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Open Data and Linked Data

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The What and How of Linked Open Data

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Open Data and Linked Data

  1. 1. Open Data and Linked Data the what and how of linked open data James G. Boram Kim LiST Inc. JGKim@LiSTInc.kr March 5th, 2016
  2. 2. Prologue
  3. 3. Photography: Jason Madara, WIRED UK 02:13, 2013. Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media
  4. 4. “Data is the Next Intel Inside®.” Photography: Jason Madara, WIRED UK 02:13, 2013. Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media ”Every significant Internet application to date has been backed by a specialized database. […] Much as the rise of proprietary software led to the Free Software movement, we expect the rise of proprietary databases to result in a Free Data movement within the next decade.” — “What is Web 2.0,” Sep. 2005.
  5. 5. Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media John Battelle CEO, Co-founder, and Chairman,
 NewCo Photography: James Duncan Davidson, Web 2.0 Summit, 2010.
  6. 6. Data is the“Intel Inside®”of the Next Generation of Applications Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media John Battelle CEO, Co-founder, and Chairman,
 NewCo Photography: James Duncan Davidson, Web 2.0 Summit, 2010. ”Collective intelligence applications depend on managing, understanding, and responding to massive amounts of user-generated data in real-time. The“subsystems”of the emerging Internet operating system are increasingly data subsystems: location, identity (of people, products, and places), and the skeins of meaning that tie them together. This leads to new levers of competitive advantage: Data is the “Intel Inside®” of the next generation of computer applications.” — “Web Squared: Web 2.0 Five Years On,” Oct. 2010.
  7. 7. Infographic: visually, http://visual.ly/open-data-movement, 2011.
  8. 8. Barack Obama 44th President of the United States Photography: Kevin S. O’Brien, U.S. Navy, 2009.
  9. 9. Open Government Barack Obama 44th President of the United States Photography: Kevin S. O’Brien, U.S. Navy, 2009. ”My administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government. We will work together to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in Government.”— Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, “Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
  10. 10. Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media Photography: Eric Laycock, Esri, 2011.
  11. 11. “Government as a Platform” Tim O’Reilly Founder and CEO, O’Reilly Media Photography: Eric Laycock, Esri, 2011. ”This is the right way to frame the question of“Government 2.0.”How does government itself become an open platform that allows people inside and outside government to innovate? How do you design a system in which all of the outcomes aren’t specified beforehand, but instead evolve through interactions between the technology provider and its user community? […] That’s Government 2.0: technology helping build the kind of government the nation’s founders intended: of, for and by the people.”
 — “Gov 2.0: The Promise of Innovation,” Forbes, Aug. 2009.
  12. 12. Todd Park 2nd United States ChiefTechnology Officer Photography: U.S. Department of Labor, 2012.
  13. 13. Open Data Policy Todd Park 2nd United States ChiefTechnology Officer Photography: U.S. Department of Labor, 2012. ”Making information resources accessible, discoverable, and usable by the public can help fuel entrepreneurship, innovation, and scientific discovery — all of which improve Americans’lives and contribute significantly to job creation.”— Sylvia M. Burwell, Steven VanRoekel, Todd Park, and Dominic J. Mancini, Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, “Open Data Policy — Managing Information as an Asset,” May. 2013.
  14. 14. Joel Gurin President and Founder,
 Center for Open Data Enterprise Photography: Techonomy, 2014.
  15. 15. Open Data Movement Joel Gurin President and Founder,
 Center for Open Data Enterprise Photography: Techonomy, 2014. ”The Open Data movement began with democratic goals, fuelled by the idea that governments should make the data they collect available to the taxpayers who’ve paid to collect it. But in addition to its social benefits, Open Data has created tremendous new business opportunities.”
 — “Open Data Now,” McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.
  16. 16. Why Open Data? — Open Data and Social Impact Sketchnote: Open Government Partnership, 2013.
  17. 17. Why Open Data? — Driving Growth, Ingenuity, and Innovation Sketchnote: Open Government Partnership, 2013. ”Data is the new capital of the global economy, and as organisations seek renewed growth, stronger performance and more meaningful customer engagement, the pressure to exploit data is immense. […] As a result, we foresee that open data, and not simply big data, will be a vital driver for growth, ingenuity and innovation in the UK economy. There are four key aspects to our vision: 1. Every business wil have a strategy to exploit the rapidly growing estate of open data. 2. Businesses will increasingly open up their data to revolutionise the way they compete. 3. Businesses will use open data to inspire customer engagement. 4. Businesses will work with the Government to establish a new paradigm in data responsibility and privacy.” — “Open data: Driving growth, ingenuity and innovation,” Deloitte, 2012.
