2008 East Asia Review

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2008 East Asia Review

  1. 1. East Asia Review Spring Final, 2009
  2. 2. Mongolia North Korea Japan South Korea Bangladesh Tibet China Myanmar Laos Thailand India Vietnam Cambodia Philippines Malaysia Indonesia
  3. 3. Sea of Okhotsk Taklamakan Gobi Desert Sea of Desert Japan Yellow Huang He Sea Himalayas Yangtze E. China Sea S. China Bay of Philippine Sea Bengal Sulu Sea Sea Celebes Sea Java Indian Sea Ocean Arafura Sea
  4. 4. China
  5. 5. Geography Geography of China – Taklamakan to the west; Gobi to the north – Himalayas to the southwest – Huang He in the north; Yangtze to the south – 90% of arable land • Huang He deposits yellow silt (loess) Settlement – First immigrants 1.7 mya – First settlers around Beijing, 500,000 ya
  6. 6. Shang Dynasty • Settlements along Huang He, 2000 BCE • Shang Dynasty, 1532 to 1027 BCE – Left written records – Capital city of Anyang • located in a forest • Higher classes lived inside the walls; poor outside – Warrior-kings – Bronze technology for war, not agriculture
  7. 7. • Family was emphasized; women as inferiors; arranged marriages of daughters • Ancestor worship began with the Shang • Oracle bones – could communicate with ancestors – bore the beginnings of Chinese ideographic writing • Shang were the first to make silk
  8. 8. Zhou Dynasty • 1027 BCE, Zhou overthrow the Shang – Justify overthrow with the Mandate of Heaven • The Mandate of Heaven forms the basis of the dynastic cycle. – Zhou control countryside with a system called feudalism. • Land owns to the King; grants right to use to lords in exchange for loyalty & military service. • Zhou tech: roads, canals, iron • 771 BCE nomads sack Hao; king moves capital; Zhou pretend to rule until 256 BCE. – Period of Warring States
  9. 9. Confucianism • Confucius, born around 551 BCE, lived during the Zhou Dynasty – and at the same time as Plato. • He believed in Five Basic Relationships – Ruler :: Subject – Father :: Son – Husband :: Wife – Older Brother :: Younger Brother – Friend :: Friend
  10. 10. • The Five Basic Relationships were based on an ideal of filial piety, respect for parents and elders. • Confucius served as the Minister of Justice • His writings were collected by students into the Analects, and knowledge of these texts served as the basis for the civil service exam.
  11. 11. Daoism • Daoists seek the harmony of the natural order. – Daoism was founded by Laozi and written as the Dao De Ching (The way of Virtue) – Daoists pursued scientific study of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine
  12. 12. Legalism • Li Si and Hanfeizi emphasized that the rule of law was the only thing that could restore order during the Period of the Warring States; this was the basis for Legalism. – They controlled behavior with rich rewards and harsh punishments – They controlled thoughts and beliefs by burning books and executing teachers.
  13. 13. Qin Dynasty • The Qin Dynasty was short lived (221 to 202 BCE) because Shi Huangdi’s son was just as cruel, but not as good a ruler. – Shi Huangdi followed Legalism – He doubled the size of China, burned books, forced the nobles to live inside the capital city, and completed to Great Wall. • Shi Huangdi’s son was overthrown by a Han peasant army in 202 BCE.
  14. 14. Han Dynasty (202 BCE -220 CE) • Liu Bang became the first Han Emperor in 202 BCE. – Liu Bang relaxed the Legalist policies and lowered taxes. • When Liu Bang died, his son was too young to rule, so Empress Wu took the throne. • Wudi, Liu Bang’s great-grandson, ruled from 141 to 87 BCE as a martial emperor. • Wang Mang overthrows the Han.
  15. 15. Sui Dynasty (589 – 618) lasted for only two emperors, but did manage to complete the great canal between the Huang He and the Yangtze.
  16. 16. Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) • Tang Taizong reconquered northern China. – Lowered taxes; took land from the rich and gave to the poor. – Scholar-officials gained more power than noblity. • Empress Wu Zhao ruled as China conquered Korea again. • In 751 the Tang lose to Arab soldiers in the Battle of Talas; signifies the loss of the Mandate of Heaven.
  17. 17. Song Dynasty (960-1279) • Concentrated on defense of China, not reconquest of lost lands. – Try to bribe the Jurchen; Jurchen invade northern China and Song family flees south.
  18. 18. Song & Tang inventions • Porcelain, Mechanical Clock, Printing, Gunpowder, Paper money, and Magnetic compass. • Song import a fast-growing rice from Vietnam. • China concentrates on sea-trade. • Rise of the gentry. • Foot-binding among Chinese women.
  19. 19. Japan
  20. 20. • 4,000 island archipelago that stretches for 1,200 miles. • Only 15% is arable land. • Earliest religion is Shinto, a form of animism, referred to as the “way of the gods” that respected the kami of all things. • By 500 CE, the Yamato clan starts consolidating power.
  21. 21. Learning from China • Korean travelers brought Buddhism to Japan which blends with Shinto. • Japan sends missions to study the Tang; they bring back ideographic writing, painting style, and system of government. – Central government doesn’t work in Japan because of the fragmentation of the islands.
  22. 22. Heian Court • 794 – 1185, court is in Heian (modern Kyoto). – Etiquette, art, poetry • Fujiwara family controls the real power. • Large landowners begin funding private armies of samurai who follow Bushido, “the way of the warrior”.
