Research Design


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Research Design

  1. 1. Research Design<br />
  2. 2. What do we want to study?<br />
  3. 3. Our Aim is Efficacy<br />So we are concerning about the extent to which an intervention does more good than harm when provided under ideal conditions.<br />Explanatory Trials<br />
  4. 4. Our Aim is Effectiveness<br />So, we are speaking about the assessment of the adequacy of that intervention to do more good than harm in regular clinical practic.<br />Pragmatic Trials <br />
  5. 5. Our Aim is the Efficiency<br />So we are interested in the measurement of the effect of the intervention in relation to the resources it consumes.<br />Cost Benefit Studies<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Analytical Studies<br />
  10. 10. Experimental Trials<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Experimental Trials<br />The Investigator have a Control over who is exposed and who is not exposed to a particular risk factor / intervention.<br />The study Design is essential criteria to provide valid conclusions.<br />The use of control group should be Ethical specially if there is a placebo will be tried.<br />
  13. 13. Randomized Controlled Trial<br />Prospective <br />Outcome<br />Outcome<br />
  14. 14. Group Comparative RCT<br />Prospective<br />Each subject is receiving one treatment modality only subject/independent Statistical methods are used to compare the groups<br />
  15. 15. Cross Over Studies of RCT<br />Prospective<br />Each subject in the interest and the control group Receives all the Interventions, so subjects act as their own control.<br />
  16. 16. Problems of the Cross-Over Design<br />It is a controversial design as it is rarely informative.<br />Time Consuming as there must be sufficient time elapsed between treatment A and treatment B.<br />Possibility of confounding bias between the effect of the drug A and drug B as the effect of drug A may be still present when drug B started.<br />
  17. 17. Non-Randomized Controlled Trials<br />Prospective<br />The Investigator distribute the subjects between both groups Without Randomization<br />
  18. 18. Uncontrolled Clinical Trial<br />Prospective<br />This design is suitable almost only in estimation of drug side effects and toxicity levels<br />
  19. 19. Observational Trials<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Cohort Studies<br />Prospective<br />The exposed group is followed up for pre determined period of time<br />
  22. 22. Example<br />Follow Up for Next 5 years<br />
  23. 23. Cohort Studies (contd.)<br />Follow up for predetermined Period<br />
  24. 24. Example<br />
  25. 25. Cross-Sectional Studies<br />Cross Section<br />Time <br />Prospective<br />Retrospective<br />
  26. 26. Example<br />Lung Cancer in 2005 between Smokers and Non Smokers<br />Year 2000<br />Year 2010<br />
  27. 27. Example of Cross Sectional Studies(contd.)<br />
  28. 28. Case Control Studies<br />Retrospective Follow Up for predetermined Period<br />
  29. 29. Example<br />Follow Up in the last 5 Years<br />