Periodization and chronology of a world historyHistorical Chronological Duration Regions of Character ofepoch frameworks the Earth medical knowledgePrimitive ~2 million years ~2 million All, except Primitivesociety ago – 5-4 years Antarctica healing millenium BCThe ancient 5-4 millenium BC ~4000 years Europe, Asia National andworld – the middle of 1st traditional millenium AD medicineThe Middle 476 - middle of ~1200 years Europe, Asia TraditionalAges 17th century medicineNew time Middle of 17th ~300 years Europe Scientific and century- 1918 traditional medicineThe modern 1918-20.. ~100 years Europe, Asia, ScientificAge America medicine
The period which we will discuss, began more 25 million years ago and is stretched before formation of the first civilizations in IV millenium BC is 99 % of all history of mankind. This period is characterized by two important processes – an anthropogeny and sociogeny Anthropogeny – the long period of evolution of the Man as biological species Homo. Sociogeny – process of formation of a human society
Anthropogeny stagesPeriod Group or species Characteristics Region12 millions years Hominids "Hominid triad" Equatorial Africa (?)ago~ 3,5 millions Homo habilis Use of the elementary Area of Great Africanyears ago tools lakes~2 millions Homo erectus Manufacturing of Area of Great Africanyears ago tools lakes Rudimental speech (?)~ 150 thousands Homo sapiens Fire use, constant Africa, Southern andyears ago neanderthalensis dwellings, clothes, Middle Europe, religion Middle East and Southern Asia~40 thousands Homo sapiens Perfection of All, except Antarcticayears ago sapiens (Cro- manufacturing Magnon man) techniques of tools Magic, myths
Periodization and chronology ofprimitive historyThree periods are allocated to the history of a primitive society : Formation of a primitive society (antenatal society) - 2 million years ago - 40 thousand years ago. The primitive human herd concerns the given period (precommunity). Archaeological epoch of the given period: an early and middle paleolith. Blossoming of a primitive society (matrilineal clan) 40 thousand years ago - 4th millenium BC The period is characterized by an communal-patrimonial system. Archaeological epoch: a late paleolith, mesolit, a neolith. Decomposition of a primitive society (patriarchy, late matriarchy) – 4th millenium BC - 1st millenium BC
Evolution of a human genus and society(антропосоциогенез)Preconditions : а) The role of work was underlined by the Australian scientists far from Marxism, J.Linnert in his book "Cultural history" (1886-1887). Cultural history – history of that work which led mankind from a low and disastrous condition to the height which is occupied now. Democritus (6 centuries BC) – “people were taught all by struggle for existence”. b) Biological aspect. "Hominid triad": development of Bipedal gait, the free hand, development of a brain. c) The anthropogeny period is characterized by bridling of "a zoological individual". It is one of the most important conditions of sociogeny. Democritus and Epicurus spoke about domination of animal instincts and their overcoming in an extreme antiquity. Later Lucretius wrote about it in his "De rerum natura".
The initial form of a primitive society - "primitive human herd" (precommunity) - a transition period from zoological association to the generated society. With its occurrence have begun :1. Formation and development of social relations,2. Struggle aggravation between egoistical and collectivist forms of behaviour. Instincts were one of base lines of struggle of the biological and social beginnings: food, sexual, as especially strongly pronounced. The conflicts, braking development of social relations were defined by sexual rivalry which was inevitable in the conditions of promiscuity.
Bridling of zoological instincts is well traced on evolution of marriage from its group forms to a pair monogamous family. Promiscuity - the form of a child-bearing based on independent, disorder sexual relations. Endogamous marriage. Exogamous marriage.
Theories of origin of exogamous marriage. Exogamy - means of regulation of relations, maintenance of unity of the social world in human collective. Exogamy - A basis of sexual taboos - the first medical-hygienic interdictions. Exogamy - Means of an establishment and fastening of communications between separate collectives of primitive people. (Taylor)
Sources of knowledge of primitiveculture and medicine Archeology: tools, hunting, dwellings, sanctuaries, burials. Dwellings of the primitive man. Paleontology. Bone remains of ancient people bear on themselves traces of traumas, trepanations, a tuberculosis, tumours, an osteomyelitis, a rickets, a syphilis etc. Average life expectancy of the person made 20-26 years. In later period (about 100 thousand years ago) average life expectancy has increased (till 40 years lived 1 of 100 persons) so was till an epoch of the Middle Ages.
