are characterized by its ability     to  minim...
This is achieved by  configurating Urban forms   that: <ul><li>achieve high degree’ s  accessibility  </li></ul><ul><li>wi...
<ul><li>cover the ground insufficiency for city’s needs in its centres,   </li></ul>This is achieved by  configurating Urb...
<ul><li>continuously  </li></ul><ul><li>recompose land uses   </li></ul><ul><li>for the achievement of  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>The evolution and extension of Attica has began since Athens municipality was nominated as Greece ’ s capital in  ...
Today, Attica’s basin has big air pollution problems that are mainly caused by the intensive and increasing use of vehicle...
<ul><li>Our research uses the circulatory flows that were recorded in 1991, concern the number of cars that cross each str...
THE REVEAL OF ATTICA’S BASIN FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE. <ul><li>The correlation of circulatory flows with land uses that create...
<ul><li>Functional Centers and Light  </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture   </li></ul><ul><li>21 economic activities are include...
AREAL RELATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND CIRCULATORY FLOWS. <ul><li>The relation of   </li></ul><ul><li>economic activiti...
<ul><li>Functional Centers   and   Light Manufacture  </li></ul><ul><li>are intensively allocated  at both sides of  3rd c...
<ul><li>Industrial  and  Supplementary Land Uses   </li></ul><ul><li>are allocated in zoning form from  north-eastern to s...
<ul><li>Central Business Districts activities   </li></ul><ul><li>present the supplementary picture of Industrial and Supp...
<ul><li>It is obvious that Functional and Circulatory Structure of Attica’s basin is shaped in  three linear zones . </li>...
<ul><li>The lack of oblique axes   of   </li></ul><ul><li>high circulatory intensity is obvious,   </li></ul><ul><li>fact ...
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Dimelli 7456

