SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 45
Download to read offline
“a long habit of not thinking a thing
wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of
being right, and raises at first formidable
  outcry in defence of custom. But the
          tumult soon subsides.
Time makes more converts than reason.”

              Thomas Paine
             Common Sense
           First published 1776
End of Modernism
• Movements in art from
  the mid to late 60’s
  onwards substantially
  changed what art
  could look like, how it
  could be made, what it
  could be made from,
  how you looked at it,
  ‘read’ it and ‘interacted
  with it.

                              2
Values of Modernity
• Emancipation from mysticism
  and superstition
• The power of the rational, the
  scientific
• Knowledge based on
  objectivity - a solid sense of
  truth
• ‘Mans’ ability to engineer for
  himself a better tomorrow -
  faith in planning - future
  utopias
• Belief in the inevitable linear
  progress of humanity
Crisis of Modernity - 1960’s - the beginning of Postmodernism

• A generational sense of skepticism
  regarding the potential for human
  social emancipation and material
  improvement through scientific
  progress
• A generational disillusionment with
  the values, authority, morality,
  culture and power of those in
  ‘charge’.
• Political, personal and cultural
  dissent. A call for a subversion of the
  old order
• Criticisms from the margins - the
  return of the repressed, the
  excluded.
• A fracturing and fragmentation of
  society - a new plurality
A Change is Gonna Come
If a six was nine - Out with the old in with the new
Vietnam
Hope Extinguished - a Growing Militancy




                  Text




                          Assassination of Martin Luther King
Communiqué 9

WE are getting closer.

We are slowly destroying the long tentacles of the oppressive State
machine...

secret files in the universities
work study in the factories
the census at home
social security files
computers
TV
Giro passports
work permits
insurance cards.
Bureaucracy and technology used against the people...
to speed up our work
to slow down our minds and actions
to obliterate the truth.
Police computers cannot tell the truth. They just record our `crimes'. The
pig
murders go unrecorded. Stephen McCarthy Peter Savva, David Owale --
The murder
of these brothers is not written on any secret card.

We will avenge our brothers.

If they murder another brother or sister, pig blood will flow in the streets.

168 explosions last year. Hundreds of threatening telephone calls to govt,
bosses, leaders.

The AB is the man or woman sitting next to you. They have guns in their
pockets
and anger in their minds.

We are getting closer.

Off the system and its property.

Power to the people.
•   1968

    “A year that marked
    every generation on
    every continent. ..it
    was a year of hope,
    when those who
    accepted the world
    as it is were the ones
    who felt disinherited,
    while the wretched of
    the earth, the
    dispossessed, began
    to discover their
    inheritance”

    Tariq Ali

    Marching on the
    Streets
May 68 - Student Protests
Zabriskie Point by Michelangelo Antonioni (1970)




                                           13
The Dematerialisation of the Art Object
        From this to that...




                                     14
Typical features of Modernist Art

• Medium specific - the established
  time honoured disciplines of painting
  and sculpture
• The production of autonomous art
  objects
• Purely optical / visual - form over
  content
• “The ideal modernist spectator was a
  disembodied eye, lifted out of the flux
  of life in time and history,
  apprehending the resolved
  (‘significant) aesthetic form in a
  moment of instantaneity” Paul Wood
The reaction against..........



• The domination of American
  abstract expressionism
• For a younger generation this
  works formalism was read as
  being academic and by virtue
  of its ‘muteness’ complicit with
  political power. Impotent and
  institutionalised. Foyer
  decoration for corporations.
• Lucy L Lippard described post
  painterly abstraction as visual
  muzak
Visual Muzak?




                                   Jules Olitski “Instant Loveland”
                                   1968



Anthony Caro “Early One Morning”



                                   “Silence is assent”
                                   Carl Andre
“Changes in art are generally insignificant unless they involve some form of
  cognitive change, and unless they presuppose some modification of those
processes of triangulation by means of which a spectator, a work of art, and a
     world of practices and referents are located relative to each other.”


