Effect of Multimedia Design Principles on Situational Interest of Adult Learners


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Prospectus defense March 08, 2012

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  • The placement of images alongside text in manuscripts dates back to the seventh century in the Book of Kells, and represents the conceptual phenomenon behind the use of images to capture interest. More than 20 years ago, newspapers originally addressed the concept of interest in order to better understand how readers perceived charts and graphs published with articles. Tankard (1988) showed that readers did not retain any more information from flashier graphics than from plain images, but findings did support that readers saw these “chartoons” (p. 91) and three-dimensional graphs as more appealing. Slough and McTigue (2010) noted that textbooks traditionally use images and illustrations sparingly and in a secondary role to conveying content. As learners who are accustomed to multimedia environments become more prevalent, the traditional method will not be able to gain or hold readers’ attention for very long. Interest is not specifically a type of motivation, but plays a significant role in influencing motivation (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008). Further, students interested in a topic may display motivated behaviors, such as choice of the activity, effort, persistence, and achievement.
  • Information Processing Theory: Sensory Memory, Working Memory, Long Term MemoryBaddeley’s Model of Working Memory: Visiospatial Sketchpad (pictorial model), Phonological Loop (verbal model), Central Executive (circle), Episodic Buffer (arrows)Dual Coding Theory: words to ears & eyes; pictures to eyesCognitive Load Theory: limitations of each system (intrinsic = demands on working memory from instructional activity; extraneous = demands from multimedia presentation; germane = demands from media selection & media organization)
  • Self-Determination Theory (SDT) posits that human motivation involves the psychological need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Deci and Ryan (1980, 1985, 1991, 2000) further proposed that types of motivation are differentiated based upon the reasons or goals that underlie the action. Intrinsic motivation refers to action based upon an inherent interest or enjoyment and comes from personal interest, curiosity, or values. Extrinsic motivation refers to doing something based upon a separable outcome, such as a reward system, grade, evaluation, or the opinions of others.Learning as a result of motivation has been attributed to interest. Schunk (2008) has noted that interest plays a significant role in influencing motivation. Further, Fairchild, Horst, Finney, and Barron (2005) found that interest in an activity is actually the result of intrinsic motivation. Students interested in a topic may display motivated behaviors, such as choice of the activity, effort, persistence, and achievement. Hidi and Renninger (2006) suggested that as a motivational variable, interest triggers the engagement of learners with particular classes of objects, events, and ideas over time. Thus, the effect of interest on motivation is amplified since interest is grounded in both the affective and cognitive abilities of learners. Hidi and Baird (1988) found that situational interest, while intrinsic in nature, is encouraged by extrinsic factors. Attempting to design materials aimed at affecting individual interest is challenging and impractical. However, improving situational interest in learning environments should be a fundamental concern (Park & Lim, 2007). One method of designing for situational interest is through vividness of text (Schraw et al., 2001), where vividness is defined as “segments that stand out because they create suspense, surprise, or are otherwise distinctive” (p. 217). The effect of vividness was found by Schraw, Bruning, and Svoboda (1995) to be related positively to interest and recall. Triggered-SI is the initiation or arousal of interest (Hidi, 2001; Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000; Hidi & Renninger, 2006). Maintained-SI is where interest is held and individuals begin to connect with the content (Hidi, 2001; Mitchell, 1993).
  • Training redesigned in Camtasia; would like to use Captivate. Working to secure funding for software.Feedback on icons (polaroid for image; animation?)
  • Pilot: medium effect size (.5), ⍺ error (.05), predicted power (.8) = 48 participants [actual 43]Would like to open up to Jackson County and Athens Tech; plan to offer reward (randomized drawing if email provided - $50 to http://www.galls.com (tactical gear).
  • The researcher conferred with experts, including the original instrument authors, to evaluate the proposed scale statements, in order to address initial validity concerns related to Standard 1.4 from the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, which holds the researcher responsible for using a scale in a way that has not been previously validated (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999). The correspondence with experts has been provided in Appendix B.
  • While the reliability of the scale could be improved by deleting survey item 11 (What I learned in the multimedia presentation can be applied to my job.), the benefit is one hundredth of a point. Therefore the item should remain on the survey for the study.A factor analysis of the SIS statements confirmed the presence of only two dimensions, as illustrated in the rotated component matrix (Table 4) and scree plot (Figure 9). A Varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization was selected to minimize complexity of the factor loading. Survey statement 8 (I found the information in the multimedia presentation interesting.) appears to load on to the first dimension, situational interest-triggered. Given the similarity with wording in statement 1 (The multimedia presentation was interesting.), it may be advisable to remove the statement from the survey in the final study.After confirming an observed significant difference for each SIS statement and final score an ANOVA was conducted on each variable. Where appropriate (p≤.05), a post hoc Dunnett’s test was conducted to compare group means for significance.Item 1: F (1,3) = 69.26, p < .01 partial η2 = .842 Item 2: F (1,3) = 99.77, p < .01 partial η2 = .978Item 3: F (1,3) = 44.78, p < .01 partial η2 = .775Item 4: F (1,3) = 65.61, p < .01 partial η2 = .835Item 5: F (1,3) = 7.45, p < .01 partial η2 = .364Item 6: F (1,3) = 3.92, p = .02 partial η2 = .232Item 7: F (1,3) = 5.75, p < .01 partial η2 = .307Item 8: F (1,3) = 68.69, p < .01 partial η2 = .841Item 9: F (1,3) = 1.40, p = .26 partial η2 = .097 Item 10: F (1,3) = 2.31, p = .09 partial η2 = .151Item 11: F (1,3) = .21, p = .89 partial η2 = .016 Item 12: F (1,3) = 9.37, p < .01 partial η2 = .419 Dunnett’s test showed significance between all pairs EXCEPT (Statements 9, 10, 11 not evaluated):Group 3 vs. Group 1 (Item 6), Group 2 vs. Group 1 (Item 7), Group 3 vs. Group 1 (Item 7)
  • Effect of Multimedia Design Principles on Situational Interest of Adult Learners

