SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 4
Download to read offline
• 8 • S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 T h r e s h o l d w w w . c i c o n l i n e . o r g / t h r e s h o l d
What is Learning in a
Participatory Culture?
Educators are learning how to engage today’s digital kids to share and
distribute knowledge within learning communities.
TIn the white paper “Confronting the Challenges of Partic-
ipatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century,” the
Project New Media Literacies (Project NML) team at the Mass-
achusetts Institute ofTechnology addressed the need to engage
learners in today’s participatory culture. Young people are ac-
tively creating and circulating media content within social net-
works that extend from their circle of friends to those in the
virtual world community. How-
ever, the team believes that
young people also must learn to
reflect upon their new media
creations in ways that encour-
age the important learning skills
of teamwork, leadership, prob-
lem solving, collaboration, communication, and creativity.
Our education system also is in the midst of this paradigm
shift, where new methods, environments, and assessment mod-
els need to be acquired to keep pace with our increasingly net-
worked culture. As the conversation about the digital divide shifts
from questions of technological access to ones concerning par-
ticipation, educators must work to ensure that every young per-
son has access to the tools, skills, and experiences needed to join
in this new participatory culture. Educators also have a chance
to give students the cultural competencies and social skills they
need in their future roles as 21st-century citizens and workers.
Formal schools have been slow to react to the emergence of
the participatory culture, however, due to an exaggerated in-
terpretation of the perils of social media and to a lack of
understanding of the promises and affordances of a networked
society. In their stead, after-school programs and informal-
learning communities are stepping in with programs and ac-
tivities that demonstrate the learning potentials of participa-
tory culture accelerated through social media. To help educa-
tors and learners become more proficient in adapting to today’s
rich media landscape, the white paper identified 11 social skills
that we all must acquire if we are to be active participants in
our own life-long learning. And since then, Project NML has
expanded the original list to also
include the skill of visualization
(see page 9). These social skills
and cultural competencies—the
new media literacies—shift the
focus of traditional literacy, for
example, from individual ex-
pression to also encompass community involvement. The new
media literacies then can be understood as offering ways of think-
ing (mindsets—for example, “collective intelligence”) and ways
of doing (skill sets—for example, “transmedia navigation”) that
recruit the traditional literacies of reading and writing into
new kinds of literacy practices.
Learning in Zoey’s Room
The Digital Youth Project, a grantee of the MacArthur Foun-
dation’s Digital Media and Learning Initiative, recently com-
pleted a three-year study of the learning and innovation that
accompany young people’s everyday engagements with new
media.The goal of the study was to understand the ways youth
use new media, focusing on how they play, communicate, and
create, and how these interactions affect their friendships as well
as their aspirations, interests, and passions. In its final report,
BY ERIN REILLY
TODAY, WE HAVE ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES FOR TAKING MEDIA INTO OUR OWN HANDS TO CONNECT WITH
others in meaningful ways. We have new ways of working together to develop knowledge, and new
ways to use media to shape how we present ourselves to others and learn from them. To connect and
collaborate with each other to produce and circulate information in this new participatory culture, we
have developed new tools such as game engines and new institutions such as YouTube and Facebook.
Outside the classroom, children learn by
gathering clusters of information as they
move seamlessly between their physical
and virtual spaces.
TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:58 PM Page 8
the project team, led by anthropologist Mimi Ito, explained that chil-
dren use digital tools and broadband media to “hang out” with friends,
“mess around” with programs, and “geek out” as they dig deeper into
subjects they love, from rock stars to rocket science. Beyond what they
are learning in school, they are connecting socially and are being influ-
enced by each other’s knowledge. These informal mentors have effec-
tively taken their place among the many sources influencing children’s
processes of knowledg-building and identity-forming.
I began to understand this new way of learning in 2001 when I co-
created an online community for middle school girls called Zoey’s
Room. Armed with the knowledge that 93 percent of tweens and teens
are using the Internet and that girls are the power users of social-
networking sites such as MySpace andYouTube, we launched Zoey’s Room
as an interactive technology club for girls in Maine.The project quickly
expanded into a national mentoring community that creatively engages
girls in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) activities
through peer-to-peer learning and mentoring by female employees at
companies such as National Semiconductor and Microsoft who volun-
teer their STEM expertise.
Today, Zoey’s Room is a social network and blended learning envi-
ronment in which teens learn STEM subjects via online interaction and
through offline practical applications of science and math challenges in
after-school programs run by organizations like the YWCA. The col-
laborative environment allows girls to feel safe to explore and tinker, fail
and try again, and rely on a group of peers and mentors who will
circulate STEM material, support their learning, and build ongoing re-
lationships. Learning occurs as girls move between the online commu-
nity and their extended community of peers and mentors, who validate
the results of their experiments. In short, Zoey’s Room allows young
women to “geek out” on their love for girlhood and STEM projects.
Zoey’s Room’s blend of the social aspects with a positive learning en-
vironment has demonstrated that access to a participatory culture func-
tions as a new form of the hidden curriculum. In a sampling of 100 Zoey’s
Room members in 2007, 46 percent participated via an after-school club
and 54 percent participated on their own at home—showing that school
is just one of the nodes in these students’ learning eco-system. When
these 100 girls answered very specific science, technology, engineering,
and math questions we put to them in the survey, the majority of girls
got 12 out of 13 of the answers right—proving that they actually learned
terms, concepts, and principles of certain STEM topics by doing the
various activities in the program.
Exploring New Media Literacies
My work on Zoey’s Room was an ideal segue to applying practice to
Project NML’s research into how a participatory culture facilitates learn-
ing in the 21st century. Outside their classrooms, which largely still
follow a top-down model of teachers dispensing knowledge, today’s chil-
dren learn by searching and gathering clusters of information as they