                             Charles Harrison
           “Conceptual Art and the Suppression of the Beholder”
Minimalism
• Cool ‘expression’ over hot ‘expression’
•




 Carl Andre Equivalent VIII (1966)
Firebricks, 12.7x68.6x229.2cm
Tate © Carl Andre/VAGA, New York and DACS, London 2006   19
Birth of Minimalism - Anti Form / Anti Aesthetic
“My painting is based on the fact that only what can be seen there is there. It really is an object”

“What you see is what you see” Frank Stella




Frank Stella. The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II. 1959
Frank Stella. (American, born 1936). The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II. 1959. Enamel on
canvas, 7' 6 3/4" x 11' 3/4" (230.5 x 337.2 cm).
“Looking isn’t as simple as it looks”
               Ad Reinhardt




Jasper Johns
'The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is. More is less. Less is more. The eye is a menace to
          clear sight. The laying bare of oneself is obscene. Art begins with the getting rid of nature.'

                                                   Ad Reindhardt
Key Minimalist artists
Dan Flavin (1933-1996)
Donald Judd(1928-1994)
  Sol LeWitt (b.1928)
 Robert Morris (.1931)
  Carl Andre (b.1935)
1. Minimalism as an
extension of typical
modernist tropes in art (the
reduction of form to its
purest essence) and
simultaneously a reaction
against them.




                               Dan Flavin
                               Monument for V.Tatlin, 1967
Vladmir Tatlin “Corner Relief” 1915
Untitled (to Bob and Pat Rohm)
Dan Flavin
1969
2. An embrace of manufacturing
techniques (serialisation, industry
materials and fabrication techniques)
that reflected something about the
realities of post war American
industry culture. As the artist Robert
Morris stated “clear decision rather
than groping craft”. Implicit in this
adoption of standardised industry
material and procedures is rejection
of a European tradition of artisanal
production, which was regarded as
being antithetical to the ideals of
democracy and anti elitism of            Robert Morris
American culture.                        Installation at the Green Gallery, 1964
Carl Andre
Equivalent VIII
1966
3. The adoption of anti
expressionist forms of making
art - artworks that display no
signs of touch or the hand.


                                 Sol LeWitt Modular Floor Structure
                                 1966




                                 Sol LeWitt
                                 Five Modular Structures
                                 1972
The Spectator in Minimalism
•   A decisive shift in the role of the
    spectator. In typically Greenbergian
    modernism the viewer was taken
    out of time and space and history -
    a disembodied eye who sought
    transcendence through the visual.
    In minimalism the viewers
    experience of the artwork was
    concretely tied to the experience of
    the space as a physical being. A
    physical self-conscious about
    looking at the physical objects of
    minimalism was key. It was a            Robert Morris
    profoundly different kind of artistic   Untitled
                                            1965
    consumption.
Criticisms of Minimalism
1. Minimalism replicated the cold,
impersonal, alienating properties of
capitalist culture.

2. An alienating masculine aesthetic
which despite the claims of the artists
was perfectly suited to be co-opted by an
art market / corporate art market for
furnishing their offices and spaces with an
artistic stamp of approval.

“The face of capital, the face of authority,
the face of the father” (Anna Chave)

3. The critic Michael Fried regarded
minimalism as the ʼopposite of artʼ. For
Fried Minimalismʼs concentration on
making the viewer aware of time and
place was ʻanti-modernʼ and inherently
theatrical.
Conceptual Art
“In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important
aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form in
art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made
beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair”

Sol LeWitt ‘Paragraphs’ 1967
Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of
development that may eventually find some form. All
ideas need not be made physical.

Since no form is intrinsically superior to another, the
artist may use any form, from an expression of words
(written or spoken) to physical reality, equally.

