Suffixes relating to theendocrine system• In this presentation I will present two suffixes and build a term regarding the endocrine system with those suffixes.• The suffixes I will be reporting on are :• -ine• -emia• The suffix –ine means “to secrete”. We see this suffix in “endocrine system”• The suffix –emia is used for a blood condition. We see this suffix in “hypercalcemia”.
The endocrine system• The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly in the bloodstream that are responsible for regulating many body activities such as metabolic rate, water and mineral balance, immune system reactions and sexual functioning.• The endocrine system’s organs are the pituitary gland, the pineal gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus gland, the adrenal glands, the pancreas and the ovaries and testes.
Endocrine system organs andfunctions • Pineal gland: regulates circadian rhythm • Pituitary gland: regulates many other endocrine glands • Thyroid gland: regulates metabolic rate • Parathyroid gland: regulates blood calcium level • Thymus gland: development of immune system • Adrenal glands: regulate water and electrolyte levels • Pancreas: regulate blood sugar levels • Ovaries: regulate female reproductive system • Testes: regulate male reproductive system
Hypercalcemia and its causes• Hypercalcemia is too much calcium in the blood.• The parathyroid glands located on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland are responsible for the secretion of PTH: the parathyroid hormone. The secretion of this hormone is responsible for regulating the amount of calcium in the blood.• Hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause for hypercalcemia. It is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH) which leads to too much calcium in the blood.
Other causes of Hypercalcemia• Adrenal gland failure• An inherited condition that affects the bodys ability to regulate calcium• Being bedbound (or not being able to move) for a long period of time• Calcium excess in the diet (usually due to at least 2,000 milligrams of calcium per day)• Hyperthyroidism• Kidney failure• Excess intake of water pills• Some cancerous tumors (for example, lung cancers, breast cancer)• Vitamin D excess from diet or inflammatory diseases
Symptoms associated withhypercalcemia• Abdominal symptoms: constipation, nausea, pain, poor appetite and vomiting• Kidney symptoms: flank pain, frequent thirst and frequent urination• Muscle symptoms: muscle twitches and weaknesses• Psychological symptoms: apathy, dementia, depression, irritability, memory loss• Skeletal symptoms: bone pain, bowing of the shoulder, loss of height, fractures due to disease and spinal column curvature
Treatments• In people with severe hyperparathyroidism surgery may be needed to remove the abnormal parathyroid gland and cure the hypercalcemia.• However, if the hypercalcemia is mild, you may have the option of simply monitoring your condition closely over time