move seamlessly between their physical and virtual spaces. Knowledge
is acquired through multiple new tools and processes as kids accrue
information that is visual, aural, musical, interactive, abstract, and con-
crete and then remix it into their own storehouse of knowledge. De-
scribing how learning and pedagogy must change in this new cultural
and multimedia context, the think tank New London Group argues that
“literacy pedagogy now must account for the burgeoning variety of text
forms associated with information and multimedia technologies.”
A C a b l e i n t h e C l a s s r o o m P u b l i c a t i o n T h r e s h o l d S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 • 9 •
New Literacies,
New Skills
Literacy in the traditional sense has been a one-way
street. A writer creates what a reader consumes. But
with the explosion of new forms of digital media and
the growth of participatory culture, the notion of liter-
acy has evolved from individual expression to com-
munity involvement. Most of the new literacies involve
social skills developed through collaboration and
networking and build on the foundation of traditional
literacy, research skills, technical skills, and critical-
analysis skills taught in the classroom. These new
skills include:
PLAY—the capacity to experiment with one’s
surroundings as a form of problem solving.
PERFORMANCE—the ability to adopt alternative iden-
tities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery.
SIMULATION—the ability to interpret and construct
dynamic models of real-world processes.
APPROPRIATION—the ability to meaningfully sample
and remix media content.
MULTITASKING—the ability to scan one’s environment
and shift focus as needed to salient details.
DISTRIBUTED COGNITION—the ability to interact mean-
ingfully with tools that expand mental capacities.
COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE—the ability to pool
knowledge and compare notes with others toward
a common goal.
JUDGMENT—the ability to evaluate the reliability and
credibility of different information sources.
TRANSMEDIA NAVIGATION—the ability to follow the
flow of stories and information across multiple
modalities.
NETWORKING—the ability to search for, synthesize,
and disseminate information.
NEGOTIATION—the ability to travel across diverse
communities, discerning and respecting multiple
perspectives and grasping and following alternative
norms.
VISUALIZATION—the ability to interpret and create
data representations for the purposes of expressing
ideas, finding patterns, and identifying trends.
— from Confronting the Challenges of Participatory
Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century, by
Henry Jenkins, with Ravi Purushotma, Katherine Clinton,
Margaret Weigel, and Alice J. Robison
TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 9
• 1 0 • S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 T h r e s h o l d w w w . c i c o n l i n e . o r g / t h r e s h o l d
Indeed, they describe how “the proliferation of communications
channels and media supports” sets up a need for “creating the
learning conditions for full social participation.”
The media-literacy movement has effectively taken the lead
among educators in this regard by teaching students to analyze
the media they consume and to see themselves as both consumers
and producers of media. However, even this learning often is
relegated to electives or to after-school programs rather than
being integrated across curricula. The new media literacies
allow us to think in very different ways about the processes of
learning, because they acknowledge a shift from the top-down
model to one that invokes all voices and all means of thinking
and creating to build new knowledge. For many educators, how-
ever, this raises issues of maintaining control, building trust,
and providing an open-source culture of learning that allows
students to share their own expertise in the classroom. At the
same time, the mindsets and skill sets of the new media litera-
cies are changing the discipline itself. In effect, we are teach-
ing an outdated version of literacy if we do not address the sorts
of practices that new media and new technologies support.
Invitation to Participate
Integrating the new media literacies into learning echoes the
concept of syndesis presented by social anthropologist Robert
Plant Armstrong in “What’s Red, White, and Blue and Syn-
detic?” (1982). Syndesis is a process that strings together self-
contained moments or increments of what Armstrong calls
“presence” to form a whole. Syndesis has important applications
to today’s learning environment because it ensures that educa-
tors and students contribute to the body of knowledge being
formed by the group. The end result is an environment that
shares information in multiple formats that become similar only
when the group pulls them together.
One major approach to the new learning paradigm at
Project NML is the Learning Library, a new type of learning
environment that embraces the characteristics of syndesis and
participatory culture. The Learning Library is an activities-
based model that aggregates media from the Web—such as a
video, image, or audio file—and provides tools for users to in-
tegrate that media into a learning objective. Educators are en-
couraged to load their own media or draw on media by others
that already exist in the Library to shape new learning challenges
and to collaboratively build and share new collections based on
particular themes.These challenges range from playing a physics
game designed to experiment with problem-solving, to devel-
oping collaborative ways to bring innovation into the classroom,
to learning about attribution while exploring issues involving
copyright, public domain, fair use, and Creative Commons.
Project NML has seeded the Learning Library with its first
collection of 30 learning “challenges” so that users can explore
and practice applying the new media literacies to their class-
room activities. One example from our first collection of
challenges, called Expressing Characters, uses the new media
literacy of transmedia navigation. In this activity, a student learns
how plot can be extended across media by following the
adventures of Claire Bennet, a character from the TV show
Heroes. After exploring how Claire is already portrayed on tel-
evision, in a graphic novel, and on MySpace, learners practice
transmedia navigation by adapting and extending one of their
own favorite characters into media forms in which the charac-
ter does not currently exist. Bringing their own experiences to
this challenge, students then load their creations into the Li-
brary, where they can be viewed and remixed into a different
learning objective by others. By exploring and practicing the
new media literacy skill of transmedia navigation, students
learn to make meanings across different media types—not just
in relation to print text. In this way, these new modes of com-
munication are highlighting the need to teach new ways of ex-
pression and new methods of understanding the digital world.
Conclusion
A prime goal of Project NML is to understand what happens
when multiple forms of media are fully integrated into processes
of learning.The new media literacies build upon existing print
A Novel Approach
I used transmedia storytelling with students enrolled in an
undergraduate children’s literature class at the University of
South Florida, College of Education. While the students read
the popular vampire saga Twilight for novel study, I introduced