Sol Le Witts
‘Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”
•   Drawing attention to the function of ideas and language within the production
    and interpretation of art
•   Anti optical - a suspicion about the power of images and the visual




                                                                          34
Greenbergian modernism
had placed too much
emphasis on feelings
generated by art, as well as
a concentration on the how
as opposed to the what - it
had down played the
cognitive aspect of art -
especially the role of
language in creating
meaning and value around
art.
Influences
“it’s art because i say it’s art”
     The power to ‘name’
The dematerialisation of the art object. Resistance to the art market /
to corporate buying power. Critique of the institutions of art
(museums, critics, dealers)
“Who has the authority to say whether a
particular configuration of shapes and colours
constitutes a ‘formal harmony’, an ‘aesthetic
totality’ - or whether it fails to do so? In practice
this came down to the word of one artist, or
more pointedly, the art critic. A system
dependent on critical authority is also clearly a
system ripe for lampoon. Hence the early avant
gardist joke of tricking a critic into waxing
lyrical over an ‘abstract painting’ made by a
brush tied to a donkey’s tail”

Paul Wood
Conceptual Art
pg. 11
New mediums - the embrace of non
conventional forms for artistic
communication - text, photography,
video, performance- the search for
more democratic forms and sites for
communication
Investigation of the status
of the art object -the
ontology of art. A self
consciously reflective
approach to the idea of
‘making art. Exploration
of non-traditional forms
for ‘expression’. The idea
that the old forms had        Joseph Kosuth remarked that the
exhausted themselves          ‘purest’ definition of conceptual art
                              would be that it is an inquiry into the foundations
(painting and sculpture).     of the concept ‘art’.
• A self consciously reflective
  approach to the idea of
  ‘making art’.
• What might an art object
  look like? What materials
  were viable as art.
  Exploration of non-
  traditional forms for           John Hilliard
                                   Camera Recording its Own
  ‘expression’.                   Condition (7 Apertures, 10
                                  Speeds, 2 Mirrors) 1971

• A rejection of the idea that
  ‘authentic’ art production
  was rooted in the acquisition
  and learning of traditional
  skills
                                          Keith Arnatt “Trouser Word Piece”
                                          1972
“Art doesn’t require being able to
draw, or being able to paint well or
know colours, it doesn’t require
any of those specific things that
are in the discipline, to be
interesting”

Bruce Nauman
A re-imagining of the
role of the spectator - a
shift from a passive
consumer of aesthetic
objects- to an active
‘reader’ and interpreter.




                            John Baldessari
Idea art becomes Ad men art

• Text art traded in the market
• Idea art becomes ikea art -”you
  got to have a good idea” - the
  tyranny of the good idea
• Fetish made of ‘being seen to be
  sharp and smart’ - chi chi
  conceptualism
• Art works become triggers or
  signposts to other more
  ‘interesting’ ’respectable’’
  serious’ areas of culture or
  philosophy or science.
“There is a danger in this rivalry of thinking that art
which is not visually interesting must ipso facto be
   clever, or alternatively of discarding visually
  interesting art as being ipso facto not clever.”

                     Dave Beech
                       Artmonthly

More Related Content

What's hot

Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual Art
Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual ArtArt As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual Art
Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual ArtJames Clegg
 
Lecture, 1990-2000
Lecture, 1990-2000Lecture, 1990-2000
Lecture, 1990-2000Laura Smith
 
Conceptual art presentation (1)
Conceptual art presentation  (1)Conceptual art presentation  (1)
Conceptual art presentation (1)teamhumanities
 
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Abstract ExpressionismGreg A.
 
Minimalism powerpoint full
Minimalism powerpoint fullMinimalism powerpoint full
Minimalism powerpoint full10polarbears
 
Minimalism project
Minimalism projectMinimalism project
Minimalism projectmodlit
 
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation art
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation artFrom Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation art
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation artDeborahJ
 
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op ArtAbstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op ArtJohn Adrian Adiaz
 
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designers
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designersA list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designers
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designerscharpentieredme
 
Abstract expressionism power point
Abstract expressionism power pointAbstract expressionism power point
Abstract expressionism power pointjoewaf
 
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionismguest70789d
 
Kiki Smith Power Point
Kiki Smith Power PointKiki Smith Power Point
Kiki Smith Power PointAshley Keller
 

What's hot (19)

Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual Art
Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual ArtArt As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual Art
Art As Idea, The Roots Of Conceptual Art
 
Lecture, 1990-2000
Lecture, 1990-2000Lecture, 1990-2000
Lecture, 1990-2000
 
Conceptual Art
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Conceptual Art
 
Conceptual art presentation (1)
Conceptual art presentation  (1)Conceptual art presentation  (1)
Conceptual art presentation (1)
 
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
 
Pop opt art
Pop opt artPop opt art
Pop opt art
 
Minimalism powerpoint full
Minimalism powerpoint fullMinimalism powerpoint full
Minimalism powerpoint full
 
Minimalism project
Minimalism projectMinimalism project
Minimalism project
 
Minimalism
MinimalismMinimalism
Minimalism
 
Precisionism
PrecisionismPrecisionism
Precisionism
 
Mod lit minimalism
Mod lit  minimalismMod lit  minimalism
Mod lit minimalism
 
Precisionism art movement
Precisionism art movementPrecisionism art movement
Precisionism art movement
 
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation art
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation artFrom Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation art
From Object to concept: environment, performance, and installation art
 
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op ArtAbstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art
Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art
 
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designers
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designersA list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designers
A list of all famous minimalist artists, architects and designers
 
Abstract expressionism power point
Abstract expressionism power pointAbstract expressionism power point
Abstract expressionism power point
 
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
 
Minimalism
MinimalismMinimalism
Minimalism
 
Kiki Smith Power Point
Kiki Smith Power PointKiki Smith Power Point
Kiki Smith Power Point
 

Similar to End of modernism

Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)
Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)
Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)DeborahJ
 
Authorship lecture
Authorship lectureAuthorship lecture
Authorship lectureecajbeagles
 
Purity and decadence
Purity and decadencePurity and decadence
Purity and decadenceecajbeagles
 
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the isms
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the ismsHow Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the isms
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the ismsDeborahJ
 
Life without buildings: Institutions and Objections
Life without buildings: Institutions and ObjectionsLife without buildings: Institutions and Objections
Life without buildings: Institutions and ObjectionsDeborahJ
 
Lecture, 1965-69
Lecture, 1965-69Lecture, 1965-69
Lecture, 1965-69Laura Smith
 
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World (An Introduction to some key thinkers)
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World  (An Introduction to some key thinkers) Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World  (An Introduction to some key thinkers)
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World (An Introduction to some key thinkers) DeborahJ
 
Consumer culture
Consumer cultureConsumer culture
Consumer cultureDeborahJ
 
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and culture
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and cultureThe End of Modernity: 1960s art and culture
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and cultureDeborahJ
 
Situationism
SituationismSituationism
Situationismdaronsohn
 
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679msmouce
 
Lecture, 1960-65
Lecture, 1960-65Lecture, 1960-65
Lecture, 1960-65Laura Smith
 
Week 12 Lecture, 20th Century
Week 12 Lecture, 20th CenturyWeek 12 Lecture, 20th Century
Week 12 Lecture, 20th CenturyLaura Smith
 
Week 9 abstract expressionism
Week 9 abstract expressionismWeek 9 abstract expressionism
Week 9 abstract expressionismDeborahJ
 
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton HenningJames Clegg
 
American art, 1970 to present
American art, 1970 to presentAmerican art, 1970 to present
American art, 1970 to presentLaura Smith
 
Postmodern art
Postmodern artPostmodern art
Postmodern artGreg A.
 

Similar to End of modernism (20)

Form
FormForm
Form
 
Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)
Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)
Week 1 po mo intro 2012 (nx powerlite)
 
Authorship lecture
Authorship lectureAuthorship lecture
Authorship lecture
 
Purity and decadence
Purity and decadencePurity and decadence
Purity and decadence
 
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the isms
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the ismsHow Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the isms
How Art Works: Week 5 The Rise of the isms
 
Perform
PerformPerform
Perform
 
Life without buildings: Institutions and Objections
Life without buildings: Institutions and ObjectionsLife without buildings: Institutions and Objections
Life without buildings: Institutions and Objections
 
