True or False? 1. People prone to delinquency and violence have fewer vivid fantasies. 2. People who sleep eight hours a night tend to outlive those chronically sleep- deprived. 3. The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery. 4. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform feats they would otherwise find impossible. 5. In large amounts, alcohol is a depressant; in small amounts, it is a stimulant.
Waking ConsciousnessConsciousness: ourawareness of ourselvesand our environments. Conscious processing is serial. Subconscious processing is parallel. Reminder: Optimal arousal.
Daydreams are perfectly normal for most people. Daydreams can be escapist or rehearsal; daydreaming is adaptive. Can substitute for impulsive behavior. 95% of people have sexual fantasies everyday. 4% of the population suffers from fantasy-prone personality disorder. 75% report spontaneous orgasm.
Biological rhythms: Annual cycles Twenty-eight day cycles Twenty-four hour cycles Ninety-minute cyclesCircadian rhythm Biological clock; 24-hour cycle Can be affected by light - light behind knees; artificial light delays sleep.
Stage 2 Stage 4 Alpha waves, but – Delta waves sleep spindles. – Bed wetting & sleep- Possible sleep talk walking. About half the night is spent in Stage 2Stage 3 Delta waves Transitional stage only
REM sleep Alpha waves Nocturnal erections “Paradoxical sleep” Busy mind; still body Medulla inhibits movement messages REM dreams are more emotional & storylike
0 = would never doze 1 = slight chance of dozing 2 = moderate chance of dozing 3 = high chance of dozingA. Sitting and readingB. Watching TVC. Sitting, inactive in a public place, e.g., a theater or meetingD. As a passenger in a car for an hour without a breakE. Lying down to rest in the afternoon when circumstances permitF. Sitting and talking to someoneG. Sitting quietly after a lunch without alcoholH. In a car while stopped for a few minutes in traffic
Evaluate your total score as follows: 0-5 Slight or no sleep debt 6-10 Moderate sleep debt 11-20 Heavy sleep debt 21-25 Extreme sleep debt
Reasons for Sleep Mentally regenerative Physically recuperative
Too little sleep Decreased reaction time Decreased problem-solving Decreased immunity
InsomniaSleep Disorders Narcolepsy Sleep apnea Night terrors Somnambulism
What do we dream? “Lucid dreams” 8 in 10 contain negative emotions 65% of characters are male Freud: Manifest content & latent content