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Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development and the SDGs: Towards implementing Agenda 2030

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Anna Knoll
Policy Officer, ECDPM
The Hague, 21 January 2016

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Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development and the SDGs: Towards implementing Agenda 2030

  1. 1. Towards implementing Agenda 2030 Anna Knoll Policy Officer, ECDPM The Hague, 21 January 2016 Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development and the SDGs
  2. 2. I. Transition from MDGs to SDGs and PCD to PCSD A) A new global development framework B) From PCD to PCSD in the post-2015 context II. Implementation of PC(S)D – Lessons learned and challenges III. What way forward with Agenda 2030? IV. Open Questions and Discussion (30 min) Agenda Page 2ECDPM (45 min)
  3. 3. I. Transition from MDGs to SDGs, from PCD to PCSD ECDPM Page 3
  4. 4. A) A new global Development Framework ECDPM Page 4 8 Goals; 18 Targets; 48 indicators 17 Goals; 169 Targets; 300+ indicators
  5. 5. What is different this time? ECDPM Page 5 • Transformative • Integrated: 3 Dimensions of Sustainability • Universality
  6. 6. ECDPM Page 6 A Universal framework
  7. 7. Integrated Nature of the SDGs ECDPM Page 7 Source: David Le Blanc, 2015; UNDESA Working Paper 141
  8. 8. What is different this time? ECDPM Page 8 Explicit PCSD target: SDG Target 17.14 Enhance Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development • Transformative • Universal • Integrated: 3 Dimensions of Sustainability
  9. 9. B) PCD– a concept in evolution ECDPM Page 9 2002 Monterrey Consensus II HLF (Paris) Paris Declaration 2008 Ministerial Declaration on PCD IV HLF (Busan) Council Recommendation on Good Institutional Practices in Promoting PCD 1996 - DAC Strategy “Shaping the 21st Century” • 2002 OECD Action for a Shared Development Agenda • PCD in DAC peer reviews OECD Strategy on Development OECD-PCD Unit 2000 - UN Millennium Declaration – MDG 8 2003 Commitment to Development Index (CDI) 2005 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 POST- 2015 • PCD Elements into SGI 2014 • Towards a Broader Approach to PCD 2014 2009 PCD Building Blocks
  10. 10. ECDPM Page 10 What is PCD? EU “The EU seeks to minimise contradictions and to build synergies between policies other than development cooperation that have an impact on developing countries, for the benefit of overseas development” OECD “The pursuit of development objectives through the systematic promotion of mutually reinforcing policy actions on the part of both OECD and developing countries”. Two-fold implication: “do no harm” and beyond: 1. Make sure all policies are development-friendly (do no harm) 2. Ensure the proactive promotion of development objectives in other policies: exploit synergies > win-win
  11. 11. Diverging interpretations and use of the concept of PCD. PCD IS NOT (only): • Coordination with other policies • Harmonization with other donors • Adjustment of development policy to other policies (it is PC for Development) • Consistency among development policies, strategies and instruments Prevalent definitions: PCD ≠ … ECDPM Page 11
  12. 12. PCD approach ECDPM Page 12 Source: OECD, 2015
  13. 13. Towards a universal notion: PCSD ECDPM Page 13 MainObjectives Foster synergies across economic, social and environmental policy areas Identify trade-offs & reconcile domestic policy objectives with internationally agreed objectives Address the spillovers of domestic policies SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT 1 2 3 Source: OECD (2014), Better Policies for Development 2014: Policy Coherence and Illicit Financial Flows = an approach and policy tool to integrate the economic, social, environmental, and governance dimensions of sustainable development at all stages of domestic and international policy making. = a problem of all governments worldwide (not any longer a challenge for donors only). It aims to increase governments capacities to: PCSD
  14. 14. PCSD: New way of looking at synergies/trade-offs in integrated ways? ECDPM Page 14 Source: OECD, 2015
  15. 15. Example: Water, energy, food ECDPM Page 15 Source: SEI, 2014
  16. 16. • SDGs • Intrinsically integrated approach • Finally brings 3 pillars of sustainable development together • Responsibility of All (Universality) • Some similar ideas in other areas than development cooperation • Whole-of-government approaches • Joined-up government • One United Nations • PCSD formally recognised and agreed as Means of Implementation Agenda 2030: Opportunities for PC(S)D ECDPM Page 16
  17. 17. • Loss of focus? • PCSD makes targets more diffuse – A theory of everything? • Do we lose the unitary focus on PCD • Universality – Who is to benefit from PCD action? • Greater complexity • Progress on PCD already tough • Taking so much into account may make progress even more difficult • Brings different worlds together • Development – external relations - • Economic & social & sustainability – internal affairs Challenges of moving from PCD to PCSD ECDPM Page 17
  18. 18. PC(S) and the changing role for aid ECDPM Page 18 Aid Poverty Reduction/ Development Objectives in poorest/ fragile countries Trade International Finance Security Migration I. Scenario: Specialization II. Scenario: Integration PCD Global Cooperation For Sustainable Development Aid Poverty ReductionTrade Migration Security International Finance SDGs Consumption Climate Production PCSD