the concept of transmedia navigation by discussing how stories
and characters can have a presence or different meanings
across a variety of media platforms. In class, the students
searched for their own transmedia connections to characters
from Twilight. The following week, they explored audio and
video connections. Finally, they wrote a summary of how
transmedia navigation helped or hindered their aesthetic expe-
riences with Twilight. (Check out the Expressing Characters chal-
lenge at www.newmedialiteracies.org/library.)
LESSONS LEARNED: I have taught the children’s literature
class three previous semesters, and never before have I experi-
enced such excitement about an assigned reading. Transmedia
navigation enhanced the in-class discussions of the text. I
learned the power of transmedia for enhancing aesthetic text
response. The students enjoyed sharing websites and experi-
encing the book through multiple modalities. Many students
commented on the power of the audio in enhancing their aes-
thetic connection to the story. Other students discussed the
effects of video on their enjoyment. Many students commented
on the value of comparing and contrasting the book and the
movie version. Some students thought the inclusion of the
movie enhanced their enjoyment of the text, especially those
who did not enjoy reading.
Most importantly, these pre-service teachers experienced the
power of transmedia navigation. Most of them are planning to
use this strategy in their teaching internships and when they
graduate and have their own classrooms.
Deborah Kozdras
University of South Florida, College of Education,
Childhood Education and Literacy Studies
Tampa, FL
TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 10
A C a b l e i n t h e C l a s s r o o m P u b l i c a t i o n T h r e s h o l d S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 • 11 •
literacy practices, making possible new literacy practices where,
according to the New London Group, “the textual is also re-
lated to the visual, the audio, the spatial, the behavioral, and
so on.” And these practices offer new resources and pathways
for learning the disciplines.
Our students are already appropriating information from the
Web and turning it into new knowledge. They are already
learning from each other and participating in the learning of
their peers. They already connect, create, collaborate, and
circulate information through new media. The goal for us, as
educators, is to find new ways to harness and leverage their in-
terests and social competencies to establish a participatory
learning environment. Teachers and administrators must learn
to leverage this new learning paradigm to engage our students,
and we encourage you to use the Learning Library and see if it
works for your context. •••
Erin Reilly is a recognized expert in the design and development
of educational content powered by virtual learning and new-
media applications. As research director of MIT’s Project New Media
Literacies, Reilly helps conceptualize the vision of the program and
develop a strategy for its implementation. Before joining MIT,
Reilly co-created Zoey’s Room, a national online community for 10-
to 14-year-old girls, encouraging their creativity through science,
technology, engineering, and math. In 2007, Reilly received a
Cable’s Leaders in Learning Award for her innovative approach
to learning and was selected as one of the National School Boards
Association’s “20 to Watch” educators.
R E S O U R C E S
Armstrong, Robert Plant. “What’s Red, White, and
Blue and Syndetic?” Journal of American Folklore, 1982.
www.afsnet.org/publications/jaf.cfm
Building the Field of Digital Media and Learning.
MacArthur Foundation. digitallearning.macfound.org
Jenkins, Henry et al. “Confronting the Challenges
of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the
21st Century.” MacArthur Foundation, October
2006. digitallearning.macfound.org
LiveJournal. www.livejournal.com
The New London Group. “A Pedagogy of Multilit-
eracies: Designing Social Futures.” In Multiliteracies:
Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures, ed-
ited by Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis. Routledge,
November 1999.
Pew Internet & American Life Project.
www.pewinternet.org
Zoey’s Room. www.zoeysroom.com
Teaching and Learning
My mom has taught high school and college English for 40
years. When I introduced her to the Learning Library, she
immediately saw how it could be used to introduce students to
literary terms through examples from other media. I encour-
aged her to build a Learning Library challenge so I could
observe what strategies helped her adapt her expertise to this
new way of thinking.
In her first try, she focused on alliteration and assonance in
poetry and I realized she was thinking of media as a con-
sumer product that she could use to supplement her objective.
She did not understand that the media examples in the
Learning Library are meant to help her create pathways to
new meaning.
Contrary to the concept of syndetic thinking, she wanted the
students to come to one answer through her examples. She
needed to add a way for the students to practice the skills of
alliteration and assonance and to find multiple answers. She
needed to leave the result more open so that the students
could adapt her content to their own contexts.
When she tried again, my mom chose multiple examples for
students to learn alliteration and assonance. This addition
opened the lesson beyond a one-answer solution and provid-
ed a springboard for them to think of alliteration and asso-
nance in broader contexts.
She also changed the end of the lesson by encouraging stu-
dents to create and share their own media elements for poems
they created using alliteration and assonance. She also provid-
ed a space for discussion, so that the students could reflect on
and share their poems or songs with each other. The final
result was a collaborative learning experience of alliteration
and assonance that wasn’t tied to a specific response.
As my mom discovered, the Learning Library allows students
who are challenged by a particular learning concept or objec-
tive to use media from the Web—such as images, video, audio
files, websites, text, or games—to authenticate their own expe-
riences, strengthen their knowledge, and create and share
their challenges with their peers in the learning community. For
educators, the Learning Library stores and provides challenges
that serve as springboards for remixing information and
applying it to their own ideas and teaching objectives. For all
participants, the Learning Library provides a venue to explore
and practice the new media.
My mom used the Learning Library to make connections
among different media in a new context. Through the experi-
ment, she saw the potential of separate and seemingly differ-
ent media to be joined in a new way. Each entity reverberates
with its own meaning, but when the entities are juxtaposed
with one another, they create new meaning. Her example,
along with students’ participation in creating new media ele-
ments—now housed as a learning concept in the Learning
Library—introduces a reiterative process that can spark a learn-
ing objective around which others can build a new challenge.
To learn more, click on Poetry as Experience in the Learning
Library at www.newmedialiteracies.org/library.
—Erin Reilly
TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 11