Lecture, 1965-69
Lecture, 1965-69Lecture, 1965-69
Lecture, 1965-69
 
Avant garde
Avant gardeAvant garde
Avant garde
 
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World (An Introduction to some key thinkers)
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World  (An Introduction to some key thinkers) Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World  (An Introduction to some key thinkers)
Week 8 Reflections of a Modern World (An Introduction to some key thinkers)
 
Consumer culture
Consumer cultureConsumer culture
Consumer culture
 
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and culture
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and cultureThe End of Modernity: 1960s art and culture
The End of Modernity: 1960s art and culture
 
Situationism
SituationismSituationism
Situationism
 
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679
Sayre2e ch38 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150679
 
Lecture, 1960-65
Lecture, 1960-65Lecture, 1960-65
Lecture, 1960-65
 
Week 12 Lecture, 20th Century
Week 12 Lecture, 20th CenturyWeek 12 Lecture, 20th Century
Week 12 Lecture, 20th Century
 
Week 9 abstract expressionism
Week 9 abstract expressionismWeek 9 abstract expressionism
Week 9 abstract expressionism
 
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning
'Bad' Painting and the work of Anton Henning
 
American art, 1970 to present
American art, 1970 to presentAmerican art, 1970 to present
American art, 1970 to present
 
Postmodern art
Postmodern artPostmodern art
Postmodern art
 

More from ecajbeagles

More from ecajbeagles (6)

Sculpture
Sculpture Sculpture
Sculpture
 
Everyday
EverydayEveryday
Everyday
 
Pop
PopPop
Pop
 
Politics of representation
Politics of representationPolitics of representation
Politics of representation
 
Politics
PoliticsPolitics
Politics
 
Audience
AudienceAudience
Audience
 

Recently uploaded

ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS........pptx
ARTERIAL BLOOD  GAS ANALYSIS........pptxARTERIAL BLOOD  GAS ANALYSIS........pptx
ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS........pptxAneriPatwari
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS........pptx
ARTERIAL BLOOD  GAS ANALYSIS........pptxARTERIAL BLOOD  GAS ANALYSIS........pptx
ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS........pptx
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 

