Introduction to Statistics

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Ignite! style slides for Chapter 01 of introductory statistics text

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Introduction to Statistics

  1. 1. What is Statistics All About, Anyway?<br />Chapter 1: <br />Terminology, Methods, Math<br />
  2. 2. STATISTICS?<br />
  3. 3. Statistics<br />
  4. 4. Who do we study? Samples!Who are we interested in? Population!<br />
  5. 5. Who do we study? Samples!Who are we interested in? Population!<br />Parameter = characteristic of the population<br />Statistic = Measured on the sample <br />
  6. 6. What do we measure? Variables!<br />Trait or characteristic <br />Possibility of more than one value: it varies<br />Values = the possible outcomes of variable<br />Measured for each case (individual) in sample<br />Usually many variables are measured<br />
  7. 7. MEASUREMENT<br />Major focus in Research Methods classes. All research is only as good as its measurement<br />
  8. 8. Measurement<br />Interested in abstract concepts = constructs<br />Love, happiness, success, effectiveness<br />Depression, risk, poverty, hatred, alienation<br />Birth rate, foreclosure rate<br />Operational definition<br />What indicates the presence of love, risk, or success?<br />Exactly what procedures dowe use to measure it?<br />
  9. 9. Discrete vs Continuous Variables<br />COUNTABLE = discrete<br />FLOWING = continuous<br />
  10. 10. REAL LIMITS<br />Assign a number to location on the continuum.<br />The number is not exact (e.g., 2.4)<br />Refers to a range of values (here, 2.35 to 2.45)<br />
  11. 11. Level (Scale) of Measurement<br />Four levels<br />Nominal<br />Ordinal<br />Interval<br />Ratio<br />The statistics wechoose for eachtechnique must be chosen according to the scale of measurement of the variable<br />Need to recognize it instantly<br />
  12. 12. Research methods<br />All sciences depend on specific analytical methods.Statistics is an integral part of many methods<br />
  13. 13. Correlational Methods<br />Two variables are measured to determine the strength and direction of their relationship.<br />
  14. 14. Experimental Method<br />Measure outcomes<br />Apply treatment to onegroup,not to another<br />Statistics test whether the differences between groups could happen by random chance.<br />
  15. 15. Independent and Dependent Variables<br />Independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter <br />Dependent variable is the outcome, also called the control condition<br />Quasi-experiment = groups are not equivalent<br />
  16. 16. Math Notation & Review<br />See Appendix A for more extensive Math Review.<br />Also “Purple Math” under Stats Success<br />
  17. 17. Summation Notation<br />Omnipresent <br />Work the TUTORIALS in Aplia to gain efficiency<br />How does summation fit into the Order of Operations?<br />
  18. 18. Order of Operations<br />Parentheses<br />Exponents(powers, roots)<br />Multiplication or Division<br />SUMMATION<br />Addition or Subtraction<br />
  19. 19. Statistics as a Second Language<br />Learn terms best by using them in meaningful work<br />Practice how to apply definition, not just memorize<br />Analyze research you learn in other courses<br />
  20. 20. What is Statistics All About, Anyway?<br />Look for as many hidden instances of statistics as you can find before the next class.<br />

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