More Related Content

What's hot

Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24
Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24
Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24The Wolfsonian-FIU
 
Play doc 01
Play doc 01Play doc 01
Play doc 01amandafo
 
Future of Learning - Lecture 11
Future of Learning - Lecture 11Future of Learning - Lecture 11
Future of Learning - Lecture 11James Stanfield
 
Critical Essay
Critical EssayCritical Essay
Critical Essay晓星 樊
 
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...Judy O'Connell
 
Game-based learning and academic integrity
Game-based learning and academic integrityGame-based learning and academic integrity
Game-based learning and academic integrityJudy O'Connell
 
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional Development
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional DevelopmentDesigning with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional Development
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional DevelopmentErin Brockette Reilly
 
Play doc 02
Play doc 02Play doc 02
Play doc 02amandafo
 
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationiCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationErin Reilly
 
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...Joan E. Hughes, Ph.D.
 
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital Fluency
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital FluencyRethinking Learning in the Age of Digital Fluency
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital FluencyJudy O'Connell
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Jcd
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 JcdEngaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Jcd
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 JcdJennifer Dorman
 

What's hot (20)

Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24
Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24
Reimagining the museum convening final report 3.24
 
Play doc 01
Play doc 01Play doc 01
Play doc 01
 
Future of Learning - Lecture 11
Future of Learning - Lecture 11Future of Learning - Lecture 11
Future of Learning - Lecture 11
 
Critical Essay
Critical EssayCritical Essay
Critical Essay
 
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...
Building a Vibrant Future for School Librarians through Online Conversations ...
 
Technology and the Human Connection
Technology and the Human ConnectionTechnology and the Human Connection
Technology and the Human Connection
 
Game-based learning and academic integrity
Game-based learning and academic integrityGame-based learning and academic integrity
Game-based learning and academic integrity
 
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional Development
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional DevelopmentDesigning with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional Development
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Models of Professional Development
 
Connectededc catc
Connectededc catcConnectededc catc
Connectededc catc
 
Rfk la keynote
Rfk la keynoteRfk la keynote
Rfk la keynote
 
Passion based wiu21
Passion based wiu21Passion based wiu21
Passion based wiu21
 
Play doc 02
Play doc 02Play doc 02
Play doc 02
 
Keepingup hra2012
Keepingup hra2012Keepingup hra2012
Keepingup hra2012
 
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationiCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
 
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...
UGS 302 Syllabus: The role of technology among youth in society and education...
 
Tri-West Teachers Assoc
Tri-West Teachers AssocTri-West Teachers Assoc
Tri-West Teachers Assoc
 
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital Fluency
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital FluencyRethinking Learning in the Age of Digital Fluency
Rethinking Learning in the Age of Digital Fluency
 
Ce nais 13
Ce nais 13Ce nais 13
Ce nais 13
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Jcd
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 JcdEngaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Jcd
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Jcd
 
New directions
New directionsNew directions
New directions
 

Viewers also liked

Visualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyVisualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyErin Brockette Reilly
 
Art as Experience, rather than Appreciation
Art as Experience, rather than AppreciationArt as Experience, rather than Appreciation
Art as Experience, rather than AppreciationErin Brockette Reilly
 
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningChildrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningErin Brockette Reilly
 
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationiCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationErin Brockette Reilly
 
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608Erin Brockette Reilly
 
NASBE - Youth, Media and Relationships
NASBE - Youth, Media and RelationshipsNASBE - Youth, Media and Relationships
NASBE - Youth, Media and RelationshipsErin Brockette Reilly
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Visualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyVisualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media Literacy
 
Future of ebooks in the Classroom
Future of ebooks in the ClassroomFuture of ebooks in the Classroom
Future of ebooks in the Classroom
 
Art as Experience, rather than Appreciation
Art as Experience, rather than AppreciationArt as Experience, rather than Appreciation
Art as Experience, rather than Appreciation
 
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningChildrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens Museums: Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
 
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly PresentationiCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
iCeltic 61908 Erin Reilly Presentation
 
PLAY Minecraft!
PLAY Minecraft!PLAY Minecraft!
PLAY Minecraft!
 
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608
Journalism & the New Media Literacies 101608
 
NASBE - Youth, Media and Relationships
NASBE - Youth, Media and RelationshipsNASBE - Youth, Media and Relationships
NASBE - Youth, Media and Relationships
 

Similar to What is Learning in a Participatory Culture?

Mit digital media and learning participatory performance culture jenkins whi...
Mit digital media and learning  participatory performance culture jenkins whi...Mit digital media and learning  participatory performance culture jenkins whi...
Mit digital media and learning participatory performance culture jenkins whi...Friedel Jonker
 
Workshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedWorkshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedEmeliluz
 
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century Learning
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century LearningYouth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century Learning
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century LearningNettrice Gaskins, Ph.D.
 
Workshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedWorkshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedEmeliluz
 
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth Project
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth ProjectLiving and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth Project
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth ProjectGenaro Bardy
 
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social Studies
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social StudiesBMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social Studies
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social StudiesJennifer Dorman
 
Unit 1 cape sociology
Unit 1 cape sociologyUnit 1 cape sociology
Unit 1 cape sociologyAndreen18
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&C
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&CEngaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&C
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&CJennifer Dorman
 
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy Education
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy EducationThe Future of Digital and Media Literacy Education
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy EducationRenee Hobbs
 
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...Erin Brockette Reilly
 
Information literacy in a media-saturated world
Information literacy in a media-saturated worldInformation literacy in a media-saturated world
Information literacy in a media-saturated worldPam Wilson
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling Jennifer Dorman
 

Similar to What is Learning in a Participatory Culture? (20)

Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?
 
CM258 - Class 3
CM258 - Class 3CM258 - Class 3
CM258 - Class 3
 
Mit digital media and learning participatory performance culture jenkins whi...
Mit digital media and learning  participatory performance culture jenkins whi...Mit digital media and learning  participatory performance culture jenkins whi...
Mit digital media and learning participatory performance culture jenkins whi...
 
Workshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedWorkshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revised
 
Passionbased Oce Avalon
Passionbased Oce AvalonPassionbased Oce Avalon
Passionbased Oce Avalon
 
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century Learning
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century LearningYouth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century Learning
Youth Access: A New Approach to 21st Century Learning
 
Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?
 
Workshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revisedWorkshop spring 2010-revised
Workshop spring 2010-revised
 
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth Project
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth ProjectLiving and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth Project
Living and Learning with New Media - Digital Youth Project
 
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social Studies
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social StudiesBMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social Studies
BMCSS Engaging Digital Natives in the Study of Social Studies
 
Unit 1 cape sociology
Unit 1 cape sociologyUnit 1 cape sociology
Unit 1 cape sociology
 
Parentsggs
ParentsggsParentsggs
Parentsggs
 
Shifts In Learning
Shifts In LearningShifts In Learning
Shifts In Learning
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&C
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&CEngaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&C
Engaging Digital Natives With Web 2.0 Pete&C
 
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy Education
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy EducationThe Future of Digital and Media Literacy Education
The Future of Digital and Media Literacy Education
 
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...
Extending media literacy: How young people re-mix and transform media to serv...
 
Pulp Fiction
Pulp FictionPulp Fiction
Pulp Fiction
 
Information literacy in a media-saturated world
Information literacy in a media-saturated worldInformation literacy in a media-saturated world
Information literacy in a media-saturated world
 
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling
Engaging Digital Natives With Digital Storytelling
 
Passionbased Main Education08
Passionbased Main Education08Passionbased Main Education08
Passionbased Main Education08
 

More from Erin Brockette Reilly

Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) Study
Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) StudyLeveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) Study
Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) StudyErin Brockette Reilly
 
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningChildrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningErin Brockette Reilly
 
Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningTangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningErin Brockette Reilly
 
Visualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyVisualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyErin Brockette Reilly
 
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual Thinking
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual ThinkingBecoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual Thinking
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual ThinkingErin Brockette Reilly
 
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!Erin Brockette Reilly
 
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...Erin Brockette Reilly
 
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooks
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooksCooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooks
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooksErin Brockette Reilly
 
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your Students
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your StudentsBest Teaching Practices to Engage Your Students
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your StudentsErin Brockette Reilly
 

More from Erin Brockette Reilly (20)

Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) Study
Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) StudyLeveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) Study
Leveraging Engagement: Global Football (Soccer) Study
 
Playing with the Future
Playing with the FuturePlaying with the Future
Playing with the Future
 
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningChildrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Childrens' Museums Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
 
Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Tangible Storytelling + Play + LearningTangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
Tangible Storytelling + Play + Learning
 
Connecting Man and the Machine
Connecting Man and the MachineConnecting Man and the Machine
Connecting Man and the Machine
 
Connecting Man and the Machine
Connecting Man and the MachineConnecting Man and the Machine
Connecting Man and the Machine
 
Visualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media LiteracyVisualization as a New Media Literacy
Visualization as a New Media Literacy
 
Transmedia PLAY Experiments
Transmedia PLAY ExperimentsTransmedia PLAY Experiments
Transmedia PLAY Experiments
 
Shaping Our Shadow
Shaping Our ShadowShaping Our Shadow
Shaping Our Shadow
 
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual Thinking
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual ThinkingBecoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual Thinking
Becoming Transmedia Architects Through Play and Visual Thinking
 
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!
PLAY: Participatory Learning And You!
 
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...
Designing with Teachers: Participatory Approaches to Professional Development...
 
Why are you an artist?
Why are you an artist?Why are you an artist?
Why are you an artist?
 