End of modernism

  • 1. “a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first formidable outcry in defence of custom. But the tumult soon subsides. Time makes more converts than reason.” Thomas Paine Common Sense First published 1776
  • 2. End of Modernism • Movements in art from the mid to late 60’s onwards substantially changed what art could look like, how it could be made, what it could be made from, how you looked at it, ‘read’ it and ‘interacted with it. 2
  • 3. Values of Modernity • Emancipation from mysticism and superstition • The power of the rational, the scientific • Knowledge based on objectivity - a solid sense of truth • ‘Mans’ ability to engineer for himself a better tomorrow - faith in planning - future utopias • Belief in the inevitable linear progress of humanity
  • 4. Crisis of Modernity - 1960’s - the beginning of Postmodernism • A generational sense of skepticism regarding the potential for human social emancipation and material improvement through scientific progress • A generational disillusionment with the values, authority, morality, culture and power of those in ‘charge’. • Political, personal and cultural dissent. A call for a subversion of the old order • Criticisms from the margins - the return of the repressed, the excluded. • A fracturing and fragmentation of society - a new plurality
  • 5. A Change is Gonna Come
  • 6. If a six was nine - Out with the old in with the new
  • 7.
  • 9. Hope Extinguished - a Growing Militancy Text Assassination of Martin Luther King
  • 10. Communiqué 9 WE are getting closer. We are slowly destroying the long tentacles of the oppressive State machine... secret files in the universities work study in the factories the census at home social security files computers TV Giro passports work permits insurance cards. Bureaucracy and technology used against the people... to speed up our work to slow down our minds and actions to obliterate the truth. Police computers cannot tell the truth. They just record our `crimes'. The pig murders go unrecorded. Stephen McCarthy Peter Savva, David Owale -- The murder of these brothers is not written on any secret card. We will avenge our brothers. If they murder another brother or sister, pig blood will flow in the streets. 168 explosions last year. Hundreds of threatening telephone calls to govt, bosses, leaders. The AB is the man or woman sitting next to you. They have guns in their pockets and anger in their minds. We are getting closer. Off the system and its property. Power to the people.
  • 11. 1968 “A year that marked every generation on every continent. ..it was a year of hope, when those who accepted the world as it is were the ones who felt disinherited, while the wretched of the earth, the dispossessed, began to discover their inheritance” Tariq Ali Marching on the Streets
  • 12. May 68 - Student Protests
  • 13. Zabriskie Point by Michelangelo Antonioni (1970) 13
  • 14. The Dematerialisation of the Art Object From this to that... 14
  • 15. Typical features of Modernist Art • Medium specific - the established time honoured disciplines of painting and sculpture • The production of autonomous art objects • Purely optical / visual - form over content • “The ideal modernist spectator was a disembodied eye, lifted out of the flux of life in time and history, apprehending the resolved (‘significant) aesthetic form in a moment of instantaneity” Paul Wood
  • 16. The reaction against.......... • The domination of American abstract expressionism • For a younger generation this works formalism was read as being academic and by virtue of its ‘muteness’ complicit with political power. Impotent and institutionalised. Foyer decoration for corporations. • Lucy L Lippard described post painterly abstraction as visual muzak
  • 17. Visual Muzak? Jules Olitski “Instant Loveland” 1968 Anthony Caro “Early One Morning” “Silence is assent” Carl Andre
  • 18. “Changes in art are generally insignificant unless they involve some form of cognitive change, and unless they presuppose some modification of those processes of triangulation by means of which a spectator, a work of art, and a world of practices and referents are located relative to each other.” Charles Harrison “Conceptual Art and the Suppression of the Beholder”
  • 19. Minimalism • Cool ‘expression’ over hot ‘expression’ • Carl Andre Equivalent VIII (1966) Firebricks, 12.7x68.6x229.2cm Tate © Carl Andre/VAGA, New York and DACS, London 2006 19
  • 20. Birth of Minimalism - Anti Form / Anti Aesthetic “My painting is based on the fact that only what can be seen there is there. It really is an object” “What you see is what you see” Frank Stella Frank Stella. The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II. 1959 Frank Stella. (American, born 1936). The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II. 1959. Enamel on canvas, 7' 6 3/4" x 11' 3/4" (230.5 x 337.2 cm).
  • 21. “Looking isn’t as simple as it looks” Ad Reinhardt Jasper Johns
  • 22. 'The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is. More is less. Less is more. The eye is a menace to clear sight. The laying bare of oneself is obscene. Art begins with the getting rid of nature.' Ad Reindhardt
  • 23. Key Minimalist artists Dan Flavin (1933-1996) Donald Judd(1928-1994) Sol LeWitt (b.1928) Robert Morris (.1931) Carl Andre (b.1935)
  • 24. 1. Minimalism as an extension of typical modernist tropes in art (the reduction of form to its purest essence) and simultaneously a reaction against them. Dan Flavin Monument for V.Tatlin, 1967
  • 25. Vladmir Tatlin “Corner Relief” 1915
  • 26. Untitled (to Bob and Pat Rohm) Dan Flavin 1969
