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Stress Slides

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Stress Unit

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Stress Slides

  1. 1. Stress and Illness
  2. 2. Susceptibility to Stress • Total points – 21 = score >32 “susceptible to stress” 52-77 “serious susceptibility to stress” >77 “extreme susceptibility to stress”
  3. 3. Stress and Stressors • Stress: the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. – Stress is cumulative – Stress is inherently personal
  4. 4. Stress and Stressors • Biopsychosocial Model: holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
  5. 5. Stress Appraisal
  6. 6. Major Types of Stress 1. Frustration – The pursuit of some goal is frustrated. – Most are brief and insignificant. – Two types of frustrations: loss and failure.
  7. 7. 2. Conflict – Two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression. • Approach-Approach Conflict: two goods • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: two bads • Approach-Avoidance Conflict: one goal that has both good and bad.
  8. 8. 3. Change – Noticeable alterations in one’s living situation that require readjustment 4. Pressure – Expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way.
  9. 9. Responding to Stress • Emotional Responses – Primary: annoyance, anger, anxiety, fear, dejection, and grief – Secondary: guilt, shame, envy, jealousy, and disgust
  10. 10. Responding to Stress Yerkes-Dodson Law of Optimum Arousal
  11. 11. Responding to Stress • Physical Responses – Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol are the main stress hormones.
  12. 12. Responding to Stress • Physical Responses – General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) • Hans Seyle
  13. 13. Responding to Stress • Stress and Coronary disease – Stress is a contributing factor to one of the four major causes of death • Other 3: stroke, cancer, chronic lung disease
  14. 14. Responding to Stress • Type A Personality • Type B Personality – Easygoing, relaxed – Competitive, hard- people. driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
  15. 15. First identified by San Francisco cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, Type A behavior has two main components. Friedman states, “First, there is the tendency to try to accomplish too many things in too little time. Second, there is free-floating hostility. These people are irritated by trivial things; they exhibit signs of struggle against time and other people.” A key difference between Types A and B is that the former seem to react to several types of stress with larger increases in pulse rate and blood pressure. In one study, which included both personality types, subjects were forewarned that they would receive electric shock for errors on a difficult task: recalling long strings of numbers read aloud only once. Under this stressful condition, Type A individuals showed a significantly higher increase in pulse rate and blood pressure than did Type Bs. There are also contrasting patterns in social behavior. Type As tend to be more impatient with others and become angry when other people hold them back in any way. In general, Type As report feeling less comfortable around others than do Type Bs. They prefer to work alone rather than as a team, and they seem to resent being told what to do. Types As are more ready to do the opposite of what is demanded of them. What about Type A and work performance? Type As seem to work faster even when no pressure or deadline is involved. They complain less about hard work and report being less tired when it is finished. However, Type As do more poorly on tasks requiring patience or careful, considered judgment. Interestingly, surveys indicate that most members of top management are Type Bs, not Type As. Perhaps As don’t survive to make it! More likely, however, the impatient, hurried style of Type A is not compatible with the skills needed of top- level executives. In summary, Type As do better on tasks involving time pressure or solitary work. Type Bs may do better on tasks requiring complex judgment, accuracy rather than speed, and working as part of a team.

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