Remix Culture 4 Learning
Remix Culture 4 LearningRemix Culture 4 Learning
Remix Culture 4 Learning
 
NECC 2009 Afterschool Programs
NECC 2009 Afterschool ProgramsNECC 2009 Afterschool Programs
NECC 2009 Afterschool Programs
 
Mad Skills - Global Kids Case Study
Mad Skills - Global Kids Case StudyMad Skills - Global Kids Case Study
Mad Skills - Global Kids Case Study
 
LL Media Maker Collection
LL Media Maker CollectionLL Media Maker Collection
LL Media Maker Collection
 
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooks
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooksCooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooks
Cooney Leadership Forum - Future of eBooks
 
Shaping our Shadow
Shaping our ShadowShaping our Shadow
Shaping our Shadow
 
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your Students
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your StudentsBest Teaching Practices to Engage Your Students
Best Teaching Practices to Engage Your Students
 

Recently uploaded

MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataBabyAnnMotar
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 

What is Learning in a Participatory Culture?

  • 1. • 8 • S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 T h r e s h o l d w w w . c i c o n l i n e . o r g / t h r e s h o l d What is Learning in a Participatory Culture? Educators are learning how to engage today’s digital kids to share and distribute knowledge within learning communities. TIn the white paper “Confronting the Challenges of Partic- ipatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century,” the Project New Media Literacies (Project NML) team at the Mass- achusetts Institute ofTechnology addressed the need to engage learners in today’s participatory culture. Young people are ac- tively creating and circulating media content within social net- works that extend from their circle of friends to those in the virtual world community. How- ever, the team believes that young people also must learn to reflect upon their new media creations in ways that encour- age the important learning skills of teamwork, leadership, prob- lem solving, collaboration, communication, and creativity. Our education system also is in the midst of this paradigm shift, where new methods, environments, and assessment mod- els need to be acquired to keep pace with our increasingly net- worked culture. As the conversation about the digital divide shifts from questions of technological access to ones concerning par- ticipation, educators must work to ensure that every young per- son has access to the tools, skills, and experiences needed to join in this new participatory culture. Educators also have a chance to give students the cultural competencies and social skills they need in their future roles as 21st-century citizens and workers. Formal schools have been slow to react to the emergence of the participatory culture, however, due to an exaggerated in- terpretation of the perils of social media and to a lack of understanding of the promises and affordances of a networked society. In their stead, after-school programs and informal- learning communities are stepping in with programs and ac- tivities that demonstrate the learning potentials of participa- tory culture accelerated through social media. To help educa- tors and learners become more proficient in adapting to today’s rich media landscape, the white paper identified 11 social skills that we all must acquire if we are to be active participants in our own life-long learning. And since then, Project NML has expanded the original list to also include the skill of visualization (see page 9). These social skills and cultural competencies—the new media literacies—shift the focus of traditional literacy, for example, from individual ex- pression to also encompass community involvement. The new media literacies then can be understood as offering ways of think- ing (mindsets—for example, “collective intelligence”) and ways of doing (skill sets—for example, “transmedia navigation”) that recruit the traditional literacies of reading and writing into new kinds of literacy practices. Learning in Zoey’s Room The Digital Youth Project, a grantee of the MacArthur Foun- dation’s Digital Media and Learning Initiative, recently com- pleted a three-year study of the learning and innovation that accompany young people’s everyday engagements with new media.The goal of the study was to understand the ways youth use new media, focusing on how they play, communicate, and create, and how these interactions affect their friendships as well as their aspirations, interests, and passions. In its final report, BY ERIN REILLY TODAY, WE HAVE ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES FOR TAKING MEDIA INTO OUR OWN HANDS TO CONNECT WITH others in meaningful ways. We have new ways of working together to develop knowledge, and new ways to use media to shape how we present ourselves to others and learn from them. To connect and collaborate with each other to produce and circulate information in this new participatory culture, we have developed new tools such as game engines and new institutions such as YouTube and Facebook. Outside the classroom, children learn by gathering clusters of information as they move seamlessly between their physical and virtual spaces. TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:58 PM Page 8
  • 2. the project team, led by anthropologist Mimi Ito, explained that chil- dren use digital tools and broadband media to “hang out” with friends, “mess around” with programs, and “geek out” as they dig deeper into subjects they love, from rock stars to rocket science. Beyond what they are learning in school, they are connecting socially and are being influ- enced by each other’s knowledge. These informal mentors have effec- tively taken their place among the many sources influencing children’s processes of knowledg-building and identity-forming. I began to understand this new way of learning in 2001 when I co- created an online community for middle school girls called Zoey’s Room. Armed with the knowledge that 93 percent of tweens and teens are using the Internet and that girls are the power users of social- networking sites such as MySpace andYouTube, we launched Zoey’s Room as an interactive technology club for girls in Maine.The project quickly expanded into a national mentoring community that creatively engages girls in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) activities through peer-to-peer learning and mentoring by female employees at companies such as National Semiconductor and Microsoft who volun- teer their STEM expertise. Today, Zoey’s Room is a social network and blended learning envi- ronment in which teens learn STEM subjects via online interaction and through offline practical applications of science and math challenges in after-school programs run by organizations like the YWCA. The col- laborative environment allows girls to feel safe to explore and tinker, fail and try again, and rely on a group of peers and mentors who will circulate STEM material, support their learning, and build ongoing re- lationships. Learning occurs as girls move between the online commu- nity and their extended community of peers and mentors, who validate the results of their experiments. In short, Zoey’s Room allows young women to “geek out” on their love for girlhood and STEM projects. Zoey’s Room’s blend of the social aspects with a positive learning en- vironment has demonstrated that access to a participatory culture func- tions as a new form of the hidden curriculum. In a sampling of 100 Zoey’s Room members in 2007, 46 percent participated via an after-school club and 54 percent participated