GeneralInformation :Turkey is surrounded by sea on threesides, by the Black Sea in the north, theMediterranean in the south and theAegean Sea in the west. In the northwestthere is also an important internal sea,the Sea of Marmara, between the straitsof the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus,important waterways that connect theBlack Sea with the rest of the world.
The land borders of Turkey are 2,573kilometres in total, and coastlines(including islands) are another 8,333kilometres
Because the mountainsin the Black Sea regionrun parallel to thecoastline, the coasts arefairly smooth, withouttoo many indentations orprojections. The lengthof the Black Seacoastline in Turkey is1,595 kilometres, andthe salinity of the sea is17%.
The Mediterranean coastline runs for 1,577 kilometres and here too the mountain ranges are parallel to the coastline.Mediterrenean Sea The salinity level of the Mediterranean is about double that of the Black Sea.
Although the Aegeancoastline is acontinuation of theMediterranean coast, itis quite irregular becausethe mountains in the areafall perpendicularly intothe Aegean Sea. As aresult, the length of theAegean Sea coast is over2,800 kilometres. Thecoastline faces out tomany islands.
The Marmara Sea islocated totally withinnational boundariesand occupies an areaof 11,350 squarekilometres. Thecoastline of theMarmara Sea is over1,000 kilometres long;it is connected to theBlack Sea by theBosphorus and withthe Mediterranean bythe Dardanelles.
Turkey is focused largely on a variety ofhistorical sites, and on seaside resorts along itsAegean and Mediterranean Sea coasts.
The rectangular shaped country is surrounded on threesides by three different seas. Its shores are laced withbeaches, bays, coves, ports, islands and peninsulas.
Turkey has recently become one of theworlds most popular tourism destinations
Coastal erosion occurs along beaches and shorelines.Both wind action and water action have importantparts in this process and constantly change theboundary between land and water. Coastal erosiontakes land away forever from one area to deposit itsomeplace else.
Things that can Effect Coastal Erosion Seawalls force waves back to the ocean.These waves take the sand in front of theseawall and deposit it far away from land. Thewater in front of the seawall gets deeper andmakes for bigger waves next to the shoreline, soyou always have to build bigger seawalls. The seawill always win this battle because the force ofwater will always be stronger than any seawall.
Sand replenishment takes sand awayfrom one place to deposit itelsewhere. People built jetties tocatch sand which works great for thatbeach. But beaches down current willerode away because they dont getany sand.
Eastern Black Sea Region,located in the north east ofTurkey, has been exposed tosevere coastal erosion andshoreline recession for thelast 30 years.
One of the most important reasons forthis problem is the response of the coaston man made activities. As a result of sandmining by people and municipalities, thecoastal balance was broken.
Another important cause is theconstruction of a highway by filled soilnear the shore. The wave energyincreases by reflected waves fromthese slopes and causes a seawardlysediment transport.
Finally, the other important reason forerosion and recession is incorrect siteselection, planning and design of coastalstructures such as harbours and fisheryharbours.
In theMediterranean regionit is particularly acutedue to mountingpressure arising fromhumanactivities, includingpoorly controlled masstourism.
Although erosion in theMediterranean is in part anatural occurrence that cannever be entirely controlled, itcan be better managed inorder to reconcile humanneeds with environmentalprotection.
Eutrophication is an increase in therate of supply of organic matter in anecosystem.
Eutrophication is a majorproblem in most of theEuropean regional seasincluding the Mediterraneanand the Black Sea
EUTROPHICATION IN THE BLACK SEA More than 50% of the input of nutrients in the Black Sea originates from the Danube river. Eutrophication has changed considerably the composition of fauna and flora in this regional sea. Many of the fish and sea mammals at the top of the chain have disappeared while intruder species increase.
EUTROPHICATION IN THEMEDITERRANEANEutrophication in the Mediterranean appears tobe limited along coastal areas.Enclosed bays andriver estuaries receive nutrient loads fromdomestic and industrial wastewaters. Althougheutrophication phenomena have been moreintense in the northern part ofMediterranean, special attention has to be paidin the southern part as populationgrows, agricultural and industrial activitiesdevelop and national legislation does not seem tobe efficient in controlling nutrient enrichment ofthe marine environment.
SOURCES OF EUTROPHICATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN• Urbanization• Tourism• Agriculture
RECOMMENDATIONS Many issues should be addressed, concerning research on climatic changes, study and conservation policy on marine biodiversity, treatment of sewage especially near big urban areas, application of good agriculture practices even in countries outside EU and careful selection of sites for marine aquaculture units. Due to conflicts in the use of the coastal zone, integrated coastal zone management should be applied. Thus successful physical planning can be better organized so as to combine environmental protection and economic development