  18. 18. Why Open Data? — Large Amount of Economic Value ”Making data more“liquid”(open, widely available, and in shareable formats)” has the potential to unlock large amount of economic value (approx. $3 trillion annually), by improving the efficiency and effectiveness of existing processes; making possible new products, services, and markets; and creating value for individual consumers and citizens.”— “Open data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information,” McKinsey Global Institute, Oct. 2013. McKinsey & Company McKinsey Global Institute More open data for more users ... 40+Number of countries with government open data platforms* 90,000+Data sets on data.gov (US site)* 1.4 millionPage views for the UK open data site in the summer of 2013 102Cities that participated in 2013 International Open Data Hackathon Day 1 million+Data sets made open by governments worldwide * As of 2013
  19. 19. Why Open Data? — Large Amount of Economic Value ”While sources differ in their precise estimates of the economic potential of Open Data, all are agreed that it is potentially very large. In countries which were early movers in Open Data, there is already evidence of significant businesses having developed to exploit that potential. Leading governments have recognised that their role is not simply to publish data — they are supporting the whole value chain of the use of data […].”— “Open Data for Economic Growth,” The World Bank, Jun. 2014. The World Bank IBRD· IDA
  20. 20. Screenshot: “Open Data 500,” http://www.opendata500.com/.
  21. 21. Screenshot: “Open Data 500,” http://www.opendata500.com/.
  22. 22. Screenshot: “Open Data 500,” http://www.opendata500.com/.
  23. 23. Joel Gurin President and Founder,
 Center for Open Data Enterprise Photography: The GovLab, 2013.
  24. 24. Joel Gurin President and Founder,
 Center for Open Data Enterprise Defining Data Categories OPEN DATA Business Reporting And
 Other Business Data (e.g., ESG data and comsumer complaints) BIG DATA OPEN GOV Non-Public
 Data for marketing, business analysis, national security Citizen
 Engagement
 Programs not based on data (e.g., petition websites) Large Datasets from scientific research, social media, or other non-government sources Public Data from state, local, federal government (e.g., budget data) Large Public Government Datasets (e.g., weather, GPS, Census, SEC, healthcare) Photography: The GovLab, 2013. Diagram: From Joel Gurin, “Open Data Now,” McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.
  25. 25. Definition
  26. 26. Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014.
  27. 27. Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014.
  28. 28. Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014.
  29. 29. Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014.
  30. 30. Open Definition Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014. Source: “Open Definition 2.1,” http://opendefinition.org/od/2.1/, 2015. Knowledge is OPENif ANYONE is FREE to ACCESS, USE, MODIFY, and SHAREit — subject, at most, to measures that preserve PROVENANCE and OPENNESS. “ ”
  31. 31. Open Definition Rufus Pollock President and Co-Founder 
 Open Knowledge (Foundation) Photography: Sebastiaan ter Burg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/31013861@N00/14860905785/, 2014. Source: “Open Definition 2.1,” http://opendefinition.org/od/2.1/, 2015. Data and Content are OPENif ANYONE is FREE to ACCESS, USE, MODIFY, and SHAREit — subject, at most, to measures that preserve PROVENANCE and OPENNESS. “ ”
  32. 32. How Data are Open or Closed, based on four characteristics Source: From “Open data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information,” McKinsey Global Institute, Oct. 2013. Completely Closed Completely Open More “Liquid” Degree of Access Everyone has access Access to data is to a subset of
 individuals or organizations Machine-Readability Available in formats that can be easily retrieved and processed by computers Data in formats not easily retrieved and processed by computers Cost No cost to obtain Offered only at a significant fee Rights Unlimited rights to reuse
 and redistribute data Re-use, republishing, or
 distribution of data is forbidden
  33. 33. Methods
  34. 34. Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Bret Hartman, TED, 2014.
  35. 35. 5-Star Deployment Scheme for Open Data Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Bret Hartman, TED, 2014. ”In order to encourage people — especially government data owners — along the road to good linked data, I have developed this star rating system. Linked Open Data (LOD) is Linked Data which is released under an open license, which does not impede its reuse
 for free. […] Linked Data does not of course in general have to be open. […]
 However, if it claims to be Linked Open Data then it does have to be
 open, to get any star at all.”— “Linked Data,” Design Issues, 2010.
  36. 36. Image: Science for all, 2015.
  37. 37. The Tip of the Iceberg Image: Science for all, 2015. “All those pages on websites are only tips of icebergs: • The real data is hidden in databases, XML files, Excel sheets, … • You only have access to what the Web page designers allow you to see. […] Various data sources expose their data via Web Services or APIs, each with a different API, a different logic, a different structure. Mashups are forced to reinvent the wheel many times because there is no standard way getting to the data.”