  • 27. 2. An embrace of manufacturing techniques (serialisation, industry materials and fabrication techniques) that reflected something about the realities of post war American industry culture. As the artist Robert Morris stated “clear decision rather than groping craft”. Implicit in this adoption of standardised industry material and procedures is rejection of a European tradition of artisanal production, which was regarded as being antithetical to the ideals of democracy and anti elitism of Robert Morris American culture. Installation at the Green Gallery, 1964
  • 29. 3. The adoption of anti expressionist forms of making art - artworks that display no signs of touch or the hand. Sol LeWitt Modular Floor Structure 1966 Sol LeWitt Five Modular Structures 1972
  • 30. The Spectator in Minimalism • A decisive shift in the role of the spectator. In typically Greenbergian modernism the viewer was taken out of time and space and history - a disembodied eye who sought transcendence through the visual. In minimalism the viewers experience of the artwork was concretely tied to the experience of the space as a physical being. A physical self-conscious about looking at the physical objects of minimalism was key. It was a Robert Morris profoundly different kind of artistic Untitled 1965 consumption.
  • 31. Criticisms of Minimalism 1. Minimalism replicated the cold, impersonal, alienating properties of capitalist culture. 2. An alienating masculine aesthetic which despite the claims of the artists was perfectly suited to be co-opted by an art market / corporate art market for furnishing their offices and spaces with an artistic stamp of approval. “The face of capital, the face of authority, the face of the father” (Anna Chave) 3. The critic Michael Fried regarded minimalism as the ʼopposite of artʼ. For Fried Minimalismʼs concentration on making the viewer aware of time and place was ʻanti-modernʼ and inherently theatrical.
  • 32. Conceptual Art “In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form in art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair” Sol LeWitt ‘Paragraphs’ 1967
  • 33. Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of development that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical. Since no form is intrinsically superior to another, the artist may use any form, from an expression of words (written or spoken) to physical reality, equally. Sol Le Witts ‘Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”
  • 34. Drawing attention to the function of ideas and language within the production and interpretation of art • Anti optical - a suspicion about the power of images and the visual 34
  • 35. Greenbergian modernism had placed too much emphasis on feelings generated by art, as well as a concentration on the how as opposed to the what - it had down played the cognitive aspect of art - especially the role of language in creating meaning and value around art.
  • 36. Influences “it’s art because i say it’s art” The power to ‘name’
  • 37. The dematerialisation of the art object. Resistance to the art market / to corporate buying power. Critique of the institutions of art (museums, critics, dealers)
  • 38. “Who has the authority to say whether a particular configuration of shapes and colours constitutes a ‘formal harmony’, an ‘aesthetic totality’ - or whether it fails to do so? In practice this came down to the word of one artist, or more pointedly, the art critic. A system dependent on critical authority is also clearly a system ripe for lampoon. Hence the early avant gardist joke of tricking a critic into waxing lyrical over an ‘abstract painting’ made by a brush tied to a donkey’s tail” Paul Wood Conceptual Art pg. 11
  • 39. New mediums - the embrace of non conventional forms for artistic communication - text, photography, video, performance- the search for more democratic forms and sites for communication
  • 40. Investigation of the status of the art object -the ontology of art. A self consciously reflective approach to the idea of ‘making art. Exploration of non-traditional forms for ‘expression’. The idea that the old forms had Joseph Kosuth remarked that the exhausted themselves ‘purest’ definition of conceptual art would be that it is an inquiry into the foundations (painting and sculpture). of the concept ‘art’.
  • 41. • A self consciously reflective approach to the idea of ‘making art’. • What might an art object look like? What materials were viable as art. Exploration of non- traditional forms for John Hilliard Camera Recording its Own ‘expression’. Condition (7 Apertures, 10 Speeds, 2 Mirrors) 1971 • A rejection of the idea that ‘authentic’ art production was rooted in the acquisition and learning of traditional skills Keith Arnatt “Trouser Word Piece” 1972
  • 42. “Art doesn’t require being able to draw, or being able to paint well or know colours, it doesn’t require any of those specific things that are in the discipline, to be interesting” Bruce Nauman
  • 43. A re-imagining of the role of the spectator - a shift from a passive consumer of aesthetic objects- to an active ‘reader’ and interpreter. John Baldessari
  • 44. Idea art becomes Ad men art • Text art traded in the market • Idea art becomes ikea art -”you got to have a good idea” - the tyranny of the good idea • Fetish made of ‘being seen to be sharp and smart’ - chi chi conceptualism • Art works become triggers or signposts to other more ‘interesting’ ’respectable’’ serious’ areas of culture or philosophy or science.
  • 45. “There is a danger in this rivalry of thinking that art which is not visually interesting must ipso facto be clever, or alternatively of discarding visually interesting art as being ipso facto not clever.” Dave Beech Artmonthly