2009 week 4 notes to 1968


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2009 week 4 notes to 1968

  1. 1. Woolworth sit-in, Jackson, MS. May 28, 1963 "This was the most violently attacked sit-in during the 1960s and is the most publicized. A huge mob gathered, with open police support while the three of us sat there for three hours. I was attacked with fists, brass knuckles and the broken portions of glass sugar containers, and was burned with cigarettes. I'm covered with blood and we were all covered by salt, sugar, mustard, and various other things. Seated, left to right, are myself, Joan Trumpauer (now Mulholland), and Anne Moody (Coming of Age in Mississippi). Other sit-ins — some in a split-off section and some briefly with our heavily targeted part — were Memphis Norman (himself brutally struck and kicked unconscious), Pearlena Lewis, Lois Chaffee, James Beard, George Raymond, and Walter Williams. ) The response by Jackson's Black community to the sit-in and its violence was tremendously positive. The mass meeting that night was the biggest yet — despite the hordes of hostile city and state police and sheriffs' forces surrounding the church: close to a thousand people attended. Our initial picket demonstration on Capitol Street on December 12, 1962, had launched the Jackson Boycott Movement, — and our Woolworth Sit-In now transposed the Boycott Movement into the massive Jackson Movement." STUDENT NON-Violent coordinating Committee formed, INSPIRED BY THE GREENSBORO sit in, and organized much more… Kurlansky: 38-40 interesting bit here on how the non-violent movement’s success depended on the violence of those they were opposing since the media did not report unless there was violence. Tells a story here about, when Martin L King learned about a photographer who put down his camera to help someone being beaten by the police, King told him “your role is to photograph what is happening to us.” FREEDOMSUMMER That fall, the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an umbrella organization of local and national civil rights groups founded in 1962, organized
  2. 2. the Freedom Vote. The Freedom Vote had two main goals: 1.To show Mississippi whites and the nation that blacks wanted to vote and 2.To give blacks, many of whom had never voted, practice in casting a ballot The mock vote pitted the actual candidates against candidates from the interracial Freedom Party. 60 white students from Yale and Stanford Universities came to Mississippi to help spread word of the Freedom Vote. 93,000 voted on the mock election day, and the Freedom Party candidates easily won. [45] After the success of the Freedom Vote, SNCC decided to send volunteers into Mississippi during the summer of 1964, a presidential election year, for a voter registration drive. It became known as Freedom Summer. Bob Moses outlined the goals of Freedom Summer to prospective volunteers at Stanford University: 1.to expand black voter registration in the state 2.to organize a legally constituted "Freedom Democratic Party" that would challenge the whites-only Mississippi Democratic party 3.to establish "freedom schools" to teach reading and math to black children 4.to open community centers where indigent blacks could obtain legal and medical assistance [46] 800 students gathered for a week-long orientation session at Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio, that June. They were mostly white and young, with an average age of 21. They were also from well-to-do families, as the volunteers had to bring $500 for bail as well as money for living expenses, medical bills, and transportation home. SNCC's James Forman told them to be prepared for death. "I may be killed. You may be killed. The whole staff may go." He also told them to go quietly to jail if arrested, because "Mississippi is not the place to start conducting constitutional law classes for the policemen, many of whom don't have a fifth-grade education." [47] "Freedom clinics" provided health care; Northern lawyers worked in legal clinics to secure basic constitutional rights; "freedom schools," though illegal, taught blacks of all ages traditional subjects as well as black history. [48]
  3. 3. Murder of three organizers. In the earch, the bodies of three lynched blacks were found and locals noted that little media attn was paid to them. FRANCE Chap 12 France He begins the story with a student confronting the minister of education on a recent reports failure to deal with students’ sexual issues, by which he means co- ed dorms. He is dismissed, but, Kurlansky argues, the students in France are itching for a showdown as is happening elsewhere. The protest of students at Nanterre University grew and eventually the Univ president tried to shut them down by eventually shutting the university down. The univ was in a suburb, and this pushed students to take the protest to the city. In the city were peace talks btwn Vietnam and … Lots of media present. They went to the Sorbonne, the police were brought in and the Sorbonne was closed for the first time in its 700 year history (223) The recognized leader of the movement, Dany Cohn-Bendit known as Dany the Red, said that most of the leaders never met. “We met though television. Through seeing pictures of each other on television. We were the first television generation. We did not have relationships with each other, but we had a relationship with what our imagination produced from seeing pictures of each other on television.” 224 230 May 13 all major trade unions call for a general strike and France is shut down. De Gaulle leaves for a 4 day trip to Romania, claiming it is diplocatically essential. The workers were not interested in student issues. De Gaulle offered them a
  4. 4. 35% raise in pay, they took it, and abandoned the students. The movement ended.