Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Gov unit1


Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Gov unit1

  1. 1. Introduction to Comparative Politics
  2. 2.  Activities associated with the control of publicdecisions among a given people in a given territory→ decisions are authoritative and done with formalpower→ decisions are public, not privatePolitical science is the study of these decisions
  3. 3. Government: organization of individuals who are legally empoweredto make binding decisions on behalf of a particularcommunity group of institutions and people authorized by formaldocuments to have a set of powers
  4. 4. • Night Watchman State – government provides basiclaw & order, defense and property protection, but littleelse (limited government, 19th century)• Police State – seen in authoritarian government,especially communist & fascist• Welfare State – programs of social welfare,unemployment, insurance, pensions, etc.• Regulatory State – similar to welfare state but withstricter regulations
  5. 5. Condition if no government existed• Thomas Hobbes – felt state of nature was chaos &conflict; government provided order & control• Jean-Jacques Rousseau – felt state of nature was ideal;government corrupted society• John Locke – in the middle; felt government wasnecessary for protection, but favored a limitedgovernment
  6. 6. • Community & Nation Building – stability, peace, acommon culture• Need for security & order – protect from internal &external attacks• Protection – property and social & political rights• Promote economic efficiency & growth – public &private goods, limit market failures (monopolies, i.e.) Social Justice – redistribute wealth & resources, protectthe weakest members of society
  7. 7.  Destruction of community (economic or politicalreasons) Basic rights violations Economic Inefficiency – restrictions, governmentalmonopolies, etc. Private Gain – rent seekers are people who use politicalpursuit for private gain Critics of government – anarchists (want nogovernment) libertarians (want limited government)
  8. 8. • Set of institutions that formulate & implement thecollective goals of society or of groups in society(legislative bodies, interest groups, courts, etc.)• Shaped by domestic and international environment• A collection of related and interacting institutions andagencies• More successful with higher legitimacy
  9. 9.  A state is a political system that has sovereignty → theright to govern All individuals and institutions that make publicpolicy, whether they are in government or not (interestgroups, i.e.)
  10. 10.  Internal Sovereignty – deals with matters of citizens External Sovereignty – deals with matter of otherstates
  11. 11.  Country – distinct, politically defined territories thatencompass politicalinstitutions, cultures, economies, and ethnic andother social identitiesHistorically the most significant source of a peoplesidentity State – a cluster of powerful political institutions; keyinstitutions responsible formaking, implementing, and enforcing policiesOften synonymous with “government”
  12. 12.  Big and small states Vatican City - smallest legally independent entity ingeographic size and population Russia - largest landmass China and India - largest populations Political implications of geographic and populationsize? Big countries not always most important: Mongolia Small ones can be: Cuba, Israel Area and population do not determine a country’spolitical system. Geographic location can have strategic implications.
  13. 13.  Pressures from AboveA state loses some of its sovereignty fromsupranational entities NAFTA, EU, IMFTo get an IMF bail out Mexico had to privatize many of its1,155 state-owned enterprises Pressures from BelowA state cedes sovereignty to regional (sub-national)entities Devolution in the UK Regional Cleavages
  14. 14.  193 States are currently recognized by the United Nations States can be multinationalSoviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia Nations can be larger than statesGermanyChina Nations can be divided into distinct statesKoreaEast & West Germany Nations can have no stateThe KurdsThe BasquesThe Palestinians
  15. 15. • 1st world – capitalist democracy• 2nd world – communist (mainly Soviet)• 3rd world – remaining states that weren’t rich, westernor communist• 4th world – lack of resources, appear doomedThese terms are outdated → today we use…..– North States – rich, capitalist democracies– South States – developing states
  16. 16.  Gross National Product (GNP) – output per person thatis a citizen of a nation, regardless of where they live(most common) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – output per person in anation, regardless of where they are from Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) – measures price levels ofnations; most accurate Also measure industrialization, income, education, lifeexpectancy, birth rates, access to health care in additionto GNP/GDP These are used to compare rich versus poor countries These are important because income inequality can leadto political instability
  17. 17.  Building community Fostering economic, social & political development Securing a democracy and civil liberties
  18. 18.  Nation – group of people with a common identity(language, history, race, culture) Most states are multi-national (can be culturally diverse orexplosive with conflict) Ethnicity- identification based on racial, cultural orhistorical characteristics• Religion plays a role– Christianity is largest religion, Islam is fastest growing– Religious fundamentalism is on the rise (reject moderntestaments/views) Language – approximately 5000 languages spoken today 8 world languages:English, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, Portuguese, French, German & Chinese
  19. 19.  Political systems must have economic development tosatisfy citizens Rich & poor countries differ inhealth, education, media and industry Many states have internal economic inequality Environment has suffered fromindustrialization, economic development &population growth
  20. 20.  Nation-State is when the national identification & legalauthority coincide Old states (pre WWII) were mostly European New states (post WWII) are mainly African and post-SovietUnion Old & New68 states existed in 1945By 2005, 125 new countries had been created
  21. 21.  States – the organizations that control a territory Country – includes the territory and people livingwithin a state Government – the leadership or elite that administerthe stateThe Obama administration
  22. 22.  Regimes are the norms and rules regarding individualfreedoms and collective equality, the locus of power,and the use of that power“The rules of the game governing the exercise of power” Democratic Regimes Authoritarian Regimes Illiberal – partly free, some personal liberties anddemocratic rights are limited
  23. 23. Cleavage- deep and long-lasting political divisions Political cleavage is when national, ethnic, linguistic &religious divisions effect policy Cumulative cleavages are when the same peopleoppose one another on many issues Cross cutting cleavages are when groups with acommon interest on one issue are on opposite sides ofanother issue→ Cumulative cleavages are more destructive
  24. 24. • Democracy - leaders are elected in free and fairelections; citizens have basic rights & freedoms• Democratization - the process of developingdemocratic states
  25. 25. Samuel Huntington’s “3rd Wave of Democratization” 1st wave was after WWI 2nd wave was after WWII 3rd wave started in mid-1970’s Democracy is the fastest growing political system
  26. 26.  Environmental issues Economic inequality and instability Ethnic differences Religious differences