Central Asia Review


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Central Asia Review

  1. 1. Spring Final Exam Pop quiz Chapter test Unit test Midterm exam Final exam Degree of detail Q: When was the Battle of Agincourt? A: October 25, 1415 Q: What weapon enabled the English to win the Battle of Agincourt? A: The longbow Q: Which two kings was the Battle of Agincourt fought between? A: King Henry V of England and King Charles VI of France Q: In what way did the use of English bowmen at the Battle of Agincourt contradict the rules of chivalry? A: Common peasants were able to fight and kill knights and noblemen Q: Why was the Battle of Agincourt so significant? A: the use of English bowmen against French knights signaled the end of feudal armies and the beginning of English and French nationalism
  2. 2. Central Asia Review Spring Final Exam Review
  3. 3. Indus River <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayas to NE; Hindu Kush to NW, passable only via the Khyber Pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indus River flows SW to the Arabian Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter monsoons are dry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer monsoons are wet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Domestication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As early as 7000 BCE, sheep and goats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3200 BCE, settled society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2500 BCE, cities of the Harappan Civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harappan planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uniform bricks; grid system; indoor plumbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written language, untranslated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mysterious end </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aryan invasions <ul><li>1700-1200 BCE, Indo-Europeans crossed the Caucasus, then Hindu Kush </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed indigenous people to south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called them dasas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vedas record the migration story in four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for rituals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Caste System
  7. 7. Hinduism <ul><li>Upanishads , dialogue between teacher and student, 750-550 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>reincarnation based on karma </li></ul><ul><li>Jains </li></ul>
  8. 8. Buddhism <ul><li>Siddartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) sought enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>4 Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>everything is suffering and sorrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cause of suffering is desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end suffering by ending desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>follow the Eightfold Path to end desire </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Islam <ul><li>Muhammad (570 CE) was born in Mecca and married Khadijah when he was 25. </li></ul><ul><li>At 40 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed the Qur’an. </li></ul><ul><li>Hijrah : 622, forced to flee Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 630, the umma returned to Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. 5 Pillars and Laws <ul><li>Faith (Shahada) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prayer (Salat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 times a day, toward Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alms </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hajj </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Revealed word of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Sunna </li></ul><ul><li>The example of Muhammad’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Shari’a </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic legal system formed on the basis of the Qur’an and the Sunna </li></ul>
  11. 12. Initial Spread <ul><li>632, Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (or “successor”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “rightly guided” caliphs were able to establish Muslim control over the Arabian peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 750 the Islamic state stretched 6,000 miles, from the Atlantic ocean to the Indus valley. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Berber armies invade Spain and are stopped only 100 miles from Paris at the Battle of Tours in 732 . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sunni-Shi’a split <ul><li>In 655 the caliph Uthman was murdered; his successor, Ali (cousin & son-in-law to Muhammad) was also murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>The Umayyads came to power, moved the capital to Damascus, and began living more extravagantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’ites believe the caliph should be descended from Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni believe in following Muhammad’s example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufi believe Islam should be more religious and less secular </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Crusades <ul><li>1096-1204 </li></ul><ul><li>Urban II called for European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslim caliphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine Empire weakened; Papal power declines; Kings’ power increases; increased religious intolerance; Italian cities expand trade and grow rich; trade increases between Europe and the Muslim world; European technology improves </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Mongols <ul><li>Steppes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wind-swept, dry grass lands across central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1206, Temujin becomes Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1221 Central Asia is under Mongol control </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Pax Mongolica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of relative peace during the 13th and 14th centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khanates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppes divided into 4 khanates for governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Khanate of the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate, and Khanate of the Great Khan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghenghis Khan begun invasion; Ogadai continued; Kublai Khan completed the invasion in 1279 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted invasions of Vietnam and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marco Polo and other foreigners </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Ottoman Empire
  18. 19. The Ottomans <ul><li>1299 - 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Ghazi united under Osman who unites Anatolia under his rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timur the Lame comes out of Central Asia, conquers Russia and Persia, and crushed the Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mehmet II reunites the Ottomans and conquers Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Selim the Grim expands Ottoman rule into the Holy Land </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Suleiman the First, the Lawgiver expands the empire to its greatest size </li></ul><ul><li>The empire is governed under the devshirme system, which used Christian slaves ( janissaries ) as bureaucrats. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic enclaves are organized as millets , each with their own governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The empire is weakened by a tradition of the new sultan killing his brothers and preventing new sons from gaining education or experience </li></ul>
  20. 21. Local governors, generals, tax officials Religious & ethnic millets Sultan Imperial Council Divan (drawn from devshirme ) Social & Military Administration Religious & Judicial Administration
  21. 22. Safavid Empire
  22. 23. Safavid Empire <ul><li>Aligned with the Shi’a </li></ul><ul><li>The “redheads” were led by Isma’il in 1499 conquered modern-day Iran; he assumed the title of “shah” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was a religious tyrant and ordered the murder of every Sunni in Baghdad – in response, Selim the Grim murdered 40,000 Shi’a in the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>The &quot;Golden Age of the Safavids came under Shah Abbas in 1587. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He blended the cultures of the Safavid, Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganized the military to be loyal to the Shah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established political & economic relations with Europe (Europe wanted Persian carpets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought Chinese artisans to decorate Isfahan </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Cultural Blending : when two or more cultures interact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs as a result of one or more of the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conquest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious conversion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed or blinded his most able sons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompetent grandson came to power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghani tribes attacked from the east, Ottomans attacked from the west, and the empire shrank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1736, Nadir Shah Afshar took command and conquered land into India. He was so brutal in his conquests that his own soldiers assassinated him to stop the carnage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Mughal Empire <ul><li>Gupta Empire had fallen in 550 CE to invading Hunas from the northwest. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The empire fragmented and was ruled by rajputs , “sons of kings” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turkish armies invaded in 1000 and a series of sultans ruled from Delhi. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>1526, Babur (great-grandson of Timur the Lame) led 12,000 troops from Kabul and defeated 100,000 troops, conquering Delhi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These lands were lost by Babur’s son, Humayan </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Akbar , Babur’s grandson , ruled from 1556 – 1605. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defended religious tolerance; abolished the jizya ; sponsored fair and affordable tax program; gave temporary land-grants to bureaucrats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United the rajputs by inviting some to be his generals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts & culture flowered under Akbar’s rule. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Jahangir , Akbar’s son, left much of the rule to his wife, Nur Jahan . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khusrau , their son, tried to rebel and sought help from the Sikhs , a religious group that combined the beliefs of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sufism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jahangir and Nur Jahan ended the tradition of religious tolerance, hunted Sikhs down, and attempted to enforce Islam as the state religion. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Shah Jahan loved buildings and his wife Mumtaz Mahal , so when she died, he had her tomb, the Taj Mahal , constructed. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Aurangzeb captured the throne in a four-way civil war after his father Shah Jahan died. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He ruled from 1658 to 1707 and was an aggressive conqueror and a violent ruler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He brought back the jizya , and attempted to crush the Hindus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He drained the treasury fighting the Hindus and the Sikhs. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Weakened from so much in-fighting, when the Portuguese arrived in 1661 , Aurangzeb handed them control of Bombay, the important port city. </li></ul>