Medical knowledge of Paleolithicman The main differences from instinctive behavior of animals: Treatment of other representatives of a kind; Life preservation to old and crippled fellow tribesmen. Applied techniques: Treatment by simples; Treatment of traumas and wounds (suture) Sources of knowledge of doctoring: Observation of animals, personal and group experience Information sources: Archaeological («flower people», Shanidar)
Origins of Medicine.The first medical-hygienic skills.1. Struggle for the existence, based on the actions programmed in a genofund. (Animals, prepeople). - Self-preservation instinct.2. Medcal-hygienic activity of the human - the form of public practice based on comprehension of necessity of mutual aid also represents a complex of a conscious activity, is based on experience and knowledge. The first medical-hygienic skills are connected with formed by medicine appears, in the middle of Mousterian time (100- 80 thousand years ago) а) Formation of morphological lines of people. б) Formation of economic-household relations. в) Formation of the language, the first representations about world around. г) Creation of instruments of production.
Surgical receptions: amputation, crises, overlaying of seams, obstetric aid, castration, Cesarean section. Use of simples, means of an animal origin. Hygienic constructions: dwellings with the hearths, near to sources with running water, avoidance to lodge in boggy places. There were the clothes, first installations of the personal hygiene, first burials.
Totem, its essence and communicationwith medicine "Totem" - my genus. Base points of sight on totemism: Totemism - the collective representations influencing formation and development of human culture, medicine. In the ethnographic literature "Totemism" - the archaic form of religion - a complex of beliefs, the ceremonies based on representations about close related communication of any group of people (a sort, a tribe) with a certain animal, a plant, a subject.
Animism (anima - soul) - belief in spiritual entities: spirits, demons, forces, the nature, soul of the live and dead person. (Taylor). There is a fear of the dead. Animism: evolution of representations about a soul. Two groups of biological questions:1. communication and difference of a live and dead body,2. dreams and merge of representations about life and a phantom – an illusive soul.
The theory of an animism :1. Existence of soul after death2. Spirits, gods (subordinating to itself and submission) Soul place: heart, blood, an eye. (Disappearance of a pupillary image). Spirit, breath, life - soul. Concept about a soul as breath - in Semitic (Jewish) and Aryan etymology.Sources of an animism are:• Witchcraft,• Sorcery that is magic ceremonies, and have a direct bearing on magic medicine and magic.
Spirituality and medicine. Instinct of parental self-preservation. (Dolphins of wounded relatives hold on a surface) Ability to empathize Communication with totemism and fetishism.• Fetishism – dwellings of mythical beings – a concentration of magic, demonic manpower.• Fetishes were perceived by people as patrons and defenders from enemies.• Fetishes demanded to themselves more careful and difficult reference than to other subjects.
MAGIC AND MAGIC MEDICINE Magic - the phenomenon of the mind which has arisen at the primitive person, remained till now, affected on all spheres of culture: religion, a science, art, medicine. 1. The modern dictionaries: "magic" - the ceremonies connected with belief in supernatural ability of the person to influence people and natural phenomena. 2. Magic – ideology and the outlook of the primitive person connecting irrational and rational, a stage of development of consciousness, that united later science and religion.
Magic practice (ceremonies, dances, songs, spells) - result of comprehension of the exclusive position in the nature. Sensation of fear and powerlessness will appear then when there is a religion, leadership, the power and an inequality. The person lost belief in elemental forces. Remained: 1) belief in domination over the nature, 2) belief in reserve possibilities of the person, 3) ability to use the biological possibilities and mental energy for influence on other people and the environmental nature. These three parameters also are the cores of "magic medicine".