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Dimelli 7456

  1. 1. The Influence of Land Uses allocation in City's circulatory flows. J. TSOUDEROS, PROFESSOR N.T.U.ATHENS, GREECE. D. DIMELLI , ADJACENT LECTURER IN DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT , UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY.
  2. 2. Each Urban system shapes its ecological status with attributes that are characterized by its ability to minimise energy’s consumption and pollutants emission.
  3. 3. This is achieved by configurating Urban forms that: <ul><li>achieve high degree’ s accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>without </li></ul><ul><li>the corresponding mobility increase, </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>cover the ground insufficiency for city’s needs in its centres, </li></ul>This is achieved by configurating Urban forms that:
  5. 5. <ul><li>continuously </li></ul><ul><li>recompose land uses </li></ul><ul><li>for the achievement of </li></ul><ul><li>local and central services </li></ul><ul><li>aiming to </li></ul><ul><li>city’s journeys </li></ul><ul><li>minimisation. </li></ul>This is achieved by configurating Urban forms that:
  6. 6. <ul><li>The evolution and extension of Attica has began since Athens municipality was nominated as Greece ’ s capital in 1833. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic facts (wars, 1,3 million refuges arrival) have attracted a huge number of new residents who were allocated round the existing city, creating extension rings that were corrupted only in areas where land characteristics (mountain, sea) didn’t allow residents allocation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Today, Attica’s basin has big air pollution problems that are mainly caused by the intensive and increasing use of vehicles.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Our research uses the circulatory flows that were recorded in 1991, concern the number of cars that cross each street during every typical day. Regarding the area where these flows were recorded, this is Attica’s basin that is composed by 56 municipalities and is divided in 343 areas with different zip codes that constitute the areal units of our investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>From the recorded circulatory flows we realize that according to the crossing vehicles , the road axes are distinguished in three categories. </li></ul><ul><li>First category : Road s that are daily crossed by more than 50.000 vehicles. The higher flows are recorded in the municipality of Athens in which the majority of population and employees is assembled. Intense flows are also recorded in axes that depart from Athens municipality centre, extend actinically in the urban web and &quot;cross&quot; other municipalities, connecting them with the centre. In these axes, traffic problems, result as consequence from the intense flows, especially in the hours of shops and services function. </li></ul><ul><li>Second category : roads that are daily crossed by 30.000-50.000 vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>These roads </li></ul><ul><li>a) Depart from Athens centre and function supplementary with the axes of the First category. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Connect regions that are not in contiguity with Athens municipality </li></ul><ul><li>c) Connect the first category axes between them additionally in other points except the central departure point. </li></ul><ul><li>Third category: roads that are daily crossed by 10.000-30.000 vehicles and serve local journeys. </li></ul>[1] not during weekends
  9. 9. THE REVEAL OF ATTICA’S BASIN FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE. <ul><li>The correlation of circulatory flows with land uses that create them, will result from the application of the following method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially we reveal city’s Functional Structure, composed by the “Components” that show economic activities groups as they arealy co-exist , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then we investigate the Components allocation in relation with the road axes in order to find which economic activities attract intense circulatory flows . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attica’s basin functional Structure results by Principal Components Analysis a method that seeks the linear combination of variables, which in our research are economic activities . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Functional Centers and Light </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>21 economic activities are included in this category that has arised from the provided freedom in land uses allocation, thus until 1988 there has not been the legislation to predefine the kind of the allowed land uses and their allocation in urban tissue. This category represents 44,70% of models explained variance, so it represents a big amount of city’s real status. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic activities that are included are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consuming Goods production from small enterprises that can co-exist with residence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities, that trade the above products, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail trade that sells these products, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services that facilitate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a) the above transactions and </li></ul><ul><li>b) these areas residents needs, </li></ul><ul><li>as residence , city ’ s inactive mass, is recorded in city ’ s total with different intensities. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Industrial and Supplementary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Uses . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This category includes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industries and Storages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machines Production and Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Metallurgic Industries . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These activities co - exist arealy keeping off the rest activities and residence , because of their function ’ s that degrades urban environment . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Central Business Activities . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This category includes city ’ s central functions that are allocated with the criteria of the optimal accessibility and approachability. </li></ul>
  11. 11. AREAL RELATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND CIRCULATORY FLOWS. <ul><li>The relation of </li></ul><ul><li>economic activities allocation </li></ul><ul><li>with </li></ul><ul><li>circulatory flows </li></ul><ul><li>will result from </li></ul><ul><li>the investigation of </li></ul><ul><li>the extracted components allocation </li></ul><ul><li>in relation </li></ul><ul><li>with road axes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Functional Centers and Light Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>are intensively allocated at both sides of 3rd category roads , that are daily crossed by 10.000-30.000 vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Exception to this conclusion constitute some condensations on the 1st and 2nd road categories that however lie on peripherical municipalities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Industrial and Supplementary Land Uses </li></ul><ul><li>are allocated in zoning form from north-eastern to south-western in the harbour and are served by 2nd category’s axes that are daily crossed by 30.000-50.000 vehicles. This zone area constitutes Attica’s west industrial zone. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Central Business Districts activities </li></ul><ul><li>present the supplementary picture of Industrial and Supplementary Land Uses. They are also allocated in a zoning form and are mainly served by 3rd category’s road axes (more than 50.000 vehicle daily). </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>It is obvious that Functional and Circulatory Structure of Attica’s basin is shaped in three linear zones . </li></ul><ul><li>The first in West is the Industrial, </li></ul><ul><li>The second in centre is Central Business Districts, and </li></ul><ul><li>The third in east (limited by Imittos) mountain is the residence zone. </li></ul><ul><li>These zones create and are served </li></ul><ul><li>by road axes </li></ul><ul><li>that cross the basin , </li></ul><ul><li>from north to the sea, </li></ul><ul><li>with fluctuated circulatory intense, </li></ul><ul><li>depending </li></ul><ul><li>on the group of activities they serve . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The lack of oblique axes of </li></ul><ul><li>high circulatory intensity is obvious, </li></ul><ul><li>fact that causes </li></ul><ul><li>city’s traffic status problems </li></ul><ul><li>in Attica’s basin, and this because these oblique flows are served </li></ul><ul><li>(due to urban tissue deficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>by low intensity local road axes . </li></ul>

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