on their own at home—showing that school is just one of the nodes in these students’ learning eco-system. When these 100 girls answered very specific science, technology, engineering, and math questions we put to them in the survey, the majority of girls got 12 out of 13 of the answers right—proving that they actually learned terms, concepts, and principles of certain STEM topics by doing the various activities in the program. Exploring New Media Literacies My work on Zoey’s Room was an ideal segue to applying practice to Project NML’s research into how a participatory culture facilitates learn- ing in the 21st century. Outside their classrooms, which largely still follow a top-down model of teachers dispensing knowledge, today’s chil- dren learn by searching and gathering clusters of information as they move seamlessly between their physical and virtual spaces. Knowledge is acquired through multiple new tools and processes as kids accrue information that is visual, aural, musical, interactive, abstract, and con- crete and then remix it into their own storehouse of knowledge. De- scribing how learning and pedagogy must change in this new cultural and multimedia context, the think tank New London Group argues that “literacy pedagogy now must account for the burgeoning variety of text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies.” A C a b l e i n t h e C l a s s r o o m P u b l i c a t i o n T h r e s h o l d S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 • 9 • New Literacies, New Skills Literacy in the traditional sense has been a one-way street. A writer creates what a reader consumes. But with the explosion of new forms of digital media and the growth of participatory culture, the notion of liter- acy has evolved from individual expression to com- munity involvement. Most of the new literacies involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking and build on the foundation of traditional literacy, research skills, technical skills, and critical- analysis skills taught in the classroom. These new skills include: PLAY—the capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem solving. PERFORMANCE—the ability to adopt alternative iden- tities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery. SIMULATION—the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes. APPROPRIATION—the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content. MULTITASKING—the ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details. DISTRIBUTED COGNITION—the ability to interact mean- ingfully with tools that expand mental capacities. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE—the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal. JUDGMENT—the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources. TRANSMEDIA NAVIGATION—the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities. NETWORKING—the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information. NEGOTIATION—the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives and grasping and following alternative norms. VISUALIZATION—the ability to interpret and create data representations for the purposes of expressing ideas, finding patterns, and identifying trends. — from Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century, by Henry Jenkins, with Ravi Purushotma, Katherine Clinton, Margaret Weigel, and Alice J. Robison TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 9
  • 3. • 1 0 • S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 T h r e s h o l d w w w . c i c o n l i n e . o r g / t h r e s h o l d Indeed, they describe how “the proliferation of communications channels and media supports” sets up a need for “creating the learning conditions for full social participation.” The media-literacy movement has effectively taken the lead among educators in this regard by teaching students to analyze the media they consume and to see themselves as both consumers and producers of media. However, even this learning often is relegated to electives or to after-school programs rather than being integrated across curricula. The new media literacies allow us to think in very different ways about the processes of learning, because they acknowledge a shift from the top-down model to one that invokes all voices and all means of thinking and creating to build new knowledge. For many educators, how- ever, this raises issues of maintaining control, building trust, and providing an open-source culture of learning that allows students to share their own expertise in the classroom. At the same time, the mindsets and skill sets of the new media litera- cies are changing the discipline itself. In effect, we are teach- ing an outdated version of literacy if we do not address the sorts of practices that new media and new technologies support. Invitation to Participate Integrating the new media literacies into learning echoes the concept of syndesis presented by social anthropologist Robert Plant Armstrong in “What’s Red, White, and Blue and Syn- detic?” (1982). Syndesis is a process that strings together self- contained moments or increments of what Armstrong calls “presence” to form a whole. Syndesis has important applications to today’s learning environment because it ensures that educa- tors and students contribute to the body of knowledge being formed by the group. The end result is an environment that shares information in multiple formats that become similar only when the group pulls them together. One major approach to the new learning paradigm at Project NML is the Learning Library, a new type of learning environment that embraces the characteristics of syndesis and participatory culture. The Learning Library is an activities- based model that aggregates media from the Web—such as a video, image, or audio file—and provides tools for users to in- tegrate that media into a learning objective. Educators are en- couraged to load their own media or draw on media by others that already exist in the Library to shape new learning challenges and to collaboratively build and share new collections based on particular themes.These challenges range from playing a physics game designed to experiment with problem-solving, to devel- oping collaborative ways to bring innovation into the classroom, to learning about attribution while exploring issues involving copyright, public domain, fair use, and Creative Commons. Project NML has seeded the Learning Library with its first collection of 30 learning “challenges” so that users can explore and practice applying the new media literacies to their class- room activities. One example from our first collection of challenges, called Expressing Characters, uses the new media literacy of transmedia navigation. In this activity, a student learns how plot can be extended across media by following the adventures of Claire Bennet, a character from the TV show Heroes. After exploring how Claire is already portrayed on tel- evision, in a graphic novel, and on MySpace, learners practice transmedia navigation by adapting and extending one of their own favorite characters into media forms in which the charac- ter does not currently exist. Bringing their own experiences to this challenge, students then load their creations into the Li- brary, where they can be viewed and remixed into a different learning objective by others. By exploring and practicing the new media literacy skill of transmedia navigation, students learn to make meanings across different media types—not just in relation to print text. In this way, these new modes of com- munication are highlighting the need to teach new ways of ex- pression and new methods of understanding the digital world. Conclusion A prime goal of Project NML is to understand what happens