 — Ivan Herman, “High Level Intro to Semantic Web,” Feb. 2012.
  38. 38. Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Open Data, Now!
  39. 39. Conformant Licenses Screenshot: http://opendefinition.org/licenses/ Screenshot: http://licenses.opendefinition.org/
  40. 40. Screenshot: http://opendatacommons.org/
  41. 41. Licenses for the“Database”and its“Contents” Screenshot: http://opendatacommons.org/ ”The database and its contents may have separate rights. […] Different types of subject matter (e.g., code, content, or data) necessitate differences in licensing. Licenses designed for one type of subject matter — as CC licenses (lower than 4.0) were designed for content, and F/OSS licenses for code — aren’t always best suited to licensing another type of subject matter.”— “Licenses FAQ,” Open Data Commons, 2010.
  42. 42. Creative Commons Rights Expression Language (CC REL) Source: https://www.w3.org/Submission/ccREL/
  43. 43. Open Data Rights Statement Vocabulary Screenshot: https://alpha.openaddressesuk.org/about/terms/ Screenshot: http://schema.theodi.org/odrs/
  44. 44. Open Data Rights Statement Vocabulary Screenshot: https://alpha.openaddressesuk.org/about/terms/ Screenshot: http://schema.theodi.org/odrs/
  45. 45. Screenshot: The Next Web, TED, 2009. Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb
  46. 46. Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Raw (Structured) Data, Now! Screenshot: The Next Web, TED, 2009.
  47. 47. No Ontological Commitment, No Machine-Understandability. ”The term ontological commitment is used as a general term in both philosophy and in information systems to refer to the essential elements of an ontology. An ontological commitment in describing ontological comparisons is taken to refer to a subset of elements of an ontology that it shares with all other ontologies based upon the same theory or conceptualization.”— Citizendium, 2013. Diagram: John R. Brews, Citizendium, 2013.
  48. 48. Open Formats
  49. 49. Screenshot: http://data.okfn.org/
  50. 50. Frictionless Data Diagram: Open Knowledge, http://blog.okfn.org/2013/04/24/frictionless-data-making-it-radically-easier-to-get-stuff-done-with-data/, 2013.
  51. 51. Frictionless Data Diagram: Open Knowledge, http://data.okfn.org/roadmap
  52. 52. Data Package Standards & Tools Diagram: Open Knowledge, http://blog.okfn.org/2013/04/24/frictionless-data-making-it-radically-easier-to-get-stuff-done-with-data/, 2013. Screenshot: http://data.okfn.org/tools
  53. 53. CSV on the Web Screenshot: https://www.w3.org/TR/tabular-metadata/ Screenshot: http://www.w3.org/TR/tabular-data-model/ Screenshot: http://www.w3.org/TR/csv2json/ Screenshot: https://www.w3.org/TR/csv2rdf/
  54. 54. Core & Community Datasets Screenshot: http://data.okfn.org/data Screenshot: https://github.com/datasets
  55. 55. Screenshot: https://github.com/datasets/country-codes/blob/master/data/country-codes.csv
  56. 56. Screenshot: http://dat-data.com/
  57. 57. Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Paul Clarke, 2014.
  58. 58. Linked Data Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Paul Clarke, 2014. 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things “I’ll refer to the steps above as rules, but they are expectations of behavior. Breaking them does not destroy anything, but misses an opportunity to make data interconnected. This in turn limits the ways it can later be reused in unexpected ways. It is the unexpected re- use of information which is the value added by the Web.” — “Linked Data,” Design Issues, 2010.
  59. 59. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Uniform Resource Identifiers Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Paul Clarke, 2014. ”The first rule, to identify things with URIs, is pretty much understood by most people doing semantic Web technology. […] The second rule, to use HTTP URIs, is also widely understood. The only deviation has been a constant tendency for people to invent new URI schemes such as XRIs, DOIs, and so on for various reasons. Typically, these involve not wanting to commit to the established Domain Name System (DNS) for delegation of authority but to construct something under separate control. Sometimes it has to do with not understanding that HTTP URIs are names […].”— “Linked Data,” Design Issues, 2010.
