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Peace keeping operations in Africa: Reflections on the APSA and strategic partnerships

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Volker Hauck, ECDPM
P&S Conference - Abuja, 31 October 2017

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Peace keeping operations in Africa: Reflections on the APSA and strategic partnerships

  1. 1. Peace keeping operations in Africa Reflections on the APSA and strategic partnerships Volker Hauck, ECDPM P&S Conference - Abuja, 31 October 2017
  2. 2. Content / outline here 1. Key issues and contemporary discussions on peace operations in Africa 2. Looking beyond peace keeping operations – conflict management under the APSA 3. Strategic partnerships in support of peace operations 4. Improving support to peace operations and conflict management 2
  3. 3. 1. Key issues and contemporary discussion on peace operations in Africa 3
  4. 4. 4 Source:SwedishDefenceResearchAgency(FOI) Point of departure: APSA Key characteristics: • A comprehensive Peace Architecture • A holistic concept • Balance between continental lead and regional responsibilities • Growing participation of civil society
  5. 5. 5 APSA Financing Strategic partnerships Subsidiarit y (AUC- RECs/RMs) • Kaberuka report • Kagame report
  6. 6. 6 Peace operations => part of larger interventions In: EU Guidance note on the use of Conflict Analysis in support of EU external action (2013)
  7. 7. 2. Looking beyond peace keeping operations - conflict prevention under the APSA (2013-2015) 7
  8. 8. 8 APSA Impact Assessment
  9. 9. Combination of AU and REC/RM interventions (2013-2015) 9 • AU & REC/RM combine interventions in 67% cases (average 2013-2015) Diplomatic efforts; mediation; peace support operations
  10. 10. AU and REC/RM engagements in mediation efforts (2013-2015) 10 • AU & REC/RM joint engagement in mediation efforts: 48% (average 2013-2015)
  11. 11. AU/REC involvement in peace agreements (2013-2015) • On average, AU/REC were involved in 73% of processes leading to the signing of peace agreements 11
  12. 12. Some insights on subsidiarity ... a pragmatic perspective • “All actors responding to a conflict need to ensure close and regular communication to enable assessments of comparative advantage, deployed capabilities and available resources, as well as efficiency and legitimacy.” Michelle Ndiaye, Director of the Africa Peace and Security Programme, Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa and Head of Secretariat of the Tana High-level Forum on Security in Africa. Source:C.DeConingetal.2015.TheFutureofAfricanPeace Operations.NordicAfricaInstitute 12
  13. 13. 3. Strategic partnerships in support of peace operations 13
  14. 14. 14 Source:EUInstituteforSecurityStudies“UnderstandingAfrican armies”,ReportN.27,April2016 PSOs: A rich body of knowledge from the last 15 years ... EU funding: Two approaches (AMISOM & MNJTF)
  15. 15. Towards an interest-based partnerships ... • Despite intense policy reforms, AU can’t do all on its own => Strategic partnerships will remain relevant • Cooperation and division of labour between African and external actors will remain crucial to sustain and improve peace operations in the foreseeable future (=> funding; specialised capabilities; technical advice; support to institutional reform) • Various forms of cooperation between different actors, multilateral, regional, bilateral, national, civil society will be needed ... and need to be managed (!) • Strategic partners: UN; NATO; EU and selected EU Member States; new powers, e.g. China, India, etc. – but are all 40+ APSA supporters strategic => ? 15
  16. 16. Reinforcing policy coherence and operational complementarity 16 UN AUEU Funding & political dialogue Transition of peace operations & complementarity Policy coherence & joint engagement
  17. 17. 4. Improving support to peace operations & conflict management: What the AU-EU partnership should pay attention to 17
  18. 18. Supporting African capacities in PSOs Civilian capacities * DDR; SSR; border control; rule of law; socio-economic development Military capabilities * Logistics; equipment; force protection; communication Rapid deployment capabilities * Training for military, police, civilian personnel 18 A global-regional partnership – under African lead
  19. 19. Four “undervalued” domains ... Mission support Civilian components Conflict management capacities Institutional cooperation 19
  20. 20. Mission support • Investments needed in: • Planning • Management • Procurement • Communication • Institutional strengthening at AU & REC levels • Need for harmonising standards and equipment 20 One of the weakest and most neglected domains
  21. 21. Civilian & police dimensions • Protection of civilians • Human rights • Intern. humanitarian law • Gender, sexual abuse • Stabilisation • Security & governance • Institution building • Humanitarian Support • Civilian-military coordination • Security of IDPs & refugees 21 Military dimensions outweigh civilian & police dimensions
  22. 22. Conflict management & post-conflict engagement • Linkages early warning – early response • Mediation & conflict prevention • Complementarity between support to civilian dimensions & resilience/ development • Post-conflict peace building/ rehabilitation & development 22 Particular attention needed for the levels of RECs & below
  23. 23. 23 Last but not least ... Improve institutional cooperation & working level exchanges More regular AU-EU high-level exchanges Joint high-level missions Regular operational exchanges between AU and EU Commission Departments Joint (conflict) assessments & joint evaluations Work through partner platforms (AU- EU-UN & other partners) Sharing practical lessons & information & implement these
  24. 24. Thank you! www.ecdpm.org European Centre for Development Policy Management 24

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