    1. 1. Effect of Multimedia Design Principles on Situational Interest of Adult Learners earning, esign, & echnologyTonia A. Dousay 1 3/7/2012
    2. 2. Introduction Source: USA TodayTonia A. Dousay 2 3/7/2012
    3. 3. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning multimedia sensory working long-term presentation memory memory memory media organization verbal integrating words ears media selection sounds model prior knowledge pictorial pictures eyes images modelTonia A. Dousay 3 3/7/2012
    4. 4. Situational Interest Triggered Maintained • Enjoyable • Meaningful • Engaging • Engaging Situational InterestTonia A. Dousay 4 3/7/2012
    5. 5. Research Design Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Lorem Ipsum Lorem dolor sit Ipsum Lorem amet, consectetur dolor sit Ipsum adipisicing elit, sed dolor sit do eiusmod tempor consectetur incididunt ut labore adipisicing elit, sed et dolore magna do. aliqua Existing training Training redesigned to Training redesigned to Training redesigned to adhere to the adhere to the adhere to both the modality principle. redundancy principle. modality & redundancy Animation-Narration Animation-Text (AT) principles. Animation- (AN) group group Narration-Text (ANT) groupTonia A. Dousay 5 3/7/2012
    6. 6. Participants Emergency 18-60 years Medical old; male personnel and female Continuing 48 Education participants requirementTonia A. Dousay 6 3/7/2012
    7. 7. Data Collection Strongly Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 Disagree Agree The multimedia presentation was interesting. The multimedia presentation grabbed my attention. The multimedia presentation was often entertaining. The multimedia presentation was so exciting, it was easy to pay attention. What I learned in the multimedia presentation is fascinating to me. I am excited about what I learned in the multimedia presentation. I like what I learned in the multimedia presentation. I found the multimedia presentation interesting. What I studied I the multimedia presentation is useful for me to know. The things I studied in the multimedia presentation are important to me. What I learned in the multimedia presentation can be applied to my job. I learned valuable things in the multimedia presentation. What as your score on the final test?Tonia A. Dousay 7 3/7/2012
    8. 8. Data Analysis Reliability •Cronbach’s alpha = .92 Factor Analysis •2 components ANOVA •Levene’s Test of Homogeneity •Dunnett’s test for pair-wise comparison (post hoc)Tonia A. Dousay 8 3/7/2012
    9. 9. Recommendations 1 Delete SIS statement 8 2 Add gender and age to data collection 3 Increase effect size to .45 4 Require a graded assessment with numeric gradeTonia A. Dousay 9 3/7/2012
    10. 10. Questions & Feedback earning, esign, & echnologyTonia A. Dousay 10 3/7/2012