when multiple forms of media are fully integrated into processes of learning.The new media literacies build upon existing print A Novel Approach I used transmedia storytelling with students enrolled in an undergraduate children’s literature class at the University of South Florida, College of Education. While the students read the popular vampire saga Twilight for novel study, I introduced the concept of transmedia navigation by discussing how stories and characters can have a presence or different meanings across a variety of media platforms. In class, the students searched for their own transmedia connections to characters from Twilight. The following week, they explored audio and video connections. Finally, they wrote a summary of how transmedia navigation helped or hindered their aesthetic expe- riences with Twilight. (Check out the Expressing Characters chal- lenge at www.newmedialiteracies.org/library.) LESSONS LEARNED: I have taught the children’s literature class three previous semesters, and never before have I experi- enced such excitement about an assigned reading. Transmedia navigation enhanced the in-class discussions of the text. I learned the power of transmedia for enhancing aesthetic text response. The students enjoyed sharing websites and experi- encing the book through multiple modalities. Many students commented on the power of the audio in enhancing their aes- thetic connection to the story. Other students discussed the effects of video on their enjoyment. Many students commented on the value of comparing and contrasting the book and the movie version. Some students thought the inclusion of the movie enhanced their enjoyment of the text, especially those who did not enjoy reading. Most importantly, these pre-service teachers experienced the power of transmedia navigation. Most of them are planning to use this strategy in their teaching internships and when they graduate and have their own classrooms. Deborah Kozdras University of South Florida, College of Education, Childhood Education and Literacy Studies Tampa, FL TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 10
  • 4. A C a b l e i n t h e C l a s s r o o m P u b l i c a t i o n T h r e s h o l d S p r i n g 2 0 0 9 • 11 • literacy practices, making possible new literacy practices where, according to the New London Group, “the textual is also re- lated to the visual, the audio, the spatial, the behavioral, and so on.” And these practices offer new resources and pathways for learning the disciplines. Our students are already appropriating information from the Web and turning it into new knowledge. They are already learning from each other and participating in the learning of their peers. They already connect, create, collaborate, and circulate information through new media. The goal for us, as educators, is to find new ways to harness and leverage their in- terests and social competencies to establish a participatory learning environment. Teachers and administrators must learn to leverage this new learning paradigm to engage our students, and we encourage you to use the Learning Library and see if it works for your context. ••• Erin Reilly is a recognized expert in the design and development of educational content powered by virtual learning and new- media applications. As research director of MIT’s Project New Media Literacies, Reilly helps conceptualize the vision of the program and develop a strategy for its implementation. Before joining MIT, Reilly co-created Zoey’s Room, a national online community for 10- to 14-year-old girls, encouraging their creativity through science, technology, engineering, and math. In 2007, Reilly received a Cable’s Leaders in Learning Award for her innovative approach to learning and was selected as one of the National School Boards Association’s “20 to Watch” educators. R E S O U R C E S Armstrong, Robert Plant. “What’s Red, White, and Blue and Syndetic?” Journal of American Folklore, 1982. www.afsnet.org/publications/jaf.cfm Building the Field of Digital Media and Learning. MacArthur Foundation. digitallearning.macfound.org Jenkins, Henry et al. “Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century.” MacArthur Foundation, October 2006. digitallearning.macfound.org LiveJournal. www.livejournal.com The New London Group. “A Pedagogy of Multilit- eracies: Designing Social Futures.” In Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures, ed- ited by Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis. Routledge, November 1999. Pew Internet & American Life Project. www.pewinternet.org Zoey’s Room. www.zoeysroom.com Teaching and Learning My mom has taught high school and college English for 40 years. When I introduced her to the Learning Library, she immediately saw how it could be used to introduce students to literary terms through examples from other media. I encour- aged her to build a Learning Library challenge so I could observe what strategies helped her adapt her expertise to this new way of thinking. In her first try, she focused on alliteration and assonance in poetry and I realized she was thinking of media as a con- sumer product that she could use to supplement her objective. She did not understand that the media examples in the Learning Library are meant to help her create pathways to new meaning. Contrary to the concept of syndetic thinking, she wanted the students to come to one answer through her examples. She needed to add a way for the students to practice the skills of alliteration and assonance and to find multiple answers. She needed to leave the result more open so that the students could adapt her content to their own contexts. When she tried again, my mom chose multiple examples for students to learn alliteration and assonance. This addition opened the lesson beyond a one-answer solution and provid- ed a springboard for them to think of alliteration and asso- nance in broader contexts. She also changed the end of the lesson by encouraging stu- dents to create and share their own media elements for poems they created using alliteration and assonance. She also provid- ed a space for discussion, so that the students could reflect on and share their poems or songs with each other. The final result was a collaborative learning experience of alliteration and assonance that wasn’t tied to a specific response. As my mom discovered, the Learning Library allows students who are challenged by a particular learning concept or objec- tive to use media from the Web—such as images, video, audio files, websites, text, or games—to authenticate their own expe- riences, strengthen their knowledge, and create and share their challenges with their peers in the learning community. For educators, the Learning Library stores and provides challenges that serve as springboards for remixing information and applying it to their own ideas and teaching objectives. For all participants, the Learning Library provides a venue to explore and practice the new media. My mom used the Learning Library to make connections among different media in a new context. Through the experi- ment, she saw the potential of separate and seemingly differ- ent media to be joined in a new way. Each entity reverberates with its own meaning, but when the entities are juxtaposed with one another, they create new meaning. Her example, along with students’ participation in creating new media ele- ments—now housed as a learning concept in the Learning Library—introduces a reiterative process that can spark a learn- ing objective around which others can build a new challenge. To learn more, click on Poetry as Experience in the Learning Library at www.newmedialiteracies.org/library. —Erin Reilly TH_Spr09-WhatLearning_Reilly-v7 4/9/09 6:59 PM Page 11