Perception3

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  • Deletion: we filter and selection information according to moods, interests, preoccupation and general alertness (we don’t “get “ everything) Construction: we add things that are not really there because of expectation effect, halo effect, projection,m fact inference confusion, self fulfilling prophecy Distortion: locked in effect, denial, polarization, rationalization—we change the experience, makings some parts more important than other parts Generalization: taking one experience and making it represent a group: stereotyping, halo effect, expectation effect
  • Perception3

    1. 1. Perception, Values and Self-Awareness (1) Session 3
    2. 2. What is Perception? <ul><li>YOUR </li></ul><ul><li>interpretation of “ reality ” </li></ul><ul><li>after information/stimuli is … </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Perception? <ul><ul><li>F iltered out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O rganized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D efined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… .using YOUR existing … </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What is Perception? <ul><li>K nowledge </li></ul><ul><li>N eeds </li></ul><ul><li>B eliefs </li></ul><ul><li>V alues </li></ul><ul><li>A ssumptions </li></ul><ul><li>A ttitudes. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Purpose of Perception Process <ul><li>Simplify information for process ing </li></ul><ul><li>2. D ecrease distress / discomfort from particular stimuli. </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Smelling Tasting Seeing From “Self Awareness” by McShane & Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior
    7. 7. The Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Smelling Tasting Seeing Selective Attention From “Self Awareness” by McShane & Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior
    8. 8. The Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Smelling Tasting Seeing Selective Attention Perceptual Organization From “Self Awareness” by McShane & Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior
    9. 9. The Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Smelling Tasting Seeing Selective Attention Perceptual Organization Emotions and Behavior From “Self Awareness” by McShane & Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior
    10. 10. The Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Smelling Tasting Seeing Selective Attention Perceptual Organization Emotions and Behavior Individual’s Values and Beliefs From “Self Awareness” by McShane & Von Glinow, Organizational Behavior
    11. 11. Perceptual Blocks: Mental Models <ul><li>Deletion (selective perception) </li></ul><ul><li>Construction (creative perception) </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul>
    12. 12. Steps to … Minimize Perceptual Pitfalls <ul><li>Heighten self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>Practice empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Check assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and accept differences </li></ul><ul><li>Delay judgments </li></ul>
    13. 13. Perceptual Blocks and Self-Awareness <ul><li>Q: Why is self-awareness important? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Understanding WHO you are and </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT you feel are the first </li></ul><ul><li>steps towards… </li></ul>
    14. 14. Perceptual Blocks and Self-Awareness <ul><li>Correcting your weaknesses and </li></ul><ul><li>enhancing your strengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Sending intended messages more </li></ul><ul><li>accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding others better. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Johari Window Open Blind Hidden Unknown Unknown to Others Known to Others Named after creators Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham Get Feedback Disclose Known to Self Unknown to Self
    16. 16. Johari Window Unknown to Others Known to Others Named after creators Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham Get Feedback Disclose Known to Self Unknown to Self Open Blind Hidden Unknown
    17. 17. Guidelines for Meaningful Disclosure Be cautious! Don’t reveal too much, too fast, too soon! (Look at handout for details)
    18. 18. The Ladder of Inference From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook, by Peter Senge et al, Doubleday 1994 Action Conclusions & Assumptions Added Cultural & Personal Meaning Selected Data Observable Data
    19. 19. Ladder of Inference #1
    20. 20. Ladder of Inference #2
    21. 21. Ladder of Inference: The Boss Action Conclusions & Assumptions Added Cultural & Personal Meaning Selected Data Observable Data I talked to Manager about my ideas. Boss heard about my conversation with Manager. Now he’s worried about his job. Boss feels threatened. Maybe that’s why he never takes action. Boss is scared of me. He gave my subordinate a raise without consulting me to undermine me. I quit!
    22. 22.   <ul><li>Step 7 Take action based on these </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs   </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6 Adapt your beliefs about the world </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 5 Make conclusions based on </li></ul><ul><li>assumptions   </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 4 Make assumptions based on added meanings </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3 Add meanings to “data” (cultural </li></ul><ul><li>and personal) </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 2 Select some “data” from what was </li></ul><ul><li>observed </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 1 Observe “data” and experiences </li></ul>

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