  19. 19. II. PC(S)D Implementation to support SDG achievement ECDPM Page 19
  20. 20. How to strengthen PCSD? ECDPM Page 20
  21. 21. What indicator for PCSD in the SDG global review? Is this sufficiently meaningful for PCSD? How do we know we made PCSD progress? ECDPM Page 21
  22. 22. PCSD as red-thread for SDG implementation ECDPM Page 22 Setting and prioritizing objectives Coordinating policy and its implementation Monitoring, analysis and reporting Setting country- specific objectives for PCSD based on SDGs and targets Strengthening existing PC(S)D institutional mechanisms Identifying policy interactions, synergies, potential policy effects ‘elsewhere’ and for long-term
  23. 23. Challenge: Measuring PC(S)D progress ECDPM Page 23
  24. 24. • Difference between mix and match approach: Outcome Indicators Policy Outputs Indicators Policy Inputs Indicators Policy Stance Indicators Quality of existing PCD Indicators ECDPM Page 24
  25. 25. • Some European countries felt that more evidence on impact of policies needed – suggestion for impact analysis to examine effects on development outcomes in individual developing countries • ECDPM with OECD-DAC developed draft methodology for identifying/assessing impacts of OECD policies on food security in individual developing countries • Methodology currently tested in Tanzania and Burkina Faso with support from Finland/Switzerland Country Studies on policy impact – Food Security
  26. 26. Challenge: Progress on PCD building blocks – yes? But fairer policies…..? ECDPM Page 26
  27. 27. ECDPM Page 27 Setting and prioritising objectives Coordinating policy and its implementation Monitoring, analysis and reporting Bottlenecks for PCD in the EU Member States Underdeveloped structures for knowledge-input Lack of research on impact of (in)coherencies Lack of political pressure Little public attention • Diverging interests • Knowledge gaps • Differing levels of awareness Difficult conversations between generalists vs. specialists Few resources allocated Many policies … Higher risk of incoherent policies
  28. 28. PCD Lessons learned – Not a technical exercise PCD highly political= policies driven by national interests that are at times hard to reconcile with development • Who has power? • Is there adequate, accountability, information and evidence? Identify political momentum on the basis of solid political economy analysis in limited number of areas where concrete progress is feasible (taxation, illicit capital flows, food security…?) PCSD is a Political Economy Challenge ECDPM Page 28
  29. 29. Case Study: Policy Coherence in Practice in UK- Solutions to achieve AML objectives while safeguarding remittances to Somalia
  30. 30. III. Implementation of Agenda 2030 – The Way forward ECDPM Page 30
  31. 31. Follow up and Review of SDGs – Institutional framework ECDPM Page 31 Principles: • Country-led (ownership) • Inclusive (multi- stakeholder) • Transparent • Building on existing mechanisms
  32. 32. • Global Indicator framework currently being developed by IAEG-SDG (Inter-agency expert group) • UN Statistical Commission will consider the group’s proposal in March 2016 • National Implementation: Additional and complementary indicators will be developed at country/regional level adapted to context Development of SDG Indicators – Process ECDPM Page 32
  33. 33. • Identification of priority areas without ‘cherry picking’? • Not all SDG targets are clear • How to set baseline and benchmarks? • How to define appropriate actions and policies to support progress towards targets and assess progress?  PCSD an important tool here National Implementation ECDPM Page 33
  34. 34. Example Goal 16: Country-level Perspective ECDPM Page 34 Implementation: 1) Domestic Development Outcomes 2) Responsibilities for assisting other countries 3) Responsibilities for supporting progress towards global common goods PCSD
  35. 35. Many studies, indices now produced (e.g. Index of Bertelsmann Foundation Individual Studies on EU MS, e.g. SEI for Sweden, DIE for “Länder-Ebene” in Germany, etc.) How ready are OECD countries? ECDPM Page 35 Source: Kroll, 2015.
  36. 36. Coherence in implementation of Agenda 2030 ECDPM Page 36 EU Local European Institutions Government Federal States Ministries Ministries at federal level Local authorities EU Country Partner countries Regional Level National Level Sub-national level Local Level
  37. 37. • CSOs/Knowledge community can play critical role in providing analysis but approach could be more political • Level of awareness on PCD/PCSD has grown quite spectacularly • Increased peer pressure (OECD, EU, NGOs, policy research institutes,..) exchange of experiences, best practices, institutional arrangements beyond aid agencies,… • More PCD measurement and assessment systems (CDI), institutional arrangements and actors involved but risk of overly technocratic approaches • Clear role in SDG implementation Agenda Priorities - Setting benchmarks (avoiding “cherry-picking”) Identifying indicators that fit the context Reporting on progress Contribute to building multi-stakeholder partnerships Role of CSOs in post-2015 implementation / strengthening PCSD ECDPM Page 37
  38. 38. IV. Questions and Discussion ECDPM Page 38
  39. 39. Thank you Anna Knoll – ak@ecdpm.org www.ecdpm.org www.slideshare.net/ecdpm Page 39

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