  60. 60. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Uniform Resource Identifiers ”HTTP URIs, in the Web architecture, have been used to denote documents. However, with the growth of the Semantic Web, which uses URIs to denote anything at all, the urge to use and practice of using HTTP URIs for arbitrary things grew steadily.”— “What HTTP URIs Identify,” Design Issues, 2010. Diagram: “What do HTTP URIs Identify?,” Design Issues, 2002. KEY 1 … … … … … Car KEY 2 … … … … … … KEY 3 … … … … … … KEY 4 … … … … … … KEY 5 … … … … … … URI 1 URI 2 URI 3 URI 4 URI 5 URI 0 URI 6
  61. 61. Resource Description Framework Subject Object Predicate Triple URI 1 URI 3 / Value URI 2 - COL 1 COL 2 COL 3 COL 4 COL 5 COL 6 KEY 1 … … … … … Car KEY 2 … … … … … … KEY 3 … … … … … … KEY 4 … … … … … …
  62. 62. Resource Description Framework Subject 1 Object 1
 Subject 2 Predicate 1 Triple 1 URI 1 URI 3 URI 2 - COL 1 COL 2 COL 3 COL 4 COL 5 COL 6 KEY 1 … … … … … Car KEY 2 … … … … … … KEY 3 … … … … … … KEY 4 … … … … … … Object 2 Predicate 2 URI 5 / Value URI 4 Triple 2 - COL 7 Car Tire … … … … … … Graph
  63. 63. Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV) Screenshot: http://lov.okfn.org/
  64. 64. Dereferenceable Uniform Resource Identifiers Tim Berners-Lee The Inventor of theWorldWideWeb Photography: Paul Clarke, 2014. ”The third rule, that one should serve information on the Web against a URI, is, in 2006, well followed for most ontologies, but, for some reason, not for some major datasets. […] Large datasets provide a SPARQL query service, but the basic linked data should be provided as well. Many research and evaluation projects in the few years of the Semantic Web technologies produces ontologies, and significant data stores, but the data, if available at all, is buried in a zip archive somewhere, rather than being accessible on the Web as linked data.”— “Linked Data,” Design Issues, 2010.
  65. 65. Dereferenceable Uniform Resource Identifiers Diagram: From “Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One,” W3C, 2004.
  66. 66. Why Linked Data? Source: Tom Heath, “How to Publish Linked Data on the Web,” 2008. • Ease of Discovery • Ease of Consumption - standards-based data sharing • Reduced Redundancy - avoid duplication • Added Value - build ecosystems around your data/content
  67. 67. Diagram: “The Linking Open Data cloud diagram,” http://lod-cloud.net/, 2014.
  68. 68. Open Data Ecosystem Figure 1. The open data ecosystem Supplies data to Uses data to deliver to Source: Deloitte LLP Business data Business data Business data Government data Citizen data Citizen data Government data Citizen data Citizen Government data Government Business There are three principal constituencies in any successful open data ecosystem: government, business and citizen. Each constituency supplies data to itself and to others. In turn, businesses and government use the data to deliver services demanded by all constituencies. The three classes of open data supplied by the constituencies and used to deliver services are: Open government data – data produced, collected or paid for by the public sector, subject to restrictions relating to sub judice, national security, commercial sensitivity and privacy. In addition, special commercial arrangements also being made for certain trading funds, including Companies House, the Ordnance Survey, the Meteorological Office and HM Land Registry, which together form the newly created Public Data Group.10 Open business data – data produced or collected by the private sector and published freely and openly, subject to restrictions that individual businesses decide to put in place. Open citizen data – the personal and non-personal data of individual citizens published into the open domain. Diagram: From “Open data: Driving growth, ingenuity and innovation,” Deloitte, 2012.
  69. 69. Epilogue
  70. 70. Diagram: John Snow, 1854.
  71. 71. Diagram: Florence Nightingale, “Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army,” 1858.
  72. 72. Photography: "Don’t Panic – the Truth about Population,” BBC, 2013. Hans Rosling Co-founder and Chairman,
 Gapminder Foundation
  73. 73. Photography: "Don’t Panic – the Truth about Population,” BBC, 2013. Hans Rosling Co-founder and Chairman,
 Gapminder Foundation Animation: “Mesmerizing Animation Shows How Much Healthier The World Has Become,” Business Insider, 2014.
  74. 74. Reality Mining: Serendipitous Reuse Figure 1. Normalized data from Fluwatch (influenza cases, lab tests, ILI reports from sentinel physicians) and Google (number of clicks on an keyword-triggered influenza link). Results Over the flu-season period, the Google campaign received a total of 54,507 impressions and 4,582 clicks (Figure 1). Among all the ad campaign measures, the number of clicks on the ad was found to have the best correlation with traditional query sampling week could be predicted with 100% specificity and sensitivity. The costs of the Google sentinel method were negligible compared to traditional methods: Google charges $0.08 per click-through, thus the campaign cost only Can$365.64 for the entire flu-season.Screenshot: https://www.google.com/adsense/start/ Diagram: Gunther Eysenbach, "Infodemiology: Tracking Flu-Related Searches on the Web for Syndromic Surveillance," 2006.
  75. 75. Thank You.

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