  23. 23. Kamakura Shogunate • After a civil war, the Emperor gives the title of Shogun to the Minamoto family who rules from Kamakura. – Daimyo rule provinces as governors. • The Kamakura fend off the Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281.
  24. 24. Southeast Asia
  25. 25. SE Asia Geography • Mainland peninsula – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia • Islands – Sumatra, Borneo, and Java – Straits • Strait of Malacca between the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra • Sundra Strait between Sumatra and Java
  26. 26. • India influences the Indian Ocean side of the mainland peninsula because of the monsoon trade. – Hinduism dominates – Khmer in Cambodia build Angkor Wat to Vishnu
  27. 27. • Sailendra rule on Java and build the Borobodur as a Buddhist monument. • Srivijaya conquer the Salendra and gain control of the Strait of Malacca. – Grow wealthy charging fees to allow passage – Sumatra becomes a center of Buddhist learning in SE Asia.
  28. 28. Vietnam • The Vietnamese were under Chinese control for 1,000 years but broke away from the weakened Tang Dynasty is 900 CE. – Ly Dynasty (1009 – 1225) build their capital in Hanoi. – The Mongols try conquering Vietnam three times, but fail.
  29. 29. Korea
  30. 30. Korea • Much of Korea is barren mountain lands. – In 108 BC, the Han conquer Korea. • The Silla unite with other clans and defeat the Han in the mid-600s. • Koryu Dynasty (935 - 1392) defeat the Silla and set up a flawed examination system. – In 1231 Mongols invade • The Chosun Dynasty defeats the Mongols in 1392 and rule for 500 years. – Re-carve 81,000 lost Buddhist texts.
  31. 31. • 4,000 island archipelago that stretches for 1,200 miles. • Only 15% is arable land. • Earliest religion is Shinto, a form of animism, referred to as the “way of the gods” that respected the kami of all things. • By 500 CE, the Yamato clan starts consolidating power.
  32. 32. Learning from China • Korean travelers brought Buddhism to Japan which blends with Shinto. • Japan sends missions to study the Tang; they bring back ideographic writing, painting style, and system of government. – Central government doesn’t work in Japan because of the fragmentation of the islands.
  33. 33. Heian Court • 794 – 1185, court is in Heian (modern Kyoto). – Etiquette, art, poetry • Fujiwara family controls the real power. • Large landowners begin funding private armies of samurai who follow Bushido, “the way of the warrior”.
  34. 34. Kamakura Shogunate • After a civil war, the Emperor gives the title of Shogun to the Minamoto family who rules from Kamakura. – Daimyo rule provinces as governors. • The Kamakura fend off the Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281.
  35. 35. Southeast Asia
  36. 36. SE Asia Geography • Mainland peninsula – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia • Islands – Sumatra, Borneo, and Java – Straits • Strait of Malacca between the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra • Sundra Strait between Sumatra and Java
  37. 37. • India influences the Indian Ocean side of the mainland peninsula because of the monsoon trade. – Hinduism dominates – Khmer in Cambodia build Angkor Wat to Vishnu
  38. 38. • Sailendra rule on Java and build the Borobodur as a Buddhist monument. • Srivijaya conquer the Salendra and gain control of the Strait of Malacca. – Grow wealthy charging fees to allow passage – Sumatra becomes a center of Buddhist learning in SE Asia.
  39. 39. Vietnam • The Vietnamese were under Chinese control for 1,000 years but broke away from the weakened Tang Dynasty is 900 CE. – Ly Dynasty (1009 – 1225) build their capital in Hanoi. – The Mongols try conquering Vietnam three times, but fail.
  40. 40. Korea
  41. 41. Korea • Much of Korea is barren mountain lands. – In 108 BC, the Han conquer Korea. • The Silla unite with other clans and defeat the Han in the mid-600s. • Koryu Dynasty (935 - 1392) defeat the Silla and set up a flawed examination system. – In 1231 Mongols invade • The Chosun Dynasty defeats the Mongols in 1392 and rule for 500 years. – Re-carve 81,000 lost Buddhist texts.
  42. 42. Quiz
  43. 43. Which of the following best describes the basis of the ruler’s authority in Zhou China? 1.The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people 2.The ruler was believed to be a god himself, and so his authority could not be questioned 3.The ruler depended heavily on his staff, so real authority lay in the hands of the bureaucrats 4.The ruler was selected by a handful of elite aristocrats who also had the authority to remove him from office 5.The ruler was a military leader who held power as long as he was victorious on the battlefield
  44. 44. 1. The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people
  45. 45. Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India? 1. Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with 2. The barbarian attacks destroyed more physical property and vital public works in Rome 3. Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity 4. Roman emperors had more power than did Han or Gupta emperors, so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire 5. The Romans were economically more self-sufficient than the Han or Gupta, so they had no long-distance trade to cushion their fall
  46. 46. 3. Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity

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