Democracy &DemocratizationWill the trend continue?
Democracy:• Basic Rights− Do these have to be protected in a writtenconstitution?• Competitive Elections− Which is the better electoral system?Way of counting the votes• Rule of Law• Capitalism and Affluence− Is this necessary?
Common and Not So Common ThemesElections determine who governs but Not ALL are ALIKE– Electoral systems:Direct v. indirect− U.S. & France elect their chief executives− Great Britain and Germany do notProportional v. plurality (single member districts)− German Bundestag gives half its seatsproportionally− U.S. & Great Britain use “first past the post”− Separation of powers (U.S.) v. fusion of powers
Four Different Elections• United States− Electoral CollegeFrance− Directly elects itsPresident− Ballot has multiplecandidates− Only top 2 participatein a runoffGreat Britain− No scheduled elections− Prime Minister calls forelections within 5 yearsGermany− 4 major parties that formcoalitions to passlegislation
Understanding Democracy• Democratic Regime – a set of institutions thatallow the citizens to choose the makers ofpublic policy in free, competitive elections• Industrialized Democracy – the richestcountries with advanced economies andliberal states.
Procedural v. Substantive DemocracyProcedural democracy− Presence of “free, fair,competitive” electionsBUTHurdles are present for realdemocratic proceduresOpposition partiessilencedVotes not countedIlliberal Democracy/GuardedDemocracy- A true “free and fair” electionis a façade as a dominant party,military, or person is in controlSubstantiveDemocracy− Procedural standardsmet− More political rightsand civil liberties areoffered
DemocratizationThetransformationprocess from anondemocraticregime to aproceduraldemocracy to asubstantivedemocracySamuel Huntingtons “ThreeWaves of Democratization”→ The introduction of democracyin different stages after 1900− Late 19thcenturyIncreased education andurbanization− Post WWII era (1945-1960)decolonization− Late 1970sCollapse of Soviet Union
The Origins of the Democratic StateThe Origins of the Democratic State• Origins of democratic thought– The early democracies: individualism, capitalism,Protestantism, scientific revolution, and exploration– Hobbes– Laissez-faire– Locke– Suffrage
The Origins of the Democratic StateThe Origins of the Democratic State• Building Democracies– In Europe and North America, the way democracydeveloped was largely a result of the way countriesand their rulers handled four great transformationsover the last five hundred years:• The creation of the nation and state itself• The role of religion in society and government• The development of pressures for democracy• The Industrial Revolution– Cleavages (social divisions)– Authoritarian Leaders, Fascism, and WWII– The Cold War
The Emergence of the EarlyModern Statehttp://www.democracyweb.org/young/young3.phpRead about the early modern state
Political Culture and Participation• The Civic Culture− Legitimacy: government v. regime• Political Parties and Elections− Catch-all Parties• New Divisions– Gender– Post-materialist3rdgeneration affluence – reasonableassumption of productive careersVote on “higher-order” values• Interest Groups• Political Protest
The Democratic StateThe Democratic State• Presidential and parliamentary systems– Presidential: three branches of power used to prevent abuse ofpower (only in the U.S.) → lengthy legislative process– Parliamentary: secure majority party or coalition, the primeminister rarely has to compromise, which allows theirgovernment to act more quickly and decisivelyFused, not separated• Cabinet responsibility – principle that requires a primeminister and government to retain the support of aparliamentary majority• Votes of confidence – a vote in which the members expresstheir support for (or opposition to) the government’spolicies. If it loses, the government must resign
Democracy and Public PolicyDemocracy and Public Policy• The interventionist state – governments inindustrialized democracies that pursue an activeeconomic policy– Basic health care– Subsidized and/or free education– Unemployment compensation– Pensions and other programs
Alternatives to Democracy• Authoritarianism - power depends on thecoercive force of the political authorities• Oligarchies - power is held by only a few,usually wealthy people• Totalitarianism - a political system in whichthe state